The 2019 Web Development (Frontend + Backend) RoadMap

The 2019 Web Development (Frontend + Backend) RoadMap

If you're like most people, the biggest obstacle to learning how to code is to find where to start and where to go. But if you are an absolute beginner, who has yet to overcome the set of several lines of functional code ... The following article will give you a complete route to start.🚀🚀🚀

If you're like most people, the biggest obstacle to learning how to code is to find where to start and where to go. But if you are an absolute beginner, who has yet to overcome the set of several lines of functional code ... The following article will give you a complete route to start.🚀🚀🚀

Hello Guys, I hope you are doing great in 2019. I am sure you all have already made your goals by now and thinking about how to achieve those goals. If one of your goals is to learn to code or to become a Web Developer in 2019 then I have something great to share with you today, the 2019 Web Developer RoadMap.

This is an excellent illustration on how to become a web developer in 2019 and guide you on how you can learn and master Web Development in 2019.

It's a collection of different paths to learning front-end, back-end, and all other things a Web developer should know. You will not just know about web development but about essential programming stuff which is important for all kind of programmers and software developers.

The RoadMap is also divided into 3 sections, the first section is about common skills which every web developer should know, while the second and third section is about front-end and back-end development, two main areas of web development.

You can either learn Front-end or Back-end or both, depending upon your choice. If you want to become a FullStack Web developer then you have to learn both front-end and back-end, there is no escaping there.

In Frontend also you can choose to learn the framework you want like React, Angular or Vue.js, you don't need to learn them all but learn the one you like. If you ask for my recommendation, Vue.js is a better choice in 2019 than the other two but again those are more used than Vue.js yet.

Btw, you might have seen this RoadMap before. This awesome visual guide to becoming a web developer was created by Kamranahmedse and posted on his GitHub repository here. It's one of my favorite places and I have bookmarked it for a repeated visit.

Last year, while doing some internet surfing I stumble upon this excellent page. I first found the DevOps RoadMap there and become an instant fan of Kamran Ahmed. In fact, I have these RoadMap printed and stick to my Desk for regular reference.

Btw, the Roadmap tells you what to learn but doesn't tell you how to learn and where you can learn those skills. I have tried to supplement that part by providing links of some useful courses and books you can take to learn the technologies, programming languages, frameworks, and libraries required to become a web developer and mentioned in this RoadMap.

An Illustrated Guide of becoming a Web Developer in 2019

Anyway, Here's where you'll start. As I have said before, You can choose either the Front-end or Back-end path below, depending upon your interest. Regardless, there are eight recommendations in yellow that you must learn for either path, these are the common things every programmer should know.

https://github.com/kamranahmedse/developer-roadmap

Recommended learning for either path

1. Git

One of the most popular version control system. It's just not possible to live without Git anymore. You can check out The Git Complete Guide on Udemy to start with.

2. SSH

It allows you to remove login to another host, another popular networking concepts which every web developer should know.

3. HTTP / HTTPS

The HTTP protocol is the backbone of web and a good knowledge of both HTTP and HTTPS is mandatory for a web developer

4. Basic Terminal Usage Linux Command line Basics

Not just a web developer but for any programmer, the Linux command line is very very important and I strongly recommend you to spend some time to learn them. The Linux command line basics course on Udemy is a good place to start with and if you like free courses, you can use these free Linux courses to start learning Linux.

5. Data Structures and Algorithms

These are the building blocks of any program and better knowledge of Algorithms and Data Structure is key for your next job or doing well on your current job.

If you are interested in learning algorithms and data structure, I suggest you choose the course which is in the programming language you understand.

For example for Java developers Data Structures and Algorithms: Deep Dive Using Java is a good one to start with.

Similarly for JavaScript Developers Colt Steele's JavaScript Algorithms and Data Structures Masterclass is a good one.

And, if you use Python then Algorithms and Data Structures in Python is a nice one.

And, if you don't mind learning from resources then you can also use this list of free algorithms courses to start with.

7. Character Encodings

If you are creating global applications which shows information in many different languages across the world then you should have a good knowledge of character encodings. It basically tells your browser how to show your data.

7. Character Encodings

If you are creating global applications which shows information in many different languages across the world then you should have a good knowledge of character encodings. It basically tells your browser how to show your data.

8. GitHub

There is no doubt that every programmer should know Git and Github as they are the standard in terms of version control and code repository. If you want to learn and master Git and Github, you can check these Git course.

