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To become an Outstanding AngularJs Developer - part 1

1. Tutorial

AngularJS is a very powerful JavaScript Framework. It is used in Single Page Application (SPA) projects. It extends HTML DOM with additional attributes and makes it more responsive to user actions. AngularJS is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world. It is licensed under the Apache license version 2.0.

Audience

This tutorial is designed for software professionals who want to learn the basics of AngularJS and its programming concepts in simple and easy steps. It describes the components of AngularJS with suitable examples.

Prerequisites

You should have a basic understanding of JavaScript and any text editor. As we are going to develop web-based applications using AngularJS, it will be good if you have an understanding of other web technologies such as HTML, CSS, AJAX, etc.

2. Overview

AngularJS is an open-source web application framework. It was originally developed in 2009 by Misko Hevery and Adam Abrons. It is now maintained by Google. Its latest version is 1.2.21.

Definition of AngularJS as put by its official documentation is as follows −

AngularJS is a structural framework for dynamic web applications. It lets you use HTML as your template language and lets you extend HTML's syntax to express your application components clearly and succinctly. Its data binding and dependency injection eliminate much of the code you currently have to write. And it all happens within the browser, making it an ideal partner with any server technology.

General Features

The general features of AngularJS are as follows −

  • AngularJS is a efficient framework that can create Rich Internet Applications (RIA).
  • AngularJS provides developers an options to write client side applications using JavaScript in a clean Model View Controller (MVC) way.
  • Applications written in AngularJS are cross-browser compliant. AngularJS automatically handles JavaScript code suitable for each browser.
  • AngularJS is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world. It is licensed under the Apache license version 2.0.

Overall, AngularJS is a framework to build large scale, high-performance, and easyto-maintain web applications.

Core Features

The core features of AngularJS are as follows −

  • Data-binding − It is the automatic synchronization of data between model and view components.
  • Scope − These are objects that refer to the model. They act as a glue between controller and view.
  • Controller − These are JavaScript functions bound to a particular scope.
  • Services − AngularJS comes with several built-in services such as $http to make a XMLHttpRequests. These are singleton objects which are instantiated only once in app.
  • Filters − These select a subset of items from an array and returns a new array.
  • Directives − Directives are markers on DOM elements such as elements, attributes, css, and more. These can be used to create custom HTML tags that serve as new, custom widgets. AngularJS has built-in directives such as ngBind, ngModel, etc.
  • Templates − These are the rendered view with information from the controller and model. These can be a single file (such as index.html) or multiple views in one page using partials.
  • Routing − It is concept of switching views.
  • Model View Whatever − MVW is a design pattern for dividing an application into different parts called Model, View, and Controller, each with distinct responsibilities. AngularJS does not implement MVC in the traditional sense, but rather something closer to MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel). The Angular JS team refers it humorously as Model View Whatever.
  • Deep Linking − Deep linking allows to encode the state of application in the URL so that it can be bookmarked. The application can then be restored from the URL to the same state.
  • Dependency Injection − AngularJS has a built-in dependency injection subsystem that helps the developer to create, understand, and test the applications easily.

Concepts

The following diagram depicts some important parts of AngularJS which we will discuss in detail in the subsequent chapters.

Advantages of AngularJS

The advantages of AngularJS are −

  • It provides the capability to create Single Page Application in a very clean and maintainable way.
  • It provides data binding capability to HTML. Thus, it gives user a rich and responsive experience.
  • AngularJS code is unit testable.
  • AngularJS uses dependency injection and make use of separation of concerns.
  • AngularJS provides reusable components.
  • With AngularJS, the developers can achieve more functionality with short code.
  • In AngularJS, views are pure html pages, and controllers written in JavaScript do the business processing.

On the top of everything, AngularJS applications can run on all major browsers and smart phones, including Android and iOS based phones/tablets.

Disadvantages of AngularJS

Though AngularJS comes with a lot of merits, here are some points of concern −

  • Not Secure − Being JavaScript only framework, application written in AngularJS are not safe. Server side authentication and authorization is must to keep an application secure.
  • Not degradable − If the user of your application disables JavaScript, then nothing would be visible, except the basic page.

AngularJS Directives

The AngularJS framework can be divided into three major parts −

  • ng-app − This directive defines and links an AngularJS application to HTML.
  • ng-model − This directive binds the values of AngularJS application data to HTML input controls.
  • ng-bind − This directive binds the AngularJS application data to HTML tags.

3. Environment Setup

This chapter describes how to set up AngularJS library to be used in web application development. It also briefly describes the directory structure and its contents.

