Django Post Office: A App That Allows You to Send Email Asynchronously

Django Post Office

Django Post Office is a simple app to send and manage your emails in Django. Some awesome features are:

  • Allows you to send email asynchronously
  • Multi backend support
  • Supports HTML email
  • Supports inlined images in HTML email
  • Supports database based email templates
  • Supports multilingual email templates (i18n)
  • Built in scheduling support
  • Works well with task queues like RQ or Celery
  • Uses multiprocessing (and threading) to send a large number of emails in parallel

Dependencies

With this optional dependency, HTML emails are nicely rendered inside the Django admin backend. Without this library, all HTML tags will otherwise be stripped for security reasons.

Installation

Install from PyPI (or manually download from PyPI):

pip install django-post_office

Add post_office to your INSTALLED_APPS in django's settings.py:

INSTALLED_APPS = (
    # other apps
    "post_office",
)

Run migrate:

python manage.py migrate

Set post_office.EmailBackend as your EMAIL_BACKEND in Django's settings.py:

EMAIL_BACKEND = 'post_office.EmailBackend'

Quickstart

Send a simple email is really easy:

from post_office import mail

mail.send(
    'recipient@example.com', # List of email addresses also accepted
    'from@example.com',
    subject='My email',
    message='Hi there!',
    html_message='Hi <strong>there</strong>!',
)

If you want to use templates, ensure that Django's admin interface is enabled. Create an EmailTemplate instance via admin and do the following:

from post_office import mail

mail.send(
    'recipient@example.com', # List of email addresses also accepted
    'from@example.com',
    template='welcome_email', # Could be an EmailTemplate instance or name
    context={'foo': 'bar'},
)

The above command will put your email on the queue so you can use the command in your webapp without slowing down the request/response cycle too much. To actually send them out, run python manage.py send_queued_mail. You can schedule this management command to run regularly via cron:

* * * * * (/usr/bin/python manage.py send_queued_mail >> send_mail.log 2>&1)

Usage

mail.send()

mail.send is the most important function in this library, it takes these arguments:

ArgumentRequiredDescription
recipientsYesList of recipient email addresses
senderNoDefaults to settings.DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL, display name like John <john@a.com> is allowed
subjectNoEmail subject (if template is not specified)
messageNoEmail content (if template is not specified)
html_messageNoHTML content (if template is not specified)
templateNoEmailTemplate instance or name of template
languageNoLanguage in which you want to send the email in (if you have multilingual email templates).
ccNoList of emails, will appear in cc field
bccNoList of emails, will appear in bcc field
attachmentsNoEmail attachments - a dict where the keys are the filenames and the values are files, file-like-objects or path to file
contextNoA dict, used to render templated email
headersNoA dictionary of extra headers on the message
scheduled_timeNoA date/datetime object indicating when the email should be sent
expires_atNoIf specified, mails that are not yet sent won't be delivered after this date.
priorityNohigh, medium, low or now (sent immediately)
backendNoAlias of the backend you want to use, default will be used if not specified.
render_on_deliveryNoSetting this to True causes email to be lazily rendered during delivery. template is required when render_on_delivery is True. With this option, the full email content is never stored in the DB. May result in significant space savings if you're sending many emails using the same template.

Here are a few examples.

If you just want to send out emails without using database templates. You can call the send command without the template argument.

from post_office import mail

mail.send(
    ['recipient1@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    subject='Welcome!',
    message='Welcome home, {{ name }}!',
    html_message='Welcome home, <b>{{ name }}</b>!',
    headers={'Reply-to': 'reply@example.com'},
    scheduled_time=date(2014, 1, 1),
    context={'name': 'Alice'},
)

post_office is also task queue friendly. Passing now as priority into send_mail will deliver the email right away (instead of queuing it), regardless of how many emails you have in your queue:

from post_office import mail

mail.send(
    ['recipient1@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    template='welcome_email',
    context={'foo': 'bar'},
    priority='now',
)

This is useful if you already use something like django-rq to send emails asynchronously and only need to store email related activities and logs.

If you want to send an email with attachments:

from django.core.files.base import ContentFile
from post_office import mail

mail.send(
    ['recipient1@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    template='welcome_email',
    context={'foo': 'bar'},
    priority='now',
    attachments={
        'attachment1.doc': '/path/to/file/file1.doc',
        'attachment2.txt': ContentFile('file content'),
        'attachment3.txt': {'file': ContentFile('file content'), 'mimetype': 'text/plain'},
    }
)

Template Tags and Variables

post-office supports Django's template tags and variables. For example, if you put Hello, {{ name }} in the subject line and pass in {'name': 'Alice'} as context, you will get Hello, Alice as subject:

from post_office.models import EmailTemplate
from post_office import mail

EmailTemplate.objects.create(
    name='morning_greeting',
    subject='Morning, {{ name|capfirst }}',
    content='Hi {{ name }}, how are you feeling today?',
    html_content='Hi <strong>{{ name }}</strong>, how are you feeling today?',
)

mail.send(
    ['recipient@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    template='morning_greeting',
    context={'name': 'alice'},
)

# This will create an email with the following content:
subject = 'Morning, Alice',
content = 'Hi alice, how are you feeling today?'
content = 'Hi <strong>alice</strong>, how are you feeling today?'

