What is Kylin Network (KYL) | What is Kylin Network token | What is KYL token | Kylin Network (KYL) ICO

Kylin Network aims to Build a Cross-chain Platform Powering the Data Economy on Polkadot. It will be the Data Infrastructure for DeFi and Web 3.0 Powered by Polkadot. Kylin Network represents extensibility and a synergetic increase to the off-chain workers capability as it will provide not only access, management, insights, coordination to a greater array of data sources, but bolster validity and decentralization of the data sources themselves.

Building a Cross-chain Platform Powering the Data Economy on Polkadot

The Data Infrastructure for DeFi and Web 3.0 Powered by Polkadot

DeFi refers to “decentralized finance”. In the world of blockchain, it is also called open finance. Its goal is to subvert the traditional financial service system and promote the arrival of a new era of digital economy, so that everyone can obtain great economic freedom. It can be said that the emergence of DeFi is a perfect integration of decentralized technology (blockchain) and the modern financial industry. it has spawned a series of innovative applications in many traditional scenarios such as securities trading, lending, and insurance, and has triggered the craze in the crypto world.

Image for post

1. DeFi and oracle pain points

Decentralized finance(DeFi) and the decentralized lending services it contains are widely used and hyped in the world of encrypted assets. However, every underlying protocol of decentralized finance requires asset prices for operation and guidance. The correctness of the price has become the decisive factor for the smooth operation of the entire financial system, and the oracle is the key to providing price input data for the DeFi system.

The function of the oracle is a means to provide off-chain data for on-chain smart contracts. Under ideal circumstances, the oracle should be a trustless system, as long as it can operate normally according to specific decentralization principles. At the same time, the oracle needs to have the following four characteristics:

  • Accuracy: the prices can accurately reflect market prices
  • Timeliness: the prices can react quickly to the changes in market prices
  • Cost of attack: cost of manipulating the prices is extremely high
  • Decentralization: the price is generated and verified in a decentralized and permissionless system

However, for the oracle existing projects, it is difficult to solve all the four issues above whether using Chainlink, Augur or Gnosis. The oracle system Kylin Oracle built on the Polkadot network will solve the pain points of DeFi and oracle projects through its own unique design concept and operating mechanism, and provide real-time market data and social data for participants in the decentralized network.

2. What is Kylin?

Kylin Oracle is a universal oracle protocol. Its main function is to build an on-chain data warehouse through decentralization and trustlessness, and to provide accurate social data and market data to various DeFi applications and blockchain projects.

Kylin Oracle is characterized by providing reliable, efficient and trustless solutions for the off-chain data application. Kylin Oracle, which is built on Substrate, will be connected to the Polkadot ecosystem in a parachain, sharing the underlying consensus of the Polkadot, operating in a fully decentralized and highly scalable manner, and ensuring the security and network performance of the protocol.

Kylin Oracle encompasses 5 entities, including Data Consumer, Data Warehouse, Oracle Node, Arbitration Node and Blockchain Node. These five entities represent the major components of Kylin’s architecture. The details and the relationships, represented by the arrows, wit one another is as follows:

Image for post

As shown in the figure, five roles form a data request model in Kylin Oracle:

  • The data request is generated by the data consumer, which is uploaded to the data warehouse through on-chain transactions, and the Oracle Node is encouraged to process the required data through incentives
  • After receiving the service fee paid by the data user through KYL, the data warehouse locates the data user by tracking the on-chain transaction, and then broadcasts to the off-chain oracle network
  • The oracle node transmits the data it has discovered and the proof of calculation to the Arbitration Node. When the data meets the arbitration standard, it will be transmitted to the data warehouse. The data warehouse stores the data and pays tokens to the oracle nodes which provide the data

In order to solve the privacy and security issues of the oracle network, Kylin Oracle introduced Kylin Oracle Transport Access Control (KTAC) and Kylin Oracle Real-time Transport Protocol(KRTP) technology to solve similar problems. Among them, KTAC technology is implemented using software application library endpoints, including to provide participants with non-connected permissions and confidential control to ensure personal privacy, modular and easily auditable consensus protocol. KRTP is based on the improvement of the real-time transmission protocol to ensure the security and verifiability of information transmission.