When you open the link https://angularjs.org/, you will see there are two options to download AngularJS library −

  • View on GitHub − By clicking on this button, you are diverted to GitHub and get all the latest scripts.
  • Download AngularJS 1 − By clicking on this button, a screen you get to see a dialog box shown as −

This screen gives various options of using Angular JS as follows −

  • Downloading and hosting files locally
  • There are two different options : Legacy and Latest. The names themselves are self-descriptive. The Legacy has version less than 1.2.x and the Latest come with version 1.3.x.
  • We can also go with the minimized, uncompressed, or zipped version.
  • CDN access − You also have access to a CDN. The CDN gives you access to regional data centers. In this case, the Google host. The CDN transfers the responsibility of hosting files from your own servers to a series of external ones. It also offers an advantage that if the visitor of your web page has already downloaded a copy of AngularJS from the same CDN, there is no need to re-download it.
We are using the CDN versions of the library throughout this tutorial.

Example

Now let us write a simple example using AngularJS library. Let us create an HTML file myfirstexample.html shown as below −

<!doctype html>
<html>
   <head>
      <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.5.2/angular.min.js"></script>
   </head>

<body ng-app = “myapp”>
<div ng-controller = “HelloController” >
<h2>Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!</h2>
</div>

  &lt;script&gt;
     angular.module("myapp", [])
     
     .controller("HelloController", function($scope) {
        $scope.helloTo = {};
        $scope.helloTo.title = "AngularJS";
     });
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Let us go through the above code in detail −

Include AngularJS

We include the AngularJS JavaScript file in the HTML page so that we can use it −

<head>
<script src = “https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular.min.js”>
</script>
</head>

You can check the latest version of AngularJS on its official website.

Point to AngularJS app

Next, it is required to tell which part of HTML contains the AngularJS app. You can do this by adding the ng-app attribute to the root HTML element of the AngularJS app. You can either add it to the html element or the body element as shown below −

<body ng-app = “myapp”>
</body>

View

The view is this part −

<div ng-controller = “HelloController” >
<h2>Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!</h2>
</div>

ng-controller tells AngularJS which controller to use with this view. helloTo.title tells AngularJS to write the model value named helloTo.title in HTML at this location.

Controller

The controller part is −

<script>
angular.module(“myapp”, [])

.controller(“HelloController”, function($scope) {
$scope.helloTo = {};
$scope.helloTo.title = “AngularJS”;
});
</script>

This code registers a controller function named HelloController in the angular module named myapp. We will study more about modules and controllers in their respective chapters. The controller function is registered in angular via the angular.module(…).controller(…) function call.

The $scope parameter model is passed to the controller function. The controller function adds a helloTo JavaScript object, and in that object it adds a title field.

Execution

Save the above code as myfirstexample.html and open it in any browser. You get to see the following output −

Welcome AngularJS to the world of Tutorialspoint!

What happens when the page is loaded in the browser ? Let us see −

  • HTML document is loaded into the browser, and evaluated by the browser.
  • AngularJS JavaScript file is loaded, the angular global object is created.
  • The JavaScript which registers controller functions is executed.
  • Next, AngularJS scans through the HTML to search for AngularJS apps as well as views.
  • Once the view is located, it connects that view to the corresponding controller function.
  • Next, AngularJS executes the controller functions.
  • It then renders the views with data from the model populated by the controller. The page is now ready.

4. MVC Architecture

Model View Controller or MVC as it is popularly called, is a software design pattern for developing web applications. A Model View Controller pattern is made up of the following three parts −

  • Model − It is the lowest level of the pattern responsible for maintaining data.
  • View − It is responsible for displaying all or a portion of the data to the user.
  • Controller − It is a software Code that controls the interactions between the Model and View.

MVC is popular because it isolates the application logic from the user interface layer and supports separation of concerns. The controller receives all requests for the application and then works with the model to prepare any data needed by the view. The view then uses the data prepared by the controller to generate a final presentable response. The MVC abstraction can be graphically represented as follows.

The Model

The model is responsible for managing application data. It responds to the request from view and to the instructions from controller to update itself.

The View

A presentation of data in a particular format, triggered by the controller’s decision to present the data. They are script-based template systems such as JSP, ASP, PHP and very easy to integrate with AJAX technology.

The Controller

The controller responds to user input and performs interactions on the data model objects. The controller receives input, validates it, and then performs business operations that modify the state of the data model.

AngularJS is a MVC based framework. In the coming chapters, we will see how AngularJS uses MVC methodology.

5. First Application

Before creating actual Hello World ! application using AngularJS, let us see the parts of a AngularJS application. An AngularJS application consists of following three important parts −

  • ng-app − This directive defines and links an AngularJS application to HTML.
  • ng-model − This directive binds the values of AngularJS application data to HTML input controls.
  • ng-bind − This directive binds the AngularJS Application data to HTML tags.

Creating AngularJS Application

Step 1: Load framework

Being a pure JavaScript framework, it can be added using <Script> tag.

<script
src = “https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js”>
</script>

Step 2: Define AngularJS application using ng-app directive

<div ng-app = “”>

</div>

Step 3: Define a model name using ng-model directive

<p>Enter your Name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “name”></p>

Step 4: Bind the value of above model defined using ng-bind directive

<p>Hello <span ng-bind = “name”></span>!</p>

Executing AngularJS Application

Use the above-mentioned three steps in an HTML page.