Multilingual Email Templates

You can easily create email templates in various different languages. For example:

template = EmailTemplate.objects.create(
    name='hello',
    subject='Hello world!',
)

# Add an Indonesian version of this template:
indonesian_template = template.translated_templates.create(
    language='id',
    subject='Halo Dunia!'
)

Sending an email using template in a non default languange is similarly easy:

mail.send(
    ['recipient@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    template=template, # Sends using the default template
)

mail.send(
    ['recipient@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    template=template,
    language='id', # Sends using Indonesian template
)

Inlined Images

Often one wants to render images inside a template, which are attached as inlined MIMEImage to the outgoing email. This requires a slightly modified Django Template Engine, keeping a list of inlined images, which later will be added to the outgoing message.

First we must add a special Django template backend to our list of template engines:

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        ...
    }, {
        'BACKEND': 'post_office.template.backends.post_office.PostOfficeTemplates',
        'APP_DIRS': True,
        'DIRS': [],
        'OPTIONS': {
            'context_processors': [
                'django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth',
                'django.template.context_processors.debug',
                'django.template.context_processors.i18n',
                'django.template.context_processors.media',
                'django.template.context_processors.static',
                'django.template.context_processors.tz',
                'django.template.context_processors.request',
            ]
        }
    }
]

then we must tell Post-Office to use this template engine:

POST_OFFICE = {
    'TEMPLATE_ENGINE': 'post_office',
}

In templates used to render HTML for emails add

{% load post_office %}

<p>... somewhere in the body ...</p>
<img src="{% inline_image 'path/to/image.png' %}" />

Here the templatetag named inline_image is used to keep track of inlined images. It takes a single parameter. This can either be the relative path to an image file located in one of the static directories, or the absolute path to an image file, or an image-file object itself. Templates rendered using this templatetag, render a reference ID for each given image, and store these images inside the context of the adopted template engine. Later on, when the rendered template is passed to the mailing library, those images will be transferred to the email message object as MIMEImage-attachments.

To send an email containing both, a plain text body and some HTML with inlined images, use the following code snippet:

from django.core.mail import EmailMultiAlternatives

subject, body = "Hello", "Plain text body"
from_email, to_email = "no-reply@example.com", "john@example.com"
email_message = EmailMultiAlternatives(subject, body, from_email, [to_email])
template = get_template('email-template-name.html', using='post_office')
context = {...}
html = template.render(context)
email_message.attach_alternative(html, 'text/html')
template.attach_related(email_message)
email_message.send()

To send an email containing HTML with inlined images, but without a plain text body, use this code snippet:

from django.core.mail import EmailMultiAlternatives

subject, from_email, to_email = "Hello", "no-reply@example.com", "john@example.com"
template = get_template('email-template-name.html', using='post_office')
context = {...}
html = template.render(context)
email_message = EmailMultiAlternatives(subject, html, from_email, [to_email])
email_message.content_subtype = 'html'
template.attach_related(email_message)
email_message.send()

Custom Email Backends

By default, post_office uses django's smtp.EmailBackend. If you want to use a different backend, you can do so by configuring BACKENDS.

For example if you want to use django-ses:

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'BACKENDS': {
        'default': 'smtp.EmailBackend',
        'ses': 'django_ses.SESBackend',
    }
}

You can then choose what backend you want to use when sending mail:

# If you omit `backend_alias` argument, `default` will be used
mail.send(
    ['recipient@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    subject='Hello',
)

# If you want to send using `ses` backend
mail.send(
    ['recipient@example.com'],
    'from@example.com',
    subject='Hello',
    backend='ses',
)

Management Commands

  • send_queued_mail - send queued emails, those aren't successfully sent will be marked as failed. Accepts the following arguments:
ArgumentDescription
--processes or -pNumber of parallel processes to send email. Defaults to 1
--lockfile or -LFull path to file used as lock file. Defaults to /tmp/post_office.lock
  • cleanup_mail - delete all emails created before an X number of days (defaults to 90).
ArgumentDescription
--days or -dEmail older than this argument will be deleted. Defaults to 90
--delete-attachmentsFlag to delete orphaned attachment records and files on disk. If not specified, attachments won't be deleted.