The 2019 Frontend Developer RoadMap

If you want to become a front-end developer in 2019 then you should follow the below Front-end Developer RoadMap. You should focus on yellow boxes which highlight important things to learn and follow from there. Below the RoadMap, you will find additional resources like books and courses to aid your learning.

https://github.com/kamranahmedse/developer-roadmap/blob/master/images/frontend.png

1. Web Development Basics

It's pretty obvious that if you want to become a Web Developer then you should know the basics of internet, web applications, protocols like HTTP and web development in general. Thankfully there are a lot of courses where you can not only learn these but much more than that.

I recommend the following resources for all programmers who want to learn Web Development:

  1. The Web Developer BootCamp by Colt Steel
  2. The 2019 Complete Web Developer Bootcamp by Angela Yu
  3. The Advanced Web Developer Bootcamp

2. HTML and CSS

HTML and CSS are the backbones of any website. HTML provides the structure while CSS provides the style and help them to look better and more visually appealing. If you want to become a serious frontend developer then you must master these two and to start with, you can check these HTML and CSS courses to learn online

3. JavaScript

Just like four pillars of object-oriented programming, I mean Abstraction, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, and Inheritance, there are three main pillars of web development, namely --- HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

The first two provides structure and style but it's the JavaScript which makes them alive by adding interactiveness. It's extremely important for a modern Java developer to learn JavaScript and thankfully there are many courses which you can look to learn both beginner and advanced JavaScript, here are some recommendations:

  1. The Complete JavaScript Course 2019
  2. A Beginner's Guide to Advanced JavaScript and ES6
  3. Modern JavaScript From The Beginning
  4. The Modern JavaScript Bootcamp (2019)

4. TypeScript

Just like we have C and C++, TypeScript can be considered as JavaScript++ though it's not as popular as C++.

The good part of TypeScript is that it adds type-safety in JavaScript code which means you can catch nasty JavaScript type related errors in the development phase.

It also makes developing object-oriented code easily for JavaScript. If you want to learn TypeScript, Understanding TypeScript is a great course to start with and if you need more choices or free alternatives, here is another list of some free TypeScript courses to start with.

5. Angular

Gone are the days when people build websites using plain HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Nowadays most of the work is done by a framework like Angular, React JS or Vue.js.

They not only provide a structure for storing your code but also makes it easy to develop a web application in quick time.

Angular is backed by Google, hence learning Angular is a good choice for any modern Web Developer. If you want to learn Angular there is no better course than Max's Angular 8 (formerly Angular 2) - The Complete Guide

7. React JS

Similar to Angular, React is also a popular library for developing web applications. It allows you to write reusable components which you can then use to create modern looking interactive web pages.

Like Angular is backed by Google, React is backed by Facebook and hence quite popular. If you want to learn React then you either join Stephen Grider's Modern React with Redux or Max's React --- The Complete Guide on Udemy. Both are excellent courses to learn to React online.

Here are the links:

  1. Modern React with Redux
  2. React --- The Complete Guide

8. Vue.js

The Vue or Vue JS has really picked up speed last year and more and more people are recommending and using Vue.js. I am still a beginner on Vue and probably take some time to learn and migrate into Vue based application. But, if you have already made a decision you can start with Vue.js Essentials course on Udemy.

The 2019 Backend Developer RoadMap

If you want to become a back-end developer in 2019 then you can follow this Back-end Developer RoadMap. Again, you can start with yellow boxes which highlight key technologies you need to learn and then grow from there. Below the RoadMap, you will find some supplementary material and links to courses and books to aid your learning. I will also earn some commission if you end up buying any non-free courses.

https://github.com/kamranahmedse/developer-roadmap/blob/master/images/backend.png

1. Node.js

There are many choices to develop your web application's backend e.g. you can use Java and Spring or maybe Python + Django but in recent year Node.js has come up as the preferred option.

The best thing about NodeJS is that it allows you to develop a complete web application using just one programming language --- JavaScript.

If you want to go Node route, then The Complete Node.js Developer Course (3rd Edition) by Rob Percival and Andrew Mead is best to start with.

2. Java

I am primarily a Java developer who have learned Web Development and other programming languages, hence when it comes to developing backend my preferred choice is Java. You can either use Core Java or Java + Spring Boot to write a cutting edge, high-performance backend. If you want to go Java and Spring route, here are a couple of courses you can join to get up-to-speed.

  1. The Complete Java Masterclass
  2. Spring Framework 5: Beginner to Guru

3. Python

Python is another awesome language, full of powerful framework and libraries. If you want to develop backend using Python then you can use Django, a full-stack web development framework for Python programmers.