3. Kylin Token Economics

Kylin Oracle designed a unique economic incentive model to ensure fair distribution of benefits among participants.

  • The oracle node and the arbitration node need to stake KYL: the more KYL staked, the more data requests will be allocated, and underperforming or malicious actors will lead to the reduction of their staked tokens
  • Token is the main intermediary of transaction behavior: KYL tokens will be used to pay as a transaction, query fee, and dedicated API access fee
  • On-chain governance: KYL Token holders are able to vote for the protocol upgrades and parameter changes on Kylin Network to ensure that the oracle network realizes a truly decentralized decision-making power.

At the same time, Kylin Network introduced two functional designs: Verifiable Random Function (VRF) and Optimal Ranking Zone Model (ORZ). The former requires that different data requests will be assigned to different collaborative groups to ensure the fairness and effectiveness of data processing, and to ensure the decentralized characteristics of the entire system operation; the latter uses the jump ranking weighting algorithm to replace the weighted average to calculate the staking share of tokens to avoid the oligopoly caused by the concentrated holding of KYL by large households.

Finally, in order to ensure the authenticity and availability of data, Kylin Oracle has designed a unique challenge mechanism. Any validator can challenge existing inactive miners by staking tokens. The challenger needs to stake 1.2 times KYL of the challenged. Once the challenge is successful, the challenger will be rewarded with 20% KYL slashed from the staking of challenged. If the challenge fails, the challenger’s staked KYL will be directly burnt. The authenticity standard of the data is that the price data provided by the verifier does not deviate from the real-time price at the time of quotation by 5%.

Image for post

4. Kylin’s application and vision

Kylin Oracle mainly has the following six application scenarios:

Decentralized insurance automatic payment

The decentralized insurance platform can obtain various on-chain and off-chain data by connecting to the Kylin oracle machine to complete the judgment and automatic payment of insurance activities.

Stable coins and crypto derivatives

Stablecoins and encrypted derivatives need to frequently obtain off-chain real-time price data. Kylin Network can obtain reliable data in multiple scenarios in real time and efficiently.

Crypto asset lending platform

Kylin Oracle can provide off-chain information including real-time and reliable currency prices, interest rate levels, and borrowers’ social information to the on-chain lending platform

Cross-chain decentralized exchange

The lightweight Kylin Network interface that can be deployed on multiple chains provides the possibility for decentralized exchanges to realize cross-chain atomic transactions.

Decentralized casinos and games

Kylin Network random number engine provides unpredictable and verifiable random number generation.

Blockchain computing market

Commercial computing such as machine learning training models and 3D rendering needs to complete a variety of complex computing tasks. Kylin Oracle serves as a bridge to provide verifiable and unlimited off-chain computing functions for the blockchain computing market.

Kylin Oracle built through the Polkadot network will superimpose a unique token economic model and governance mechanism by utilizing the characteristics of Substrate to solve current project pain points and effectively improve the existing oracle ecosystem.

How and Where to Buy Kylin Network (KYL) ?

KYL has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy KYL

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase KYL from the Binance exchange.

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once KYL gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

BinanceBittrexPoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.ioCoinbase

Find more information KYL

WebsiteExplorerExplorer 2WhitepaperSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post is my OPINION and not financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

Thank for visiting and reading this article! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#blockchain #bitcoin #crypto #kylin network #kyl

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

What is Kylin Network (KYL) | What is Kylin Network token | What is KYL token | Kylin Network (KYL) ICO

What is Kylin Network (KYL) | What is Kylin Network token | What is KYL token | Kylin Network (KYL) ICO

Kylin Network aims to Build a Cross-chain Platform Powering the Data Economy on Polkadot. It will be the Data Infrastructure for DeFi and Web 3.0 Powered by Polkadot. Kylin Network represents extensibility and a synergetic increase to the off-chain workers capability as it will provide not only access, management, insights, coordination to a greater array of data sources, but bolster validity and decentralization of the data sources themselves.

