Unique Von

Unique Von

1597842148

Hedge Funds Using Artificial Intelligence Are Outperforming

Hedge funds utilising artificial intelligence capabilities have shown a competitive edge over investors that didn’t use AI, according to new research. The coronavirus pandemic has given partial proof of the effectiveness of the application of artificial intelligence as a predictive tool in fund management; reveals the latest issue of The Cerulli Edge―Global Edition.

An examination by Cerulli Associates of the assets under management (AUM) of various funds and net new flows of Europe-domiciled AI-enabled funds from 2013 to April this year reveals substantial AUM growth from 2016 to 2019. The aggregate return of AI-led hedge funds was almost three times higher than that of the overall hedge fund during this time: 33.9% compared to 12.1%.

Despite this, AI-powered hedge funds’ net new flows dropped somewhat last year, before dropping sharply mid-January and April. Nevertheless, Cerulli’s research tells that European AI-led active equity funds increased at a quicker rate than the other active equity funds from January to April this year and presented a less-pronounced slump in March.

AI Vs Humans For Managing Investments

Large investment funds around the world also have started using AI extensively to manage funds and augment their processes and capabilities. AI agents which utilise machine learning algorithms can process data in ways that humans fundamentally can’t. It shouldn’t surprise anyone that these machines will one day be ubiquitous in both portfolio management and industry.

But the challenge of using machine learning is that its predictive value is only as good as the historical data that you have. While it can find patterns and predictive insights in historical data, it might be a challenge in volatile situations such as the rare global pandemics.

Much of it is about identifying cyclical trends in the marketplace. If an event hasn’t happened in the recent past, the technology is not going to be as effective. There are millions of things happening in the marketplace every single day, and AI allows investment firms to gauge all the data using ML models and create useful insights for clients.

Quantitative hedge funds have been utilising algorithms for years to make trade decisions. The algorithms, however, were not able to perform with the volatility of financial markets as they were used in static models and thus yielding bad returns.

#opinions #ai hedge funds #finance

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Hedge Funds Using Artificial Intelligence Are Outperforming
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

1667425440

Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta

1615455046

Start a Career in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) made headlines recently when people started reporting that Alexa was laughing unexpectedly. Those news reports led to the standard jokes about computers taking up the planet.

The AI Career Landscape
AI is returning more traction lately due to recent innovations that have made headlines, Alexa’s unexpected laughing notwithstanding. But AI has been a sound career choice for a short time now due to the growing adoption of the technology across industries and therefore the need for trained professionals to try to to the roles created by this growth.

AI and Machine Learning Explained
If you’re new to the sector, you would possibly be wondering, just what’s AI then? AI is how we make intelligent machines. It’s software that learns almost like how humans learn, mimicking human learning so it can take over a number of our jobs for us and do other jobs better and faster than we humans ever could. Machine learning may be a subset of AI, so sometimes when we’re describing AI, we’re describing machine learning join online machine learning course, which is that the process by which learn Artificial Intelligence course now!

The Three Main Stages of AI
AI is rapidly evolving, which is one reason why a career in AI offers such a lot potential. As technology evolves, learning improves. Van Loon described the three stages of AI and machine learning development as follow:

Stage one is machine learning - Machine learning consists of intelligent systems using algorithms to find out from experience.
Stage two is machine intelligence - Which is where our current AI technology resides now. during this stage, machines learn from experience supported false algorithms. it’s a more evolved sort of machine learning, with improved cognitive abilities.
Stage three is machine consciousness - this is often when systems can do self-learning from experience with none external data. Siri is an example of machine consciousness.

Subsets of Machine Learning

Neural Networks
Natural Language Processing (NLP)
Deep Learning

How to start in AI?
If you’re intrigued by this career field and wondering the way to start , Van Loon described the training paths for 3 differing types of professionals; those new the sector , programmers, and people already working in data science. He also points out that various industries require different skill sets, but all working in AI should have excellent communication skills before addressing the maths and computing skills needed.

Specific Jobs in AI

  • Machine Learning Researchers
  • AI Engineer
  • Data Mining and Analysis
  • Machine Learning Engineer
  • Data Scientist
  • Business Intelligence (BI) Developer

The Future of AI

As the demand for AI and machine learning has increased, organizations require professionals with in-and-out knowledge of those growing technologies and hands-on experience.If you would like to be one among those professionals, get certified, because the earlier you get your training started, the earlier you’ll be working during this exciting and rapidly changing field.CETPA provides Graduate program will assist you substitute the gang and grow your career in thriving fields like AI , Machine Learning, and Deep Learning.

If you’re curious about becoming an AI expert then we’ve just the proper guide for you. the synthetic Intelligence Career Guide will offer you insights into the foremost trending technologies, the highest companies that are hiring, the talents required to jumpstart your career within the thriving field of AI, and offers you a customized roadmap to becoming a successful AI expert.