To start with here are a couple of courses to learn Python and Django:

  1. The Complete Python Bootcamp
  2. Python and Django Full Stack Web Developer Bootcamp
  3. Learn Python Programming Masterclass

4. Ruby

Ruby is another powerful language perfect for web development. It has got a great framework called Rails which makes creating Web applications really easy and fast. If you want to start with Ruby you can check out The Complete Ruby on Rails Developer Course on Udemy.

It's one of the best resources and if you need more choices and don't mind learning from free resources, you can also take a look at these Ruby and Rails courses.

5. PHP and MySQL

Forget about whatever negative things people say about PHP. It is still the easiest way to write the server side code and many, almost 50% of the internet runs on PHP and MySQL stack.

If you are interested in learning PHP, you can check out PHP for Beginners** **course on Udemy. If you need more choices and free resources, you can also check my list of PHP and MySQL courses to start with.

That's all about how to become a Web Developer in 2019. This is an excellent resource to start with as it highlights several paths to become the Web developer you always wanted to be.

Though, if you stuck somewhere and if there is any confusion, you can always ask here and we'll try to answer your queries as best as possible.

If you are new into the programming world, don't let this illustration and a lot of technologies scare you. It's just a guideline and you can take a different path to learn Web Development and become a Web Developer, you can choose the path you like and stick to that.

Closing Notes

Thanks for reading this article so far. You might be thinking that there is so many stuff to learn, so many courses to join, but you don't need to worry.

There is a good chance that you may already know most of the stuff, and there are also a lot of useful free resources which you can use, I have also linked them here and there along with best resources, which are certainly not free, but worth of money.

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JavaScript developers should you be using Web Workers?

JavaScript developers should you be using Web Workers?

Do you think JavaScript developers should be making more use of Web Workers to shift execution off of the main thread?

Originally published by David Gilbertson at https://medium.com

So, Web Workers. Those wonderful little critters that allow us to execute JavaScript off the main thread.

Also known as “no, you’re thinking of Service Workers”.

Photo by Caleb Jones on Unsplash

Before I get into the meat of the article, please sit for a lesson in how computers work:

Understood? Good.

For the red/green colourblind, let me explain. While a CPU is doing one thing, it can’t be doing another thing, which means you can’t sort a big array while a user scrolls the screen.

This is bad, if you have a big array and users with fingers.

Enter, Web Workers. These split open the atomic concept of a ‘CPU’ and allow us to think in terms of threads. We can use one thread to handle user-facing work like touch events and rendering the UI, and different threads to carry out all other work.

Check that out, the main thread is green the whole way through, ready to receive and respond to the gentle caress of a user.

You’re excited (I can tell), if we only have UI code on the main thread and all other code can go in a worker, things are going to be amazing (said the way Oprah would say it).

But cool your jets for just a moment, because websites are mostly about the UI — it’s why we have screens. And a lot of a user’s interactions with your site will be tapping on the screen, waiting for a response, reading, tapping, looking, reading, and so on.

So we can’t just say “here’s some JS that takes 20ms to run, chuck it on a thread”, we must think about where that execution time exists in the user’s world of tap, read, look, read, tap…

I like to boil this down to one specific question:

Is the user waiting anyway?

Imagine we have created some sort of git-repository-hosting website that shows all sorts of things about a repository. We have a cool feature called ‘issues’. A user can even click an ‘issues’ tab in our website to see a list of all issues relating to the repository. Groundbreaking!

When our users click this issues tab, the site is going to fetch the issue data, process it in some way — perhaps sort, or format dates, or work out which icon to show — then render the UI.

Inside the user’s computer, that’ll look exactly like this.

Look at that processing stage, locking up the main thread even though it has nothing to do with the UI! That’s terrible, in theory.

But think about what the human is actually doing at this point. They’re waiting for the common trio of network/process/render; just sittin’ around with less to do than the Bolivian Navy.

Because we care about our users, we show a loading indicator to let them know we’ve received their request and are working on it — putting the human in a ‘waiting’ state. Let’s add that to the diagram.

Now that we have a human in the picture, we can mix in a Web Worker and think about the impact it will have on their life:

Hmmm.

First thing to note is that we’re not doing anything in parallel. We need the data from the network before we process it, and we need to process the data before we can render the UI. The elapsed time doesn’t change.