Building a Cross-chain Platform Powering the Data Economy on Polkadot

The Data Infrastructure for DeFi and Web 3.0 Powered by Polkadot

DeFi refers to “decentralized finance”. In the world of blockchain, it is also called open finance. Its goal is to subvert the traditional financial service system and promote the arrival of a new era of digital economy, so that everyone can obtain great economic freedom. It can be said that the emergence of DeFi is a perfect integration of decentralized technology (blockchain) and the modern financial industry. it has spawned a series of innovative applications in many traditional scenarios such as securities trading, lending, and insurance, and has triggered the craze in the crypto world.

Image for post

1. DeFi and oracle pain points

Decentralized finance(DeFi) and the decentralized lending services it contains are widely used and hyped in the world of encrypted assets. However, every underlying protocol of decentralized finance requires asset prices for operation and guidance. The correctness of the price has become the decisive factor for the smooth operation of the entire financial system, and the oracle is the key to providing price input data for the DeFi system.

The function of the oracle is a means to provide off-chain data for on-chain smart contracts. Under ideal circumstances, the oracle should be a trustless system, as long as it can operate normally according to specific decentralization principles. At the same time, the oracle needs to have the following four characteristics:

  • Accuracy: the prices can accurately reflect market prices
  • Timeliness: the prices can react quickly to the changes in market prices
  • Cost of attack: cost of manipulating the prices is extremely high
  • Decentralization: the price is generated and verified in a decentralized and permissionless system

However, for the oracle existing projects, it is difficult to solve all the four issues above whether using Chainlink, Augur or Gnosis. The oracle system Kylin Oracle built on the Polkadot network will solve the pain points of DeFi and oracle projects through its own unique design concept and operating mechanism, and provide real-time market data and social data for participants in the decentralized network.

2. What is Kylin?

Kylin Oracle is a universal oracle protocol. Its main function is to build an on-chain data warehouse through decentralization and trustlessness, and to provide accurate social data and market data to various DeFi applications and blockchain projects.

Kylin Oracle is characterized by providing reliable, efficient and trustless solutions for the off-chain data application. Kylin Oracle, which is built on Substrate, will be connected to the Polkadot ecosystem in a parachain, sharing the underlying consensus of the Polkadot, operating in a fully decentralized and highly scalable manner, and ensuring the security and network performance of the protocol.

Kylin Oracle encompasses 5 entities, including Data Consumer, Data Warehouse, Oracle Node, Arbitration Node and Blockchain Node. These five entities represent the major components of Kylin’s architecture. The details and the relationships, represented by the arrows, wit one another is as follows:

Image for post

As shown in the figure, five roles form a data request model in Kylin Oracle:

  • The data request is generated by the data consumer, which is uploaded to the data warehouse through on-chain transactions, and the Oracle Node is encouraged to process the required data through incentives
  • After receiving the service fee paid by the data user through KYL, the data warehouse locates the data user by tracking the on-chain transaction, and then broadcasts to the off-chain oracle network
  • The oracle node transmits the data it has discovered and the proof of calculation to the Arbitration Node. When the data meets the arbitration standard, it will be transmitted to the data warehouse. The data warehouse stores the data and pays tokens to the oracle nodes which provide the data

In order to solve the privacy and security issues of the oracle network, Kylin Oracle introduced Kylin Oracle Transport Access Control (KTAC) and Kylin Oracle Real-time Transport Protocol(KRTP) technology to solve similar problems. Among them, KTAC technology is implemented using software application library endpoints, including to provide participants with non-connected permissions and confidential control to ensure personal privacy, modular and easily auditable consensus protocol. KRTP is based on the improvement of the real-time transmission protocol to ensure the security and verifiability of information transmission.

3. Kylin Token Economics

Kylin Oracle designed a unique economic incentive model to ensure fair distribution of benefits among participants.