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>AngularJS First Application</title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>Sample Application</h1>

  &lt;div ng-app = ""&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Enter your Name: &lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "name"&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Hello &lt;span ng-bind = "name"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;!&lt;/p&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"&gt;
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. Enter your name and see the result.

How AngularJS Integrates with HTML

  • The ng-app directive indicates the start of AngularJS application.
  • The ng-model directive creates a model variable named name, which can be used with the HTML page and within the div having ng-app directive.
  • The ng-bind then uses the name model to be displayed in the HTML <span> tag whenever user enters input in the text box.
  • Closing</div> tag indicates the end of AngularJS application.

6. Directives

AngularJS directives are used to extend HTML. They are special attributes starting with ng-prefix. Let us discuss the following directives −

  • ng-app − This directive starts an AngularJS Application.
  • ng-init − This directive initializes application data.
  • ng-model − This directive defines the model that is variable to be used in AngularJS.
  • ng-repeat − This directive repeats HTML elements for each item in a collection.

ng-app directive

The ng-app directive starts an AngularJS Application. It defines the root element. It automatically initializes or bootstraps the application when the web page containing AngularJS Application is loaded. It is also used to load various AngularJS modules in AngularJS Application. In the following example, we define a default AngularJS application using ng-app attribute of a <div> element.

<div ng-app = “”>

</div>

ng-init directive

The ng-init directive initializes an AngularJS Application data. It is used to assign values to the variables. In the following example, we initialize an array of countries. We use JSON syntax to define the array of countries.

<div ng-app = “” ng-init = “countries = [{locale:‘en-US’,name:‘United States’},
{locale:‘en-GB’,name:‘United Kingdom’}, {locale:‘en-FR’,name:‘France’}]”>

</div>

ng-model directive

The ng-model directive defines the model/variable to be used in AngularJS Application. In the following example, we define a model named name.

<div ng-app = “”>

<p>Enter your Name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “name”></p>
</div>

ng-repeat directive

The ng-repeat directive repeats HTML elements for each item in a collection. In the following example, we iterate over the array of countries.

<div ng-app = “”>

<p>List of Countries with locale:</p>

<ol>
<li ng-repeat = “country in countries”>
{{ 'Country: ’ + country.name + ', Locale: ’ + country.locale }}
</li>
</ol>
</div>

Example

The following example shows the use of all the above-mentioned directives.

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>AngularJS Directives</title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>Sample Application</h1>

  &lt;div ng-app = "" ng-init = "countries = [{locale:'en-US',name:'United States'}, 
     {locale:'en-GB',name:'United Kingdom'}, {locale:'en-FR',name:'France'}]"&gt; 
     &lt;p&gt;Enter your Name: &lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "name"&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Hello &lt;span ng-bind = "name"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;!&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;List of Countries with locale:&lt;/p&gt;
  
     &lt;ol&gt;
        &lt;li ng-repeat = "country in countries"&gt;
           {{ 'Country: ' + country.name + ', Locale: ' + country.locale }}
        &lt;/li&gt;
     &lt;/ol&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"&gt;
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. Enter your name and see the result.

7. Expressions

Expressions are used to bind application data to HTML. Expressions are written inside double curly braces such as in {{ expression}}. Expressions behave similar to ngbind directives. AngularJS expressions are pure JavaScript expressions and output the data where they are used.

Using numbers

<p>Expense on Books : {{cost * quantity}} Rs</p>

Using Strings

<p>Hello {{student.firstname + " " + student.lastname}}!</p>

Using Object

<p>Roll No: {{student.rollno}}</p>

Using Array

<p>Marks(Math): {{marks[3]}}</p>

Example

The following example shows the use of all the above-mentioned expressions −

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>AngularJS Expressions</title>
</head>

<body>
<h1>Sample Application</h1>

  &lt;div ng-app = "" ng-init = "quantity = 1;cost = 30; 
     student = {firstname:'Mahesh',lastname:'Parashar',rollno:101};
     marks = [80,90,75,73,60]"&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Hello {{student.firstname + " " + student.lastname}}!&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Expense on Books : {{cost * quantity}} Rs&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Roll No: {{student.rollno}}&lt;/p&gt;
     &lt;p&gt;Marks(Math): {{marks[3]}}&lt;/p&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"&gt;
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result.






8. Controllers

AngularJS application mainly relies on controllers to control the flow of data in the application. A controller is defined using ng-controller directive. A controller is a JavaScript object that contains attributes/properties, and functions. Each controller accepts $scope as a parameter, which refers to the application/module that the controller needs to handle.

<div ng-app = “” ng-controller = “studentController”>

</div>

Here, we declare a controller named studentController, using the ng-controller directive. We define it as follows −

<script>
function studentController($scope) {
$scope.student = {
firstName: “Mahesh”,
lastName: “Parashar”,

     fullName: function() {
        var studentObject;
        studentObject = $scope.student;
        return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName;
     }
  };

}
</script>

  • The studentController is defined as a JavaScript object with $scope as an argument.
  • The $scope refers to application which uses the studentController object.
  • The $scope.student is a property of studentController object.
  • The firstName and the lastName are two properties of $scope.student object. We pass the default values to them.
  • The property fullName is the function of $scope.student object, which returns the combined name.
  • In the fullName function, we get the student object and then return the combined name.
  • As a note, we can also define the controller object in a separate JS file and refer that file in the HTML page.

