Devan  Johnson

Devan Johnson

1603859254

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Pt7

Have you ever heard about scope, recursion or OOP? If not, don’t worry. You will learn about these topics in this part of Getting started with Ruby series. Today, you will learn about what recursion is and how to use it. Next, you will learn about scope and its types. Lastly, you will learn about classes and objects. Without further ado, let’s begin!

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 1 (Comments, Variables, Strings).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 2 (Data Types Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 3 (Data Types Pt2, Control Flow Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 4 (Control Flow Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 5 (Control Flow Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 6 (Methods).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 8 (OOP Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 9 (OOP Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 10 (OOP Pt4 and Beyond).

Recursion

You know how to use loops. However, loops are not the only way to loop over some object. Remember, in Ruby, everything is an object. Another way to do that is with recursion. Recursions is basically about methods that call themselves. This approach is often used by programmers to solve problems that can be broken into easier sub-problems of the same type.

One simple and often used example of recursion is the factorial method.

This goal of this method is to find the product of all positive integers below a specified number. For example, let’s say you want to find factorial of 5 (5!). Then, the math equation is 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 which is equal to 120. How can you solve this with recursion?

Take a look at the equation. Notice that 5! is the same as 5 * 4!. The 4! is the same as 4 * 3!. The 3! is the same as 3 * 2! and so on. This gives us a simple equation n! = n * (n-1)!.

Furthermore, 1! = 1. This is also known as the base case. Meaning, it can be calculated without performing any more factorials.

Let’s now create a factorial method and implement what we discussed above. The factorial method will contain if block that will check if n is smaller or equal to 1 (n <= 1). This is the base case. If this condition is true the it will stop factorial method. Otherwise, it will run factorial method again with n decreased by 1 and multiple n by the result. This will repeat as long as the base case is false.

##
## Example of recursion
def factorial(n)
  if n <= 1
    1
  else
    n * factorial(n - 1)
  end
end

puts factorial(5)
## outputs 120

As with any loops, recursive methods too can become infinite. These situations will happen when you forget to implement the base case. So, make sure to check your code before you execute it. And, any time you work with recursion, define and include the base case that makes the recursion stop. Below is example of the factorial method done wrong-it has no base case.

##
## Example of recursion done wrong
def factorial(n)
  n * fact(n - 1)
end

puts factorial(5)
## outputs "stack level too deep (SystemStackError)"

Variable scope

Scope defines where in a program a variable is accessible. In Ruby, there are types of variable scope. These are local, global, instance and class. Each type is handy in different situations, as you will learn in a moment. Don’t worry about what classes and instances are. Also, don’t worry that you may not understand all code in examples. You will learn about classes and instances soon.

#ruby #programming #design development

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Pt7

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Devan  Johnson

Devan Johnson

1603859254

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Pt7

Have you ever heard about scope, recursion or OOP? If not, don’t worry. You will learn about these topics in this part of Getting started with Ruby series. Today, you will learn about what recursion is and how to use it. Next, you will learn about scope and its types. Lastly, you will learn about classes and objects. Without further ado, let’s begin!

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 1 (Comments, Variables, Strings).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 2 (Data Types Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 3 (Data Types Pt2, Control Flow Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 4 (Control Flow Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 5 (Control Flow Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 6 (Methods).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 8 (OOP Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 9 (OOP Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 10 (OOP Pt4 and Beyond).

Recursion

You know how to use loops. However, loops are not the only way to loop over some object. Remember, in Ruby, everything is an object. Another way to do that is with recursion. Recursions is basically about methods that call themselves. This approach is often used by programmers to solve problems that can be broken into easier sub-problems of the same type.

One simple and often used example of recursion is the factorial method.

This goal of this method is to find the product of all positive integers below a specified number. For example, let’s say you want to find factorial of 5 (5!). Then, the math equation is 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 which is equal to 120. How can you solve this with recursion?

Take a look at the equation. Notice that 5! is the same as 5 * 4!. The 4! is the same as 4 * 3!. The 3! is the same as 3 * 2! and so on. This gives us a simple equation n! = n * (n-1)!.

Furthermore, 1! = 1. This is also known as the base case. Meaning, it can be calculated without performing any more factorials.

Let’s now create a factorial method and implement what we discussed above. The factorial method will contain if block that will check if n is smaller or equal to 1 (n <= 1). This is the base case. If this condition is true the it will stop factorial method. Otherwise, it will run factorial method again with n decreased by 1 and multiple n by the result. This will repeat as long as the base case is false.