  • The oracle node and the arbitration node need to stake KYL: the more KYL staked, the more data requests will be allocated, and underperforming or malicious actors will lead to the reduction of their staked tokens
  • Token is the main intermediary of transaction behavior: KYL tokens will be used to pay as a transaction, query fee, and dedicated API access fee
  • On-chain governance: KYL Token holders are able to vote for the protocol upgrades and parameter changes on Kylin Network to ensure that the oracle network realizes a truly decentralized decision-making power.

At the same time, Kylin Network introduced two functional designs: Verifiable Random Function (VRF) and Optimal Ranking Zone Model (ORZ). The former requires that different data requests will be assigned to different collaborative groups to ensure the fairness and effectiveness of data processing, and to ensure the decentralized characteristics of the entire system operation; the latter uses the jump ranking weighting algorithm to replace the weighted average to calculate the staking share of tokens to avoid the oligopoly caused by the concentrated holding of KYL by large households.

Finally, in order to ensure the authenticity and availability of data, Kylin Oracle has designed a unique challenge mechanism. Any validator can challenge existing inactive miners by staking tokens. The challenger needs to stake 1.2 times KYL of the challenged. Once the challenge is successful, the challenger will be rewarded with 20% KYL slashed from the staking of challenged. If the challenge fails, the challenger’s staked KYL will be directly burnt. The authenticity standard of the data is that the price data provided by the verifier does not deviate from the real-time price at the time of quotation by 5%.

Image for post

4. Kylin’s application and vision

Kylin Oracle mainly has the following six application scenarios:

Decentralized insurance automatic payment

The decentralized insurance platform can obtain various on-chain and off-chain data by connecting to the Kylin oracle machine to complete the judgment and automatic payment of insurance activities.

Stable coins and crypto derivatives

Stablecoins and encrypted derivatives need to frequently obtain off-chain real-time price data. Kylin Network can obtain reliable data in multiple scenarios in real time and efficiently.

Crypto asset lending platform

Kylin Oracle can provide off-chain information including real-time and reliable currency prices, interest rate levels, and borrowers’ social information to the on-chain lending platform

Cross-chain decentralized exchange

The lightweight Kylin Network interface that can be deployed on multiple chains provides the possibility for decentralized exchanges to realize cross-chain atomic transactions.

Decentralized casinos and games

Kylin Network random number engine provides unpredictable and verifiable random number generation.

Blockchain computing market

Commercial computing such as machine learning training models and 3D rendering needs to complete a variety of complex computing tasks. Kylin Oracle serves as a bridge to provide verifiable and unlimited off-chain computing functions for the blockchain computing market.

Kylin Oracle built through the Polkadot network will superimpose a unique token economic model and governance mechanism by utilizing the characteristics of Substrate to solve current project pain points and effectively improve the existing oracle ecosystem.

How and Where to Buy Kylin Network (KYL) ?

KYL has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin, ETH, USDT from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin, in this guide article we will walk you through in detail the steps to buy KYL

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Binance is a popular cryptocurrency exchange which was started in China but then moved their headquarters to the crypto-friendly Island of Malta in the EU. Binance is popular for its crypto to crypto exchange services. Binance exploded onto the scene in the mania of 2017 and has since gone on to become the top crypto exchange in the world.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT)

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

After the deposit is confirmed you may then purchase KYL from the Binance exchange.

Apart from the exchange(s) above, there are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once KYL gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

BinanceBittrexPoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.ioCoinbase

Find more information KYL

WebsiteExplorerExplorer 2WhitepaperSource CodeSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Social Channel 3Coinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post is my OPINION and not financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

Thank for visiting and reading this article! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#blockchain #bitcoin #crypto #kylin network #kyl

Deep Shah

Deep Shah

1603255867

ICO Development Company | Hire ICO Developer in India | ICO Consulting

We at ICO Development cover all the major steps or activities i.e. light paper & white paper drafting, coin or token creation, ICO fundraising dashboard, coin drop, marketing plan, bounty management etc. that will help you to raise a successful ICO.

#ico development #ico development services #ico solutions #ico services #ico development company

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

Lisa joly

Lisa joly

1624658400

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