You may want to set these up via cron to run regularly:

* * * * * (cd $PROJECT; python manage.py send_queued_mail --processes=1 >> $PROJECT/cron_mail.log 2>&1)
0 1 * * * (cd $PROJECT; python manage.py cleanup_mail --days=30 --delete-attachments >> $PROJECT/cron_mail_cleanup.log 2>&1)

Settings

This section outlines all the settings and configurations that you can put in Django's settings.py to fine tune post-office's behavior.

Batch Size

If you may want to limit the number of emails sent in a batch (sometimes useful in a low memory environment), use the BATCH_SIZE argument to limit the number of queued emails fetched in one batch.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'BATCH_SIZE': 50,
}

Default Priority

The default priority for emails is medium, but this can be altered by setting DEFAULT_PRIORITY. Integration with asynchronous email backends (e.g. based on Celery) becomes trivial when set to now.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'DEFAULT_PRIORITY': 'now',
}

Override Recipients

Defaults to None. This option is useful if you want to redirect all emails to specified a few email for development purposes.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'OVERRIDE_RECIPIENTS': ['to@example.com', 'to2@example.com'],
}

Message-ID

The SMTP standard requires that each email contains a unique Message-ID. Typically the Message-ID consists of two parts separated by the @ symbol: The left part is a generated pseudo random number. The right part is a constant string, typically denoting the full qualified domain name of the sending server.

By default, Django generates such a Message-ID during email delivery. Since django-post_office keeps track of all delivered emails, it can be very useful to create and store this Message-ID while creating each email in the database. This identifier then can be looked up in the Django admin backend.

To enable this feature, add this to your Post-Office settings:

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'MESSAGE_ID_ENABLED': True,
}

It can further be fine tuned, using for instance another full qualified domain name:

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'MESSAGE_ID_ENABLED': True,
    'MESSAGE_ID_FQDN': 'example.com',
}

Otherwise, if MESSAGE_ID_FQDN is unset (the default), django-post_office falls back to the DNS name of the server, which is determined by the network settings of the host.

Retry

Not activated by default. You can automatically requeue failed email deliveries. You can also configure failed deliveries to be retried after a specific time interval.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'MAX_RETRIES': 4,
    'RETRY_INTERVAL': datetime.timedelta(minutes=15),  # Schedule to be retried 15 minutes later
}

Log Level

Logs are stored in the database and is browseable via Django admin. The default log level is 2 (logs both successful and failed deliveries) This behavior can be changed by setting LOG_LEVEL.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'LOG_LEVEL': 1, # Log only failed deliveries
}

The different options are:

  • 0 logs nothing
  • 1 logs only failed deliveries
  • 2 logs everything (both successful and failed delivery attempts)

Sending Order

The default sending order for emails is -priority, but this can be altered by setting SENDING_ORDER. For example, if you want to send queued emails in FIFO order :

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'SENDING_ORDER': ['created'],
}

Context Field Serializer

If you need to store complex Python objects for deferred rendering (i.e. setting render_on_delivery=True), you can specify your own context field class to store context variables. For example if you want to use django-picklefield:

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'CONTEXT_FIELD_CLASS': 'picklefield.fields.PickledObjectField',
}

CONTEXT_FIELD_CLASS defaults to jsonfield.JSONField.

Logging

You can configure post-office's logging from Django's settings.py. For example:

LOGGING = {
    "version": 1,
    "disable_existing_loggers": False,
    "formatters": {
        "post_office": {
            "format": "[%(levelname)s]%(asctime)s PID %(process)d: %(message)s",
            "datefmt": "%d-%m-%Y %H:%M:%S",
        },
    },
    "handlers": {
        "post_office": {
            "level": "DEBUG",
            "class": "logging.StreamHandler",
            "formatter": "post_office"
        },
        # If you use sentry for logging
        'sentry': {
            'level': 'ERROR',
            'class': 'raven.contrib.django.handlers.SentryHandler',
        },
    },
    'loggers': {
        "post_office": {
            "handlers": ["post_office", "sentry"],
            "level": "INFO"
        },
    },
}

Threads

post-office >= 3.0 allows you to use multiple threads to dramatically speed up the speed at which emails are sent. By default, post-office uses 5 threads per process. You can tweak this setting by changing THREADS_PER_PROCESS setting.

This may dramatically increase the speed of bulk email delivery, depending on which email backends you use. In my tests, multi threading speeds up email backends that use HTTP based (REST) delivery mechanisms but doesn't seem to help SMTP based backends.

