Hybrid Variational Autoencoder-based Models for Fraud Detection. Typical anomaly involves highly imbalanced datasets
The objective of this work is to develop deep learning models using Keras/Tensorflow API to detect anomalous credit card transactions and classify fraud. Typical anomaly detection involves highly imbalanced datasets. We employ stacked variational autoencoders (VAE) in an unsupervised setting to efficiently classify fraudulent transactions. The models are tested using Kaggle credit-card fraud dataset. Additional benchmarking is done using KDDCUP99–10% dataset as well.
Stacked variational autoencoders (VAEs) are used to learn latent space representation of “normal” credit card transactions by training them only with “normal” data. The anomalous transactions are identified by calculating the reconstruction error using the trained VAE network. Unusually high reconstruction errors are indicative of anomalous transactions/fraudulent transactions. We identify an optimum threshold for reconstruction error, beyond which the transactions are labelled as fraud, as the one which yields highest model accuracy (in terms of F1-score, and area under ROC).
We also explore different hybrid models involving combination of VAEs with supervised learning models such as Random-Forest Classifiers in order to improve the classification accuracy. In the hybrid workflow, the stacked VAEs are used solely as generative models to augment the under-sampled data (i.e. anomalies). The VAE-based data augmentation is used to boost the performance of a Random-Forest classifier.
Applying Anomaly Detection: Credit card fraud can be classified as an anomaly and using autoencoders implemented in Keras it is possible to detect fraud.
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An 100% unsupervised approach to discover frauds on credit card transactions. One of the greatest concerns of many business owners is how to protect their company from fraudulent activity.
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Credit Card Fraud Detection via Machine Learning: A Case Study. A machine learning guide on how to identify fraudulent credit card transactions by using the PyOD toolkit.