Now we can use studentController’s student property using ng-model or using expressions as follows −

Enter first name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “student.firstName”><br>
Enter last name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “student.lastName”><br>
<br>
You are entering: {{student.fullName()}}
  • We bound student.firstName and student.lastname to two input boxes.
  • We bound student.fullName() to HTML.
  • Now whenever you type anything in first name and last name input boxes, you can see the full name getting updated automatically.

Example

The following example shows the use of controller −

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>Angular JS Controller</title>
<script src = “https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js”>
</script>
</head>

<body>
<h2>AngularJS Sample Application</h2>

  &lt;div ng-app = "mainApp" ng-controller = "studentController"&gt;
     Enter first name: &lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.firstName"&gt;&lt;br&gt;
     &lt;br&gt;
     Enter last name: &lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.lastName"&gt;&lt;br&gt;
     &lt;br&gt;
     You are entering: {{student.fullName()}}
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script&gt;
     var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []);
     
     mainApp.controller('studentController', function($scope) {
        $scope.student = {
           firstName: "Mahesh",
           lastName: "Parashar",
           
           fullName: function() {
              var studentObject;
              studentObject = $scope.student;
              return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName;
           }
        };
     });
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result.

9. Filters

Filters are used to modify the data. They can be clubbed in expression or directives using pipe (|) character. The following list shows the commonly used filters.

Uppercase Filter

Add uppercase filter to an expression using pipe character. Here we’ve added uppercase filter to print student name in all capital letters.

Enter first name:<input type = “text” ng-model = “student.firstName”>
Enter last name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “student.lastName”>
Name in Upper Case: {{student.fullName() | uppercase}}

Lowercase Filter

Add lowercase filter to an expression using pipe character. Here we’ve added lowercase filter to print student name in all lowercase letters.

Enter first name:<input type = “text” ng-model = “student.firstName”>
Enter last name: <input type = “text” ng-model = “student.lastName”>
Name in Lower Case: {{student.fullName() | lowercase}}

Currency Filter

Add currency filter to an expression returning number using pipe character. Here we’ve added currency filter to print fees using currency format.

Enter fees: <input type = “text” ng-model = “student.fees”>
fees: {{student.fees | currency}}

Filter

To display only required subjects, we use subjectName as filter.

Enter subject: <input type = “text” ng-model = “subjectName”>
Subject:
<ul>
<li ng-repeat = “subject in student.subjects | filter: subjectName”>
{{ subject.name + ‘, marks:’ + subject.marks }}
</li>
</ul>

OrderBy Filter

To order subjects by marks, we use orderBy marks.

Subject:
<ul>
<li ng-repeat = “subject in student.subjects | orderBy:‘marks’”>
{{ subject.name + ‘, marks:’ + subject.marks }}
</li>
</ul>

Example

The following example shows use of all the above mentioned filters.

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>Angular JS Filters</title>
<script src = “https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js”>
</script>
</head>

<body>
<h2>AngularJS Sample Application</h2>

  &lt;div ng-app = "mainApp" ng-controller = "studentController"&gt;
     &lt;table border = "0"&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter first name:&lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;&lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.firstName"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter last name: &lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;&lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.lastName"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter fees: &lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;&lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.fees"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter subject: &lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;&lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "subjectName"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
     &lt;/table&gt;
     &lt;br/&gt;
     
     &lt;table border = "0"&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Name in Upper Case: &lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{{student.fullName() | uppercase}}&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Name in Lower Case: &lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{{student.fullName() | lowercase}}&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;fees: &lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{{student.fees | currency}}
           &lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Subject:&lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;
              &lt;ul&gt;
                 &lt;li ng-repeat = "subject in student.subjects | filter: subjectName |orderBy:'marks'"&gt;
                    {{ subject.name + ', marks:' + subject.marks }}
                 &lt;/li&gt;
              &lt;/ul&gt;
           &lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
     &lt;/table&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script&gt;
     var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []);
     
     mainApp.controller('studentController', function($scope) {
        $scope.student = {
           firstName: "Mahesh",
           lastName: "Parashar",
           fees:500,
           
           subjects:[
              {name:'Physics',marks:70},
              {name:'Chemistry',marks:80},
              {name:'Math',marks:65}
           ],
           fullName: function() {
              var studentObject;
              studentObject = $scope.student;
              return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName;
           }
        };
     });
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. See the result.

10. Tables

Table data is generally repeatable. The ng-repeat directive can be used to draw table easily. The following example shows the use of ng-repeat directive to draw a table −

<table>
<tr>
<th>Name</th>
<th>Marks</th>
</tr>

<tr ng-repeat = “subject in student.subjects”>
<td>{{ subject.name }}</td>
<td>{{ subject.marks }}</td>
</tr>
</table>

Table can be styled using CSS Styling.