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'THREADS_PER_PROCESS': 10,
}

Performance

Caching

if Django's caching mechanism is configured, post_office will cache EmailTemplate instances . If for some reason you want to disable caching, set POST_OFFICE_CACHE to False in settings.py:

## All cache key will be prefixed by post_office:template:
## To turn OFF caching, you need to explicitly set POST_OFFICE_CACHE to False in settings
POST_OFFICE_CACHE = False

## Optional: to use a non default cache backend, add a "post_office" entry in CACHES
CACHES = {
    'post_office': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache',
        'LOCATION': '127.0.0.1:11211',
    }
}

send_many()

send_many() is much more performant (generates less database queries) when sending a large number of emails. send_many() is almost identical to mail.send(), with the exception that it accepts a list of keyword arguments that you'd usually pass into mail.send():

from post_office import mail

first_email = {
    'sender': 'from@example.com',
    'recipients': ['alice@example.com'],
    'subject': 'Hi!',
    'message': 'Hi Alice!'
}
second_email = {
    'sender': 'from@example.com',
    'recipients': ['bob@example.com'],
    'subject': 'Hi!',
    'message': 'Hi Bob!'
}
kwargs_list = [first_email, second_email]

mail.send_many(kwargs_list)

Attachments are not supported with mail.send_many().

Running Tests

To run the test suite:

`which django-admin.py` test post_office --settings=post_office.test_settings --pythonpath=.

You can run the full test suite for all supported versions of Django and Python with:

tox

or:

python setup.py test

Integration with Celery

If your Django project runs in a Celery enabled configuration, you can use its worker to send out queued emails. Compared to the solution with cron (see above), or the solution with uWSGI timers (see below) this setup has the big advantage that queued emails are send immediately after they have been added to the mail queue. The delivery is still performed in a separate and asynchronous task, which prevents sending emails during the request/response-cycle.

If you configured Celery in your project and started the Celery worker, you should see something such as:

--------------- celery@halcyon.local v4.0 (latentcall)
--- ***** -----
-- ******* ---- [Configuration]
- *** --- * --- . broker:      amqp://guest@localhost:5672//
- ** ---------- . app:         __main__:0x1012d8590
- ** ---------- . concurrency: 8 (processes)
- ** ---------- . events:      OFF (enable -E to monitor this worker)
- ** ----------
- *** --- * --- [Queues]
-- ******* ---- . celery:      exchange:celery(direct) binding:celery
--- ***** -----

[tasks]
. post_office.tasks.cleanup_expired_mails
. post_office.tasks.send_queued_mail

Delivering emails through the Celery worker must be explicitly enabled:

# Put this in settings.py
POST_OFFICE = {
    ...
    'CELERY_ENABLED': True,
}

Emails will then be delivered immediately after they have been queued. In order to make this happen, the project's celery.py setup shall invoke the autodiscoverttasks function. In case of a temporary delivery failure, we might want retrying to send those emails by a periodic task. This can be scheduled with a simple Celery beat configuration, for instance through

app.conf.beat_schedule = {
    'send-queued-mail': {
        'task': 'post_office.tasks.send_queued_mail',
        'schedule': 600.0,
    },
}

The email queue now will be processed every 10 minutes. If you are using Django Celery Beat, then use the Django-Admin backend and add a periodic taks for post_office.tasks.send_queued_mail.

Depending on your policy, you may also want to remove expired emails from the queue. This can be done by adding another periodic taks for post_office.tasks.cleanup_mail, which may run once a week or month.

Integration with uWSGI

If setting up Celery is too daunting and you use uWSGI as application server, then uWSGI decorators can act as a poor men's scheduler. Just add this short snipped to the project's wsgi.py file:

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application

application = get_wsgi_application()

# add this block of code
try:
    import uwsgidecorators
    from django.core.management import call_command

    @uwsgidecorators.timer(10)
    def send_queued_mail(num):
        """Send queued mail every 10 seconds"""
        call_command('send_queued_mail', processes=1)

except ImportError:
    print("uwsgidecorators not found. Cron and timers are disabled")

Alternatively you can also use the decorator @uwsgidecorators.cron(minute, hour, day, month, weekday). This will schedule a task at specific times. Use -1 to signal any time, it corresponds to the * in cron.

Please note that uwsgidecorators are available only, if the application has been started with uWSGI. However, Django's internal ./manange.py runserver also access this file, therefore wrap the block into an exception handler as shown above.

This configuration can be useful in environments, such as Docker containers, where you don't have a running cron-daemon.

Signals

Each time an email is added to the mail queue, Post Office emits a special Django signal. Whenever a third party application wants to be informed about this event, it shall connect a callback function to the Post Office's signal handler email_queued, for instance:

from django.dispatch import receiver
from post_office.signals import email_queued

@receiver(email_queued)
def my_callback(sender, emails, **kwargs):
    print("Added {} mails to the sending queue".format(len(emails)))

The Emails objects added to the queue are passed as list to the callback handler.