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Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta

1616153023

7 Ways Artificial Intelligence Can Help Make Your Time at Home

Artificial Intelligence enhances the speed, precision, and effectiveness of human efforts. In financial institutions, AI techniques are often wont to identify which transactions are likely to be fraudulent, adopt fast and accurate credit scoring, also as automate manually intense data management tasks.

AI would have a coffee error rate compared to humans if coded properly. they might have incredible precision, accuracy, and speed. they will not be suffering from hostile environments, thus ready to complete dangerous tasks, explore in space, and endure problems that might injure or kill us.

1. AI goes to show your kitchen into a Michelin star restaurant
Smart kitchen appliances and smart speakers are making their way into kitchens all around the world. you’ll even have one now. Whether it is a coffee machine or an oven, these tools are evolving, learning your schedules and patterns so that they will provide you with warm food, coffee, etc. However, this is often just the start.

Your new smart fridge could also be ready to track when food is low and place orders for you when food is low. Or, better yet, AI might be wont to assist you to create the right meal with just the ingredients you’ve got within the refrigerator. Utilizing AI technologies with gastronomical learning, companies like Plant Jammer and Chefling are helping people create delicious food with the ingredients they need available. Currently, Facebook has developed an image-to-recipe generation system that permits users to reverse engineer a recipe by only taking an image of the dish.

2. The way you experience entertainment will change

Google Assistant, Cortana, and Alexa have already infiltrated your home, impacting the way you interact together with your TV and streaming services, allowing you to voice control almost everything; slowly making remotes obsolete. almost like the kitchen example, these devices are learning your watching habits, eventually directing you on what to observe. However, it’s getting to go much further.

3.You’re getting to have tons more fun together with your games

You may be proud of the gaming industry, or perhaps you wish to ascertain some major changes. Though a touch slower on the buyer side, there’s a change coming to the gaming industry, change driven by AI. Developers are using AI to make more immersive and realistic experiences, even within a fantasy world.
AI will better help developers create games that change on the fly, adapting to your gameplay. Even more so, if you’ve got old games that you simply would like remastered, AI is additionally getting used to enhance the general look of classic games. Finally, while reception, expect customized gaming experiences. If you want to learn AI and work practically then join the best Artificial Intelligence Training Institute in Noida and improve your skills now.

4. You’ll have your own Alfred soon

Maybe you usually wanted to possess a Jarvis AI system like Tony Stark? Or, perhaps you would like to travel the more traditional route and obtain yourself a loyal butler-like Alfred. Whichever the case, AI could make this possible via robotics. the world of robot personal assistants is an industry growing rapidly. Though some would simply dub the present models as just smart speakers with wheels, many of those current robotic personal assistants offer tons of impressive features. Soon, you would possibly have something that appears tons less like Wall-E and more just like the robots in iRobot

Robots like Jib are a little example of the approaching future. The social robot looks around, learning about you and your home. He even has an “expressive face.” He can even take pictures of you and share them on social media.

5. Enhanced health and fitness reception
Being able to watch patient’s reception with real-time data remotely, effectively, might be revolutionary. Going far beyond the Apple watch that you simply wear your wrist immediately, healthcare professionals could tap into the predictive powers of AI to work outpatients who are potentially in danger of disease or injury. This can give doctors tons more power but could alleviate a number of the pressure placed on the healthcare systems during flu season, saving lives. Companies like Gyant, Medopad, and Chonisense Medical are utilizing current AI technologies to seem after the elderly and chronic patients.

6. Your home will become more environmentally friendly
As humans, there’s no denying it; we will be wasteful, especially in our homes. However, having more control and knowledge of our waste and energy consumption could help us become more environmentally friendly, saving you money within the long-term. Though already available in some places across the planet, with products to get, AI energy-saving systems have yet to be fully adopted.

7. Your home is going to be ready to fix itself

The idea isn’t too far away. And, let’s agree home projects aren’t always the foremost exciting. Even more so, when something breaks in your home, you would like to repair it as soon as possible. a bit like a sensible medical device, homes are going to be ready to run self-diagnostics predicting potential issues before they occur, contacting the acceptable repairman, who may very well be a robot.

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Orlo  Gottlieb

Orlo Gottlieb

1617703980

How Artificial Intelligence Is Reshaping the IT Industry

Artificial Intelligence has powerfully penetrated the way we live. It doesn’t only change the way we work but also reshaped how we used to live. Speaking of AI, it is one of the most interesting technologies that we’ve ever encountered.

Without a doubt, AI is contributing a lot in boosting business and IT productivity. Therefore, in this blog, I will highlight important insights on how AI is reshaping IT. Before digging deeper into details, let’s start with some basics on AI and how it works.

#learn-artificial-intelligence #iot-and-artificial-intelligence #artificial-intelligence-trends #artificial-intelligence-danger #machine-learning #deep-learning

Artificial Intelligence Development Company | AI App Development Solutions

Artificial Intelligence Development Company

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