(BTW, the time involved in moving data to a Web Worker and back is negligible: 1ms per 100 KB is a decent rule of thumb.)

So we can move work off the main thread and have a page that is responsive during that time, but to what end? If our user is sitting there looking at a spinner for 600ms, have we enriched their experience by having a responsive screen for the middle third?

No.

I’ve fudged these diagrams a little bit to make them the gorgeous specimens of graphic design that they are, but they’re not really to scale.

When responding to a user request, you’ll find that the network and DOM-manipulating part of any given task take much, much longer than the pure-JS data processing part.

I saw an article recently making the case that updating a Redux store was a good candidate for Web Workers because it’s not UI work (and non-UI work doesn’t belong on the main thread).

Chucking the data processing over to a worker thread sounds sensible, but the idea struck me as a little, umm, academic.

First, let’s split instances of ‘updating a store’ into two categories:

  1. Updating a store in response to a user interaction, then updating the UI in response to the data change
  2. Not that first one

If the first scenario, a user taps a button on the screen — perhaps to change the sort order of a list. The store updates, and this results in a re-rendering of the DOM (since that’s the point of a store).

Let me just delete one thing from the previous diagram:

In my experience, it is rare that the store-updating step goes beyond a few dozen milliseconds, and is generally followed by ten times that in DOM updating, layout, and paint. If I’ve got a site that’s taking longer than this, I’d be asking questions about why I have so much data in the browser and so much DOM, rather than on which thread I should do my processing.

So the question we’re faced with is the same one from above: the user tapped something on the screen, we’re going to work on that request for hopefully less than a second, why would we want to make the screen responsive during that time?

OK what about the second scenario, where a store update isn’t in response to a user interaction? Performing an auto-save, for example — there’s nothing more annoying than an app becoming unresponsive doing something you didn’t ask it to do.

Actually there’s heaps of things more annoying than that. Teens, for example.

Anyhoo, if you’re doing an auto-save and taking 100ms to process data client-side before sending it off to a server, then you should absolutely use a Web Worker.

In fact, any ‘background’ task that the user hasn’t asked for, or isn’t waiting for, is a good candidate for moving to a Web Worker.

The matter of value

Complexity is expensive, and implementing Web Workers ain’t cheap.

If you’re using a bundler — and you are — you’ll have a lot of reading to do, and probably npm packages to install. If you’ve got a create-react-app app, prepare to eject (and put aside two days twice a year to update 30 different packages when the next version of Babel/Redux/React/ESLint comes out).

Also, if you want to share anything fancier than plain data between a worker and the main thread you’ve got some more reading to do (comlink is your friend).

What I’m getting at is this: if the benefit is real, but minimal, then you’ve gotta ask if there’s something else you could spend a day or two on with a greater benefit to your users.

This thinking is true of everything, of course, but I’ve found that Web Workers have a particularly poor benefit-to-effort ratio.

Hey David, why you hate Web Workers so bad?

Good question.

This is a doweling jig:

I own a doweling jig. I love my doweling jig. If I need to drill a hole into the end of a piece of wood and ensure that it’s perfectly perpendicular to the surface, I use my doweling jig.

But I don’t use it to eat breakfast. For that I use a spoon.

Four years ago I was working on some fancy animations. They looked slick on a fast device, but janky on a slow one. So I wrote fireball-js, which executes a rudimentary performance benchmark on the user’s device and returns a score, allowing me to run my animations only on devices that would render them smoothly.

Where’s the best spot to run some CPU intensive code that the user didn’t request? On a different thread, of course. A Web Worker was the correct tool for the job.

Fast forward to 2019 and you’ll find me writing a routing algorithm for a mapping application. This requires parsing a big fat GeoJSON map into a collection of nodes and edges, to be used when a user asks for directions. The processing isn’t in response to a user request and the user isn’t waiting on it. And so, a Web Worker is the correct tool for the job.

It was only when doing this that it dawned on me: in the intervening quartet of years, I have seen exactly zero other instances where Web Workers would have improved the user experience.

Contrast this with a recent resurgence in Web Worker wonderment, and combine that contrast with the fact that I couldn’t think of anything else to write about, then concatenate that combined contrast with my contrarian character and you’ve got yourself a blog post telling you that maybe Web Workers are a teeny-tiny bit overhyped.

Thanks for reading

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Further reading

An Introduction to Web Workers

JavaScript Web Workers: A Beginner’s Guide

Using Web Workers to Real-time Processing

How to use Web Workers in Angular app

Using Web Workers with Angular CLI


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