<style>
table, th , td {
border: 1px solid grey;
border-collapse: collapse;
padding: 5px;
}
table tr:nth-child(odd) {
background-color: #f2f2f2;
}
table tr:nth-child(even) {
background-color: #ffffff;
}
</style>

Example

The following example shows the use of all the above-mentioned directives.

testAngularJS.htm

<html>
<head>
<title>Angular JS Table</title>
<script src = “https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js”></script>

  &lt;style&gt;
     table, th , td {
        border: 1px solid grey;
        border-collapse: collapse;
        padding: 5px;
     }
     table tr:nth-child(odd) {
        background-color: #f2f2f2;
     }
     table tr:nth-child(even) {
        background-color: #ffffff;
     }
  &lt;/style&gt;

</head>

<body>
<h2>AngularJS Sample Application</h2>
<div ng-app = “mainApp” ng-controller = “studentController”>

     &lt;table border = "0"&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter first name:&lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;&lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.firstName"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Enter last name: &lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;
              &lt;input type = "text" ng-model = "student.lastName"&gt;
           &lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Name: &lt;/td&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;{{student.fullName()}}&lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
        &lt;tr&gt;
           &lt;td&gt;Subject:&lt;/td&gt;
           
           &lt;td&gt;
              &lt;table&gt;
                 &lt;tr&gt;
                    &lt;th&gt;Name&lt;/th&gt;.
                    &lt;th&gt;Marks&lt;/th&gt;
                 &lt;/tr&gt;
                 &lt;tr ng-repeat = "subject in student.subjects"&gt;
                    &lt;td&gt;{{ subject.name }}&lt;/td&gt;
                    &lt;td&gt;{{ subject.marks }}&lt;/td&gt;
                 &lt;/tr&gt;
              &lt;/table&gt;
           &lt;/td&gt;
        &lt;/tr&gt;
     &lt;/table&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
  
  &lt;script&gt;
     var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []);
     
     mainApp.controller('studentController', function($scope) {
        $scope.student = {
           firstName: "Mahesh",
           lastName: "Parashar",
           fees:500,
           
           subjects:[
              {name:'Physics',marks:70},
              {name:'Chemistry',marks:80},
              {name:'Math',marks:65},
              {name:'English',marks:75},
              {name:'Hindi',marks:67}
           ],
           fullName: function() {
              var studentObject;
              studentObject = $scope.student;
              return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName;
           }
        };
     });
  &lt;/script&gt;

</body>
</html>

Output

Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result.

Thanks For Visiting, Keep Visiting.

continue…

#angular-js #angular #web-development #devops

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

To become an Outstanding AngularJs Developer - part 1
Veronica  Roob

Veronica Roob

1653475560

A Pure PHP Implementation Of The MessagePack Serialization Format

msgpack.php

A pure PHP implementation of the MessagePack serialization format.

Features

Installation

The recommended way to install the library is through Composer:

composer require rybakit/msgpack

Usage

Packing

To pack values you can either use an instance of a Packer:

$packer = new Packer();
$packed = $packer->pack($value);

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$packed = MessagePack::pack($value);

In the examples above, the method pack automatically packs a value depending on its type. However, not all PHP types can be uniquely translated to MessagePack types. For example, the MessagePack format defines map and array types, which are represented by a single array type in PHP. By default, the packer will pack a PHP array as a MessagePack array if it has sequential numeric keys, starting from 0 and as a MessagePack map otherwise:

$mpArr1 = $packer->pack([1, 2]);               // MP array [1, 2]
$mpArr2 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 1 => 2]);     // MP array [1, 2]
$mpMap1 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {0: 1, 2: 3}
$mpMap2 = $packer->pack([1 => 2, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {1: 2, 2: 3}
$mpMap3 = $packer->pack(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // MP map {a: 1, b: 2}

However, sometimes you need to pack a sequential array as a MessagePack map. To do this, use the packMap method:

$mpMap = $packer->packMap([1, 2]); // {0: 1, 1: 2}

Here is a list of type-specific packing methods:

$packer->packNil();           // MP nil
$packer->packBool(true);      // MP bool
$packer->packInt(42);         // MP int
$packer->packFloat(M_PI);     // MP float (32 or 64)
$packer->packFloat32(M_PI);   // MP float 32
$packer->packFloat64(M_PI);   // MP float 64
$packer->packStr('foo');      // MP str
$packer->packBin("\x80");     // MP bin
$packer->packArray([1, 2]);   // MP array
$packer->packMap(['a' => 1]); // MP map
$packer->packExt(1, "\xaa");  // MP ext

Check the "Custom types" section below on how to pack custom types.