##
## Example of recursion
def factorial(n)
  if n <= 1
    1
  else
    n * factorial(n - 1)
  end
end

puts factorial(5)
## outputs 120

As with any loops, recursive methods too can become infinite. These situations will happen when you forget to implement the base case. So, make sure to check your code before you execute it. And, any time you work with recursion, define and include the base case that makes the recursion stop. Below is example of the factorial method done wrong-it has no base case.

##
## Example of recursion done wrong
def factorial(n)
  n * fact(n - 1)
end

puts factorial(5)
## outputs "stack level too deep (SystemStackError)"

Variable scope

Scope defines where in a program a variable is accessible. In Ruby, there are types of variable scope. These are local, global, instance and class. Each type is handy in different situations, as you will learn in a moment. Don’t worry about what classes and instances are. Also, don’t worry that you may not understand all code in examples. You will learn about classes and instances soon.

#ruby #programming #design development

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes

1595494844

How to start an electric scooter facility/fleet in a university campus/IT park

Are you leading an organization that has a large campus, e.g., a large university? You are probably thinking of introducing an electric scooter/bicycle fleet on the campus, and why wouldn’t you?

Introducing micro-mobility in your campus with the help of such a fleet would help the people on the campus significantly. People would save money since they don’t need to use a car for a short distance. Your campus will see a drastic reduction in congestion, moreover, its carbon footprint will reduce.

Micro-mobility is relatively new though and you would need help. You would need to select an appropriate fleet of vehicles. The people on your campus would need to find electric scooters or electric bikes for commuting, and you need to provide a solution for this.

To be more specific, you need a short-term electric bike rental app. With such an app, you will be able to easily offer micro-mobility to the people on the campus. We at Devathon have built Autorent exactly for this.

What does Autorent do and how can it help you? How does it enable you to introduce micro-mobility on your campus? We explain these in this article, however, we will touch upon a few basics first.

Micro-mobility: What it is

micro-mobility

You are probably thinking about micro-mobility relatively recently, aren’t you? A few relevant insights about it could help you to better appreciate its importance.

Micro-mobility is a new trend in transportation, and it uses vehicles that are considerably smaller than cars. Electric scooters (e-scooters) and electric bikes (e-bikes) are the most popular forms of micro-mobility, however, there are also e-unicycles and e-skateboards.

You might have already seen e-scooters, which are kick scooters that come with a motor. Thanks to its motor, an e-scooter can achieve a speed of up to 20 km/h. On the other hand, e-bikes are popular in China and Japan, and they come with a motor, and you can reach a speed of 40 km/h.

You obviously can’t use these vehicles for very long commutes, however, what if you need to travel a short distance? Even if you have a reasonable public transport facility in the city, it might not cover the route you need to take. Take the example of a large university campus. Such a campus is often at a considerable distance from the central business district of the city where it’s located. While public transport facilities may serve the central business district, they wouldn’t serve this large campus. Currently, many people drive their cars even for short distances.

As you know, that brings its own set of challenges. Vehicular traffic adds significantly to pollution, moreover, finding a parking spot can be hard in crowded urban districts.

Well, you can reduce your carbon footprint if you use an electric car. However, electric cars are still new, and many countries are still building the necessary infrastructure for them. Your large campus might not have the necessary infrastructure for them either. Presently, electric cars don’t represent a viable option in most geographies.

As a result, you need to buy and maintain a car even if your commute is short. In addition to dealing with parking problems, you need to spend significantly on your car.

All of these factors have combined to make people sit up and think seriously about cars. Many people are now seriously considering whether a car is really the best option even if they have to commute only a short distance.

This is where micro-mobility enters the picture. When you commute a short distance regularly, e-scooters or e-bikes are viable options. You limit your carbon footprints and you cut costs!

Businesses have seen this shift in thinking, and e-scooter companies like Lime and Bird have entered this field in a big way. They let you rent e-scooters by the minute. On the other hand, start-ups like Jump and Lyft have entered the e-bike market.

Think of your campus now! The people there might need to travel short distances within the campus, and e-scooters can really help them.

How micro-mobility can benefit you

benefits-micromobility

What advantages can you get from micro-mobility? Let’s take a deeper look into this question.