Changelog

Full changelog can be found here.

Created and maintained by the cool guys at Stamps, Indonesia's most elegant CRM/loyalty platform.

Download Details:
Author: ui
Source Code: https://github.com/ui/django-post_office
License: MIT License

#django 

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Django Post Office: A App That Allows You to Send Email Asynchronously
Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes

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How to start an electric scooter facility/fleet in a university campus/IT park

Are you leading an organization that has a large campus, e.g., a large university? You are probably thinking of introducing an electric scooter/bicycle fleet on the campus, and why wouldn’t you?

Introducing micro-mobility in your campus with the help of such a fleet would help the people on the campus significantly. People would save money since they don’t need to use a car for a short distance. Your campus will see a drastic reduction in congestion, moreover, its carbon footprint will reduce.

Micro-mobility is relatively new though and you would need help. You would need to select an appropriate fleet of vehicles. The people on your campus would need to find electric scooters or electric bikes for commuting, and you need to provide a solution for this.

To be more specific, you need a short-term electric bike rental app. With such an app, you will be able to easily offer micro-mobility to the people on the campus. We at Devathon have built Autorent exactly for this.

What does Autorent do and how can it help you? How does it enable you to introduce micro-mobility on your campus? We explain these in this article, however, we will touch upon a few basics first.

Micro-mobility: What it is

micro-mobility

You are probably thinking about micro-mobility relatively recently, aren’t you? A few relevant insights about it could help you to better appreciate its importance.

Micro-mobility is a new trend in transportation, and it uses vehicles that are considerably smaller than cars. Electric scooters (e-scooters) and electric bikes (e-bikes) are the most popular forms of micro-mobility, however, there are also e-unicycles and e-skateboards.

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You obviously can’t use these vehicles for very long commutes, however, what if you need to travel a short distance? Even if you have a reasonable public transport facility in the city, it might not cover the route you need to take. Take the example of a large university campus. Such a campus is often at a considerable distance from the central business district of the city where it’s located. While public transport facilities may serve the central business district, they wouldn’t serve this large campus. Currently, many people drive their cars even for short distances.

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This is where micro-mobility enters the picture. When you commute a short distance regularly, e-scooters or e-bikes are viable options. You limit your carbon footprints and you cut costs!

Businesses have seen this shift in thinking, and e-scooter companies like Lime and Bird have entered this field in a big way. They let you rent e-scooters by the minute. On the other hand, start-ups like Jump and Lyft have entered the e-bike market.

Think of your campus now! The people there might need to travel short distances within the campus, and e-scooters can really help them.

How micro-mobility can benefit you

benefits-micromobility

What advantages can you get from micro-mobility? Let’s take a deeper look into this question.

Micro-mobility can offer several advantages to the people on your campus, e.g.:

  • Affordability: Shared e-scooters are cheaper than other mass transportation options. Remember that the people on your campus will use them on a shared basis, and they will pay for their short commutes only. Well, depending on your operating model, you might even let them use shared e-scooters or e-bikes for free!
  • Convenience: Users don’t need to worry about finding parking spots for shared e-scooters since these are small. They can easily travel from point A to point B on your campus with the help of these e-scooters.
  • Environmentally sustainable: Shared e-scooters reduce the carbon footprint, moreover, they decongest the roads. Statistics from the pilot programs in cities like Portland and Denver showimpressive gains around this key aspect.
  • Safety: This one’s obvious, isn’t it? When people on your campus use small e-scooters or e-bikes instead of cars, the problem of overspeeding will disappear. you will see fewer accidents.

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Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes

1595491178

Best Electric Bikes and Scooters for Rental Business or Campus Facility

The electric scooter revolution has caught on super-fast taking many cities across the globe by storm. eScooters, a renovated version of old-school scooters now turned into electric vehicles are an environmentally friendly solution to current on-demand commute problems. They work on engines, like cars, enabling short traveling distances without hassle. The result is that these groundbreaking electric machines can now provide faster transport for less — cheaper than Uber and faster than Metro.

Since they are durable, fast, easy to operate and maintain, and are more convenient to park compared to four-wheelers, the eScooters trend has and continues to spike interest as a promising growth area. Several companies and universities are increasingly setting up shop to provide eScooter services realizing a would-be profitable business model and a ready customer base that is university students or residents in need of faster and cheap travel going about their business in school, town, and other surrounding areas.

Electric Scooters Trends and Statistics

In many countries including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, U.K., Germany, France, China, Japan, India, Brazil and Mexico and more, a growing number of eScooter users both locals and tourists can now be seen effortlessly passing lines of drivers stuck in the endless and unmoving traffic.