Packing options

The Packer object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the packing process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
FORCE_STRForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack UTF-8 strings
FORCE_BINForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack binary data
DETECT_STR_BINDetects MessagePack str/bin type automatically
  
FORCE_ARRForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack arrays
FORCE_MAPForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack maps
DETECT_ARR_MAPDetects MessagePack array/map type automatically
  
FORCE_FLOAT32Forces PHP floats to be packed as 32-bits MessagePack floats
FORCE_FLOAT64Forces PHP floats to be packed as 64-bits MessagePack floats

The type detection mode (DETECT_STR_BIN/DETECT_ARR_MAP) adds some overhead which can be noticed when you pack large (16- and 32-bit) arrays or strings. However, if you know the value type in advance (for example, you only work with UTF-8 strings or/and associative arrays), you can eliminate this overhead by forcing the packer to use the appropriate type, which will save it from running the auto-detection routine. Another option is to explicitly specify the value type. The library provides 2 auxiliary classes for this, Map and Bin. Check the "Custom types" section below for details.

Examples:

// detect str/bin type and pack PHP 64-bit floats (doubles) to MP 32-bit floats
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::DETECT_STR_BIN | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32);

// these will throw MessagePack\Exception\InvalidOptionException
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_STR | PackOptions::FORCE_BIN);
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32 | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT64);

Unpacking

To unpack data you can either use an instance of a BufferUnpacker:

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();

$unpacker->reset($packed);
$value = $unpacker->unpack();

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$value = MessagePack::unpack($packed);

If the packed data is received in chunks (e.g. when reading from a stream), use the tryUnpack method, which attempts to unpack data and returns an array of unpacked messages (if any) instead of throwing an InsufficientDataException:

while ($chunk = ...) {
    $unpacker->append($chunk);
    if ($messages = $unpacker->tryUnpack()) {
        return $messages;
    }
}

If you want to unpack from a specific position in a buffer, use seek:

$unpacker->seek(42); // set position equal to 42 bytes
$unpacker->seek(-8); // set position to 8 bytes before the end of the buffer

To skip bytes from the current position, use skip:

$unpacker->skip(10); // set position to 10 bytes ahead of the current position

To get the number of remaining (unread) bytes in the buffer:

$unreadBytesCount = $unpacker->getRemainingCount();

To check whether the buffer has unread data:

$hasUnreadBytes = $unpacker->hasRemaining();

If needed, you can remove already read data from the buffer by calling:

$releasedBytesCount = $unpacker->release();

With the read method you can read raw (packed) data:

$packedData = $unpacker->read(2); // read 2 bytes

Besides the above methods BufferUnpacker provides type-specific unpacking methods, namely:

$unpacker->unpackNil();   // PHP null
$unpacker->unpackBool();  // PHP bool
$unpacker->unpackInt();   // PHP int
$unpacker->unpackFloat(); // PHP float
$unpacker->unpackStr();   // PHP UTF-8 string
$unpacker->unpackBin();   // PHP binary string
$unpacker->unpackArray(); // PHP sequential array
$unpacker->unpackMap();   // PHP associative array
$unpacker->unpackExt();   // PHP MessagePack\Type\Ext object

Unpacking options

The BufferUnpacker object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the unpacking process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
BIGINT_AS_STRConverts overflowed integers to strings [1]
BIGINT_AS_GMPConverts overflowed integers to GMP objects [2]
BIGINT_AS_DECConverts overflowed integers to Decimal\Decimal objects [3]

1. The binary MessagePack format has unsigned 64-bit as its largest integer data type, but PHP does not support such integers, which means that an overflow can occur during unpacking.

2. Make sure the GMP extension is enabled.

3. Make sure the Decimal extension is enabled.

Examples:

$packedUint64 = "\xcf"."\xff\xff\xff\xff"."\xff\xff\xff\xff";

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // string(20) "18446744073709551615"

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_GMP);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(GMP) {...}

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_DEC);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(Decimal\Decimal) {...}

Custom types

In addition to the basic types, the library provides functionality to serialize and deserialize arbitrary types. This can be done in several ways, depending on your use case. Let's take a look at them.

Type objects

If you need to serialize an instance of one of your classes into one of the basic MessagePack types, the best way to do this is to implement the CanBePacked interface in the class. A good example of such a class is the Map type class that comes with the library. This type is useful when you want to explicitly specify that a given PHP array should be packed as a MessagePack map without triggering an automatic type detection routine:

$packer = new Packer();

$packedMap = $packer->pack(new Map([1, 2, 3]));
$packedArray = $packer->pack([1, 2, 3]);

More type examples can be found in the src/Type directory.

Type transformers

As with type objects, type transformers are only responsible for serializing values. They should be used when you need to serialize a value that does not implement the CanBePacked interface. Examples of such values could be instances of built-in or third-party classes that you don't own, or non-objects such as resources.

A transformer class must implement the CanPack interface. To use a transformer, it must first be registered in the packer. Here is an example of how to serialize PHP streams into the MessagePack bin format type using one of the supplied transformers, StreamTransformer:

$packer = new Packer(null, [new StreamTransformer()]);

$packedBin = $packer->pack(fopen('/path/to/file', 'r+'));

More type transformer examples can be found in the src/TypeTransformer directory.