Micro-mobility can offer several advantages to the people on your campus, e.g.:

  • Affordability: Shared e-scooters are cheaper than other mass transportation options. Remember that the people on your campus will use them on a shared basis, and they will pay for their short commutes only. Well, depending on your operating model, you might even let them use shared e-scooters or e-bikes for free!
  • Convenience: Users don’t need to worry about finding parking spots for shared e-scooters since these are small. They can easily travel from point A to point B on your campus with the help of these e-scooters.
  • Environmentally sustainable: Shared e-scooters reduce the carbon footprint, moreover, they decongest the roads. Statistics from the pilot programs in cities like Portland and Denver showimpressive gains around this key aspect.
  • Safety: This one’s obvious, isn’t it? When people on your campus use small e-scooters or e-bikes instead of cars, the problem of overspeeding will disappear. you will see fewer accidents.

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Devan  Johnson

Devan Johnson

1603924320

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Pt10

There are few things every serious Ruby programmer must know about. These things include concepts such as access modifiers, to_s method, modules, mixins, structs, procs and lambdas. Learn about all these concepts and more in this part of Getting started with Ruby. Expand your knowledge and become an advanced Ruby programmer!

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 1 (Comments, Variables, Strings).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 2 (Data Types Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 3 (Data Types Pt2, Control Flow Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 4 (Control Flow Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 5 (Control Flow Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 6 (Methods).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 7 (Recursion, Scope, OOP Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 8 (OOP Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 9 (OOP Pt3).

Ruby and OOP (Object-Oriented Programming) pt4

Access modifiers

So far, all the methods you have seen through this mini series were defined as publicly available. This means that you could call any of these methods from outside the class and they would work. However, there are situations where this behavior may not be what you want. In those situations you may want some methods to be visible only to the class.

One example of such a situation can be application for a Bank. Imagine you have a class containing methods to calculate values such as account balance, internal transactions, interests and so on. Making any of these methods available outside the class is not something you would want. That would be a significant security flaw.

Fortunately, Ruby provides a way to specify how visible your methods should be. In Ruby, this concept is called “access modifiers” and there are three access modifiers you can use-“public”, “private” and “protected”. These access modifiers can be applied only to methods. Instance variable are always private.

Public

Any time you define a new class method, Ruby interprets it as public by default. The only exception is initialize. This means that any class method, other than initialize, is accessible and visible from both, the inside as well as the outside of the class.

#ruby #programming #design development

Devan  Johnson

Devan Johnson

1603855042

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Pt1

Have you ever heard about Ruby? Ruby is one of the most popular programming languages in the World. It is also a programming language that is incredibly easy to learn. This will be the goal of this mini series. It will help you learn core concepts of Ruby and become proficient in this interesting programming language. Your journey to learn Ruby starts now.

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 2 (Data Types Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 3 (Data Types Pt2, Control Flow Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 4 (Control Flow Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 5 (Control Flow Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 6 (Methods).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 7 (Recursion, Scope, OOP Pt1).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 8 (OOP Pt2).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 9 (OOP Pt3).

Getting Started With Ruby the Easy Way Part 10 (OOP Pt4 and Beyond).

A brief introduction

Ruby is one of the most used programming languages in the World. It is regularly placed in top 10 positions on TIOBE index. In 2006 it even won the highest position of the list. What makes Ruby so popular? There are at least two reasons. First, Ruby is very easy to learn and use. If you know and like Python, another popular programming language, you will probably also like Ruby.

Both these languages have minimalist syntax. Both are designed with productivity in mind. It is designed to make programming an activity you enjoy. This is especially true about Ruby. It looks quite similar to English. Yet another reason why many programmers chose Ruby as their first programming language. The second reason is Ruby on Rails.

This is a server-side web application framework written in Ruby created by David Heinemeier Hansson, co-founder of Basecamp. This relationship between Ruby and Ruby on Rails is similar to the relationship between PHP and WordPress. Another popular programming and another popular framework. One benefits from and helps the other.

There is a big community of passionate developers concentrated around both. This is also why Ruby is not going away any time soon. Let’s take a look at Ruby more closely. Ruby first appeared in 1995. It was created by programmer Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto. It is a dynamic and object-oriented programming language. It is also a general-purpose programming language.

This means that you can use Ruby in various ways. For example, you can use it for creating web applications, with or without some framework. You can also use it for writing software and applications. Ruby is also cross-platform. You can use it on any platform you want after you install it, just like Python.

One interesting thing is that, in Ruby, everything is an object. Yes, this also includes even numbers. If you are not familiar with the concept of objects, don’t worry. You will learn about them in this mini series. Another interesting thing is that in Ruby, everything has a “return value”. Methods like puts that don’t have any useful return value will return nil. Enough of talking about the history. Let’s dive into the world of Ruby, starting with basics.

#ruby #programming #design development