A recent report by McKinsey revealed that the E-Scooter industry will be worth― $200 billion to $300 billion in the United States, $100 billion to $150 billion in Europe, and $30 billion to $50 billion in China in 2030. The e-Scooter revenue model will also spike and is projected to rise by more than 20% amounting to approximately $5 billion.

And, with a necessity to move people away from high carbon prints, traffic and congestion issues brought about by car-centric transport systems in cities, more and more city planners are developing more bike/scooter lanes and adopting zero-emission plans. This is the force behind the booming electric scooter market and the numbers will only go higher and higher.

Companies that have taken advantage of the growing eScooter trend develop an appthat allows them to provide efficient eScooter services. Such an app enables them to be able to locate bike pick-up and drop points through fully integrated google maps.

List of Best Electric Bikes for Rental Business or Campus Facility 2020:

It’s clear that e scooters will increasingly become more common and the e-scooter business model will continue to grab the attention of manufacturers, investors, entrepreneurs. All this should go ahead with a quest to know what are some of the best electric bikes in the market especially for anyone who would want to get started in the electric bikes/scooters rental business.

We have done a comprehensive list of the best electric bikes! Each bike has been reviewed in depth and includes a full list of specs and a photo.

Billy eBike

mobile-best-electric-bikes-scooters https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/enkicycles/billy-were-redefining-joyrides

To start us off is the Billy eBike, a powerful go-anywhere urban electric bike that’s specially designed to offer an exciting ride like no other whether you want to ride to the grocery store, cafe, work or school. The Billy eBike comes in 4 color options – Billy Blue, Polished aluminium, Artic white, and Stealth black.

Price: $2490

Available countries

Available in the USA, Europe, Asia, South Africa and Australia.This item ships from the USA. Buyers are therefore responsible for any taxes and/or customs duties incurred once it arrives in your country.

Features

  • Control – Ride with confidence with our ultra-wide BMX bars and a hyper-responsive twist throttle.
  • Stealth- Ride like a ninja with our Gates carbon drive that’s as smooth as butter and maintenance-free.
  • Drive – Ride further with our high torque fat bike motor, giving a better climbing performance.
  • Accelerate – Ride quicker with our 20-inch lightweight cutout rims for improved acceleration.
  • Customize – Ride your own way with 5 levels of power control. Each level determines power and speed.
  • Flickable – Ride harder with our BMX /MotoX inspired geometry and lightweight aluminum package

Specifications

  • Maximum speed: 20 mph (32 km/h)
  • Range per charge: 41 miles (66 km)
  • Maximum Power: 500W
  • Motor type: Fat Bike Motor: Bafang RM G060.500.DC
  • Load capacity: 300lbs (136kg)
  • Battery type: 13.6Ah Samsung lithium-ion,
  • Battery capacity: On/off-bike charging available
  • Weight: w/o batt. 48.5lbs (22kg), w/ batt. 54lbs (24.5kg)
  • Front Suspension: Fully adjustable air shock, preload/compression damping /lockout
  • Rear Suspension: spring, preload adjustment
  • Built-in GPS

Why Should You Buy This?

  • Riding fun and excitement
  • Better climbing ability and faster acceleration.
  • Ride with confidence
  • Billy folds for convenient storage and transportation.
  • Shorty levers connect to disc brakes ensuring you stop on a dime
  • belt drives are maintenance-free and clean (no oil or lubrication needed)

**Who Should Ride Billy? **

Both new and experienced riders

**Where to Buy? **Local distributors or ships from the USA.

Genze 200 series e-Bike

genze-best-electric-bikes-scooters https://www.genze.com/fleet/

Featuring a sleek and lightweight aluminum frame design, the 200-Series ebike takes your riding experience to greater heights. Available in both black and white this ebike comes with a connected app, which allows you to plan activities, map distances and routes while also allowing connections with fellow riders.

Price: $2099.00

Available countries

The Genze 200 series e-Bike is available at GenZe retail locations across the U.S or online via GenZe.com website. Customers from outside the US can ship the product while incurring the relevant charges.

Features

  • 2 Frame Options
  • 2 Sizes
  • Integrated/Removable Battery
  • Throttle and Pedal Assist Ride Modes
  • Integrated LCD Display
  • Connected App
  • 24 month warranty
  • GPS navigation
  • Bluetooth connectivity

Specifications

  • Maximum speed: 20 mph with throttle
  • Range per charge: 15-18 miles w/ throttle and 30-50 miles w/ pedal assist
  • Charging time: 3.5 hours
  • Motor type: Brushless Rear Hub Motor
  • Gears: Microshift Thumb Shifter
  • Battery type: Removable Samsung 36V, 9.6AH Li-Ion battery pack
  • Battery capacity: 36V and 350 Wh
  • Weight: 46 pounds
  • Derailleur: 8-speed Shimano
  • Brakes: Dual classic
  • Wheels: 26 x 20 inches
  • Frame: 16, and 18 inches
  • Operating Mode: Analog mode 5 levels of Pedal Assist Thrott­le Mode

Norco from eBikestore

norco-best-electric-bikes-scooters https://ebikestore.com/shop/norco-vlt-s2/

The Norco VLT S2 is a front suspension e-Bike with solid components alongside the reliable Bosch Performance Line Power systems that offer precise pedal assistance during any riding situation.