Extensions

In contrast to the cases described above, extensions are intended to handle extension types and are responsible for both serialization and deserialization of values (types).

An extension class must implement the Extension interface. To use an extension, it must first be registered in the packer and the unpacker.

The MessagePack specification divides extension types into two groups: predefined and application-specific. Currently, there is only one predefined type in the specification, Timestamp.

Timestamp

The Timestamp extension type is a predefined type. Support for this type in the library is done through the TimestampExtension class. This class is responsible for handling Timestamp objects, which represent the number of seconds and optional adjustment in nanoseconds:

$timestampExtension = new TimestampExtension();

$packer = new Packer();
$packer = $packer->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();
$unpacker = $unpacker->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$packedTimestamp = $packer->pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = $unpacker->reset($packedTimestamp)->unpack();

$seconds = $timestamp->getSeconds();
$nanoseconds = $timestamp->getNanoseconds();

When using the MessagePack class, the Timestamp extension is already registered:

$packedTimestamp = MessagePack::pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = MessagePack::unpack($packedTimestamp);

Application-specific extensions

In addition, the format can be extended with your own types. For example, to make the built-in PHP DateTime objects first-class citizens in your code, you can create a corresponding extension, as shown in the example. Please note, that custom extensions have to be registered with a unique extension ID (an integer from 0 to 127).

More extension examples can be found in the examples/MessagePack directory.

To learn more about how extension types can be useful, check out this article.

Exceptions

If an error occurs during packing/unpacking, a PackingFailedException or an UnpackingFailedException will be thrown, respectively. In addition, an InsufficientDataException can be thrown during unpacking.

An InvalidOptionException will be thrown in case an invalid option (or a combination of mutually exclusive options) is used.

Tests

Run tests as follows:

vendor/bin/phpunit

Also, if you already have Docker installed, you can run the tests in a docker container. First, create a container:

./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

The command above will create a container named msgpack with PHP 8.1 runtime. You may change the default runtime by defining the PHP_IMAGE environment variable:

PHP_IMAGE='php:8.0-cli' ./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

See a list of various images here.

Then run the unit tests:

docker run --rm -v $PWD:/msgpack -w /msgpack msgpack

Fuzzing

To ensure that the unpacking works correctly with malformed/semi-malformed data, you can use a testing technique called Fuzzing. The library ships with a help file (target) for PHP-Fuzzer and can be used as follows:

php-fuzzer fuzz tests/fuzz_buffer_unpacker.php

Performance

To check performance, run:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0030 ........ 0.0139
false ................ 0.0037 ........ 0.0144
true ................. 0.0040 ........ 0.0137
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0052 ........ 0.0120
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0059 ........ 0.0114
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0119
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0126
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0064 ........ 0.0132
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0135
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0078 ........ 0.0200
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0212
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0203
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0111 ........ 0.0271
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0115 ........ 0.0260
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0103 ........ 0.0273
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0116 ........ 0.0326
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0118 ........ 0.0332
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0325
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0140 ........ 0.0277
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0294
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0086 ........ 0.0241
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0089 ........ 0.0225
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0085 ........ 0.0229
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0280
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0121 ........ 0.0270
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0109 ........ 0.0274
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0128 ........ 0.0346
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0339
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0135 ........ 0.0368
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0138 ........ 0.0276
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0132 ........ 0.0286
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0274
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0180 ........ 0.0285
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0284
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0275
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0283
fix string #1 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0133
fix string #2 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0216
fix string #3 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0222
fix string #4 ........ 0.0091 ........ 0.0241
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0122 ........ 0.0301
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0118 ........ 0.0304
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0119 ........ 0.0315
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0150 ........ 0.0388
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1545 ........ 0.1665
32-bit string ........ 0.1570 ........ 0.1756
wide char string #1 .. 0.0091 ........ 0.0236
wide char string #2 .. 0.0122 ........ 0.0313
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0100 ........ 0.0302
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0123 ........ 0.0324
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0327
16-bit binary ........ 0.0168 ........ 0.0372
32-bit binary ........ 0.1588 ........ 0.1754
fix array #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0131
fix array #2 ......... 0.0294 ........ 0.0367
fix array #3 ......... 0.0412 ........ 0.0472
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1378 ........ 0.1596
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.1865 ........ 0.2283
fix map #1 ........... 0.0725 ........ 0.1048
fix map #2 ........... 0.0319 ........ 0.0405
fix map #3 ........... 0.0356 ........ 0.0665
fix map #4 ........... 0.0465 ........ 0.0497
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2540 ........ 0.3028
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2372 ........ 0.2710
fixext 1 ............. 0.0283 ........ 0.0358
fixext 2 ............. 0.0291 ........ 0.0371
fixext 4 ............. 0.0302 ........ 0.0355
fixext 8 ............. 0.0288 ........ 0.0384
fixext 16 ............ 0.0293 ........ 0.0359
8-bit ext ............ 0.0302 ........ 0.0439
16-bit ext ........... 0.0334 ........ 0.0499
32-bit ext ........... 0.1845 ........ 0.1888
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0337 ........ 0.0547
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0335 ........ 0.0560
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0371 ........ 0.0575
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0374 ........ 0.0542
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0356 ........ 0.0533
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0362 ........ 0.0699
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0381 ........ 0.0701
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0367 ........ 0.0687
=============================================
Total                  2.7618          4.0820
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

