Hypothesis Testing: A Way to Accept or Reject Hypothesis Using p-value

One of the most basic concepts in statistics is hypothesis testing. Not just in Data Science, Hypothesis testing is important in every field. Want to know how??? Let us take an example. You must have heard about lifebuoy?? Suppose lifebuoy claims that, it kills 99.9% of germs. So how can they say so? There has to be a testing technique to prove this claim right?? So hypothesis testing uses to prove a claim or any assumptions.

Definition of Hypothesis Testing

The hypothesis is a statement, assumption or claim about the value of the parameter (mean, variance, median etc.).

A hypothesis is an educated guess about something in the world around you. It should be testable, either by experiment or observation.

Like, if we make a statement that “Dhoni is the best Indian Captain ever.” This is an assumption that we are making based on the average wins and losses team had under his captaincy. We can test this statement based on all the match data.

Null and Alternative Hypothesis Testing

The null hypothesis is the hypothesis to be tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true. The concept of the null is similar to innocent until proven guilty We assume innocence until we have enough evidence to prove that a suspect is guilty.

In simple language, we can understand the null hypothesis as already accepted statements, For example, Sky is blue. We already accept this statement.

It is denoted by H0.

The alternative hypothesis complements the Null hypothesis. It is the opposite of the null hypothesis such that both Alternate and null hypothesis together cover all the possible values of the population parameter.

It is denoted by H1.

Let’s understand this with an example:

A soap company claims that its product kills on an average of 99% of the germs. To test the claim of this company we will formulate the null and alternate hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis(H0): Average =99%

Alternate Hypothesis(H1): Average is not equal to 99%.

Note: When we test a hypothesis, we assume the null hypothesis to be true until there is sufficient evidence in the sample to prove it false. In that case, we reject the null hypothesis and support the alternate hypothesis. If the sample provide sufficient evidence for us to reject the null hypothesis, we cannot say that the null hypothesis is true because it is based on just the sample data. For saying the null hypothesis is true we will have to study the whole population data.

#statistics #python #data-science #mathematics #hypothesis-testing

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Hypothesis Testing: A Way to Accept or Reject Hypothesis Using p-value

Hypothesis Testing: A Way to Accept or Reject Hypothesis Using p-value

One of the most basic concepts in statistics is hypothesis testing. Not just in Data Science, Hypothesis testing is important in every field. Want to know how??? Let us take an example. You must have heard about lifebuoy?? Suppose lifebuoy claims that, it kills 99.9% of germs. So how can they say so? There has to be a testing technique to prove this claim right?? So hypothesis testing uses to prove a claim or any assumptions.

Definition of Hypothesis Testing

The hypothesis is a statement, assumption or claim about the value of the parameter (mean, variance, median etc.).

A hypothesis is an educated guess about something in the world around you. It should be testable, either by experiment or observation.

Like, if we make a statement that “Dhoni is the best Indian Captain ever.” This is an assumption that we are making based on the average wins and losses team had under his captaincy. We can test this statement based on all the match data.

Null and Alternative Hypothesis Testing

The null hypothesis is the hypothesis to be tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true. The concept of the null is similar to innocent until proven guilty We assume innocence until we have enough evidence to prove that a suspect is guilty.

In simple language, we can understand the null hypothesis as already accepted statements, For example, Sky is blue. We already accept this statement.

It is denoted by H0.

The alternative hypothesis complements the Null hypothesis. It is the opposite of the null hypothesis such that both Alternate and null hypothesis together cover all the possible values of the population parameter.

It is denoted by H1.

Let’s understand this with an example:

A soap company claims that its product kills on an average of 99% of the germs. To test the claim of this company we will formulate the null and alternate hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis(H0): Average =99%

Alternate Hypothesis(H1): Average is not equal to 99%.

Note: When we test a hypothesis, we assume the null hypothesis to be true until there is sufficient evidence in the sample to prove it false. In that case, we reject the null hypothesis and support the alternate hypothesis. If the sample provide sufficient evidence for us to reject the null hypothesis, we cannot say that the null hypothesis is true because it is based on just the sample data. For saying the null hypothesis is true we will have to study the whole population data.

#statistics #python #data-science #mathematics #hypothesis-testing

Statistics 101: Hypothesis Testing and p-value — What’s the fuss about that!

Before answering what is hypothesis testing let’s answer why hypothesis testing!

#p-value #statistical-analysis #significance #statisics #hypothesis-testing #testing

Verda  Conroy

Verda Conroy

1593399600

P-value, Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Significance

How to understand if the difference really matters.

#statistics #data-science #machine-learning #p-value #hypothesis #testing

Tamia  Walter

Tamia Walter

1596754901

Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

Ways to Test Microservices

It is easy to fall into the trap of making testing microservices complicated, but there are ways to avoid this problem. Testing microservices doesn’t have to be complicated at all when you have the right strategy in place.

There are several ways to test microservices too, including:

  • Unit testing: Which allows developers to test microservices in a granular way. It doesn’t limit testing to individual microservices, but rather allows developers to take a more granular approach such as testing individual features or runtimes.
  • Integration testing: Which handles the testing of microservices in an interactive way. Microservices still need to work with each other when they are deployed, and integration testing is a key process in making sure that they do.
  • End-to-end testing: Which⁠—as the name suggests⁠—tests microservices as a complete app. This type of testing enables the testing of features, UI, communications, and other components that construct the app.

What’s important to note is the fact that these testing approaches allow for asynchronous testing. After all, asynchronous development is what makes developing microservices very appealing in the first place. By allowing for asynchronous testing, you can also make sure that components or microservices can be updated independently to one another.

#blog #microservices #testing #caylent #contract testing #end-to-end testing #hoverfly #integration testing #microservices #microservices architecture #pact #testing #unit testing #vagrant #vcr

Troy  Marvin

Troy Marvin

1593333600

Introduction to Hypothesis Test (Part One)

Hypothesis test is one of the most important domain in statistics, and in industry, ‘AB Test’ utilizes this idea as well. However, most of

#ab-testing #statistics #hypothesis-testing #hypothesis #introduction #testing