Price: $2,699.00

Available countries

This item is available via the various Norco bikes international distributors.

Features

  • VLT aluminum frame- for stiffness and wheel security.
  • Bosch e-bike system – for their reliability and performance.
  • E-bike components – for added durability.
  • Hydraulic disc brakes – offer riders more stopping power for safety and control at higher speeds.
  • Practical design features – to add convenience and versatility.

Specifications

  • Maximum speed: KMC X9 9spd
  • Motor type: Bosch Active Line
  • Gears: Shimano Altus RD-M2000, SGS, 9 Speed
  • Battery type: Power Pack 400
  • Battery capacity: 396Wh
  • Suspension: SR Suntour suspension fork
  • Frame: Norco VLT, Aluminum, 12x142mm TA Dropouts

Bodo EV

bodo-best-electric-bikes-scootershttp://www.bodoevs.com/bodoev/products_show.asp?product_id=13

Manufactured by Bodo Vehicle Group Limited, the Bodo EV is specially designed for strong power and extraordinary long service to facilitate super amazing rides. The Bodo Vehicle Company is a striking top in electric vehicles brand field in China and across the globe. Their Bodo EV will no doubt provide your riders with high-level riding satisfaction owing to its high-quality design, strength, breaking stability and speed.

Price: $799

Available countries

This item ships from China with buyers bearing the shipping costs and other variables prior to delivery.

Features

  • Reliable
  • Environment friendly
  • Comfortable riding
  • Fashionable
  • Economical
  • Durable – long service life
  • Braking stability
  • LED lighting technology

Specifications

  • Maximum speed: 45km/h
  • Range per charge: 50km per person
  • Charging time: 8 hours
  • Maximum Power: 3000W
  • Motor type: Brushless DC Motor
  • Load capacity: 100kg
  • Battery type: Lead-acid battery
  • Battery capacity: 60V 20AH
  • Weight: w/o battery 47kg

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Ayan Code

1656193861

Simple Login Page in HTML and CSS | Source Code

Hello guys, Today in this post we’ll learn How to Create a Simple Login Page with a fantastic design. To create it we are going to use pure CSS and HTML. Hope you enjoy this post.

A login page is one of the most important component of a website or app that allows authorized users to access an entire site or a part of a website. You would have already seen them when visiting a website. Let's head to create it.

Whether it’s a signup or login page, it should be catchy, user-friendly and easy to use. These types of Forms lead to increased sales, lead generation, and customer growth.


Demo

Click to watch demo!

Simple Login Page HTML CSS (source code)

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <html lang="en" >
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/normalize/5.0.0/normalize.min.css">
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="styledfer.css">
  </head>

  <body>
   <div id="login-form-wrap">
    <h2>Login</h2>
    <form id="login-form">
      <p>
      <input type="email" id="email" name="email" placeholder="Email " required><i class="validation"><span></span><span></span></i>
      </p>
      <p>
      <input type="password" id="password" name="password" placeholder="Password" required><i class="validation"><span></span><span></span></i>
      </p>
      <p>
      <input type="submit" id="login" value="Login">
      </p>

      </form>
    <div id="create-account-wrap">
      <p>Don't have an accout? <a href="#">Create One</a><p>
    </div>
   </div>
    
  <script src='https://code.jquery.com/jquery-2.2.4.min.js'></script>
  <script src='https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/jquery-validate/1.15.0/jquery.validate.min.js'></script>
  </body>
</html>

CSS CODE

body {
  background-color: #020202;
  font-size: 1.6rem;
  font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif;
  color: #2b3e51;
}
h2 {
  font-weight: 300;
  text-align: center;
}
p {
  position: relative;
}
a,
a:link,
a:visited,
a:active {
  color: #ff9100;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}
a:focus, a:hover,
a:link:focus,
a:link:hover,
a:visited:focus,
a:visited:hover,
a:active:focus,
a:active:hover {
  color: #ff9f22;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}
#login-form-wrap {
  background-color: #fff;
  width: 16em;
  margin: 30px auto;
  text-align: center;
  padding: 20px 0 0 0;
  border-radius: 4px;
  box-shadow: 0px 30px 50px 0px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);
}
#login-form {
  padding: 0 60px;
}
input {
  display: block;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  width: 100%;
  outline: none;
  height: 60px;
  line-height: 60px;
  border-radius: 4px;
}
#email,
#password {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 0 0 0 10px;
  margin: 0;
  color: #8a8b8e;
  border: 1px solid #c2c0ca;
  font-style: normal;
  font-size: 16px;
  -webkit-appearance: none;
     -moz-appearance: none;
          appearance: none;
  position: relative;
  display: inline-block;
  background: none;
}
#email:focus,
#password:focus {
  border-color: #3ca9e2;
}
#email:focus:invalid,
#password:focus:invalid {
  color: #cc1e2b;
  border-color: #cc1e2b;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation,
#password:valid ~ .validation 
{
  display: block;
  border-color: #0C0;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span,
#password:valid ~ .validation span{
  background: #0C0;
  position: absolute;
  border-radius: 6px;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span:first-child,
#password:valid ~ .validation span:first-child{
  top: 30px;
  left: 14px;
  width: 20px;
  height: 3px;
  -webkit-transform: rotate(-45deg);
          transform: rotate(-45deg);
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span:last-child
#password:valid ~ .validation span:last-child
{
  top: 35px;
  left: 8px;
  width: 11px;
  height: 3px;
  -webkit-transform: rotate(45deg);
          transform: rotate(45deg);
}
.validation {
  display: none;
  position: absolute;
  content: " ";
  height: 60px;
  width: 30px;
  right: 15px;
  top: 0px;
}
input[type="submit"] {
  border: none;
  display: block;
  background-color: #ff9100;
  color: #fff;
  font-weight: bold;
  text-transform: uppercase;
  cursor: pointer;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
  font-size: 18px;
  position: relative;
  display: inline-block;
  cursor: pointer;
  text-align: center;
}
input[type="submit"]:hover {
  background-color: #ff9b17;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}

#create-account-wrap {
  background-color: #eeedf1;
  color: #8a8b8e;
  font-size: 14px;
  width: 100%;
  padding: 10px 0;
  border-radius: 0 0 4px 4px;
}

Congratulations! You have now successfully created our Simple Login Page in HTML and CSS.

My Website: codewithayan, see this to checkout all of my amazing Tutorials.

Ahebwe  Oscar

Ahebwe Oscar

1620177818

Django admin full Customization step by step

Welcome to my blog , hey everyone in this article you learn how to customize the Django app and view in the article you will know how to register  and unregister  models from the admin view how to add filtering how to add a custom input field, and a button that triggers an action on all objects and even how to change the look of your app and page using the Django suit package let’s get started.

Database

Custom Titles of Django Admin

Exclude in Django Admin

Fields in Django Admin

#django #create super user django #customize django admin dashboard #django admin #django admin custom field display #django admin customization #django admin full customization #django admin interface #django admin register all models #django customization

Fredy  Larson

Fredy Larson

1595059664

How long does it take to develop/build an app?

With more of us using smartphones, the popularity of mobile applications has exploded. In the digital era, the number of people looking for products and services online is growing rapidly. Smartphone owners look for mobile applications that give them quick access to companies’ products and services. As a result, mobile apps provide customers with a lot of benefits in just one device.

Likewise, companies use mobile apps to increase customer loyalty and improve their services. Mobile Developers are in high demand as companies use apps not only to create brand awareness but also to gather information. For that reason, mobile apps are used as tools to collect valuable data from customers to help companies improve their offer.

There are many types of mobile applications, each with its own advantages. For example, native apps perform better, while web apps don’t need to be customized for the platform or operating system (OS). Likewise, hybrid apps provide users with comfortable user experience. However, you may be wondering how long it takes to develop an app.

To give you an idea of how long the app development process takes, here’s a short guide.

App Idea & Research

app-idea-research

_Average time spent: two to five weeks _

This is the initial stage and a crucial step in setting the project in the right direction. In this stage, you brainstorm ideas and select the best one. Apart from that, you’ll need to do some research to see if your idea is viable. Remember that coming up with an idea is easy; the hard part is to make it a reality.

All your ideas may seem viable, but you still have to run some tests to keep it as real as possible. For that reason, when Web Developers are building a web app, they analyze the available ideas to see which one is the best match for the targeted audience.

Targeting the right audience is crucial when you are developing an app. It saves time when shaping the app in the right direction as you have a clear set of objectives. Likewise, analyzing how the app affects the market is essential. During the research process, App Developers must gather information about potential competitors and threats. This helps the app owners develop strategies to tackle difficulties that come up after the launch.

The research process can take several weeks, but it determines how successful your app can be. For that reason, you must take your time to know all the weaknesses and strengths of the competitors, possible app strategies, and targeted audience.

The outcomes of this stage are app prototypes and the minimum feasible product.

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