With JIT:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0005 ........ 0.0054
false ................ 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
true ................. 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0047
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0025 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0023 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0024 ........ 0.0045
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0081
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0079
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0041 ........ 0.0080
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0095
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0091
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0094
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0114
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0122
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0120
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0159
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0157
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0158
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0081
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0095
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0090
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0056 ........ 0.0085
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0107
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0106
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0104
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0162
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0073 ........ 0.0174
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0164
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0161
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0135
fix string #1 ....... -0.0002 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0067
fix string #3 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0077
fix string #4 ........ 0.0033 ........ 0.0078
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0110
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0121
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0124
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0099 ........ 0.0146
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1522 ........ 0.1474
32-bit string ........ 0.1511 ........ 0.1483
wide char string #1 .. 0.0039 ........ 0.0084
wide char string #2 .. 0.0073 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0112
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0077 ........ 0.0129
16-bit binary ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0145
32-bit binary ........ 0.1535 ........ 0.1479
fix array #1 ......... 0.0008 ........ 0.0061
fix array #2 ......... 0.0121 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0193 ........ 0.0222
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0607 ........ 0.0479
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.0749 ........ 0.0824
fix map #1 ........... 0.0329 ........ 0.0431
fix map #2 ........... 0.0161 ........ 0.0189
fix map #3 ........... 0.0205 ........ 0.0262
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0205
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1016 ........ 0.0927
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1096 ........ 0.1030
fixext 1 ............. 0.0157 ........ 0.0161
fixext 2 ............. 0.0175 ........ 0.0183
fixext 4 ............. 0.0156 ........ 0.0185
fixext 8 ............. 0.0163 ........ 0.0184
fixext 16 ............ 0.0164 ........ 0.0182
8-bit ext ............ 0.0158 ........ 0.0207
16-bit ext ........... 0.0203 ........ 0.0219
32-bit ext ........... 0.1614 ........ 0.1539
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0195 ........ 0.0249
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0188 ........ 0.0260
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0281
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0212 ........ 0.0291
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0295
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0222 ........ 0.0358
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0228 ........ 0.0353
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0210 ........ 0.0319
=============================================
Total                  1.6432          1.9674
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

You may change default benchmark settings by defining the following environment variables:

NameDefault
MP_BENCH_TARGETSpure_p,pure_u, see a list of available targets
MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS100_000
MP_BENCH_DURATIONnot set
MP_BENCH_ROUNDS3
MP_BENCH_TESTS-@slow, see a list of available tests

For example:

export MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p
export MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS=1000000
export MP_BENCH_ROUNDS=5
# a comma separated list of test names
export MP_BENCH_TESTS='complex array, complex map'
# or a group name
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='-@slow' // @pecl_comp
# or a regexp
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='/complex (array|map)/'

Another example, benchmarking both the library and the PECL extension:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0031 ........ 0.0141 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0064
false ................ 0.0039 ........ 0.0154 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0053
true ................. 0.0038 ........ 0.0139 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0110 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0029
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0045 ........ 0.0025
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0047 ........ 0.0103 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0046 ........ 0.0102 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0023
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0174 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0031
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0167 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0029
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0168 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0092 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0049 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0227 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0046
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0123 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0051
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0136 ........ 0.0331 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0130 ........ 0.0336 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0329 ...... 0.0051 ........ 0.0048
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0126 ........ 0.0268 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0135 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0046
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0131 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0077 ........ 0.0236 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0087 ........ 0.0244 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0048
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0084 ........ 0.0241 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0112 ........ 0.0271 ...... 0.0048 ........ 0.0045
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0124 ........ 0.0292 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0270 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0050
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0051
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0133 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0049
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0129 ........ 0.0350 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0048
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0145 ........ 0.0254 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0214 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0287 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0050
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0143 ........ 0.0277 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0052
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0141 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0144 ........ 0.0282 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
fix string #1 ........ 0.0036 ........ 0.0143 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0053
fix string #2 ........ 0.0107 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0068
fix string #3 ........ 0.0116 ........ 0.0245 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0069
fix string #4 ........ 0.0105 ........ 0.0253 ...... 0.0083 ........ 0.0077
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0318 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0088
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0121 ........ 0.0295 ...... 0.0076 ........ 0.0086
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0293 ...... 0.0130 ........ 0.0093
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0159 ........ 0.0368 ...... 0.0117 ........ 0.0086
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1547 ........ 0.1686 ...... 0.1516 ........ 0.1373
32-bit string ........ 0.1558 ........ 0.1729 ...... 0.1511 ........ 0.1396
wide char string #1 .. 0.0098 ........ 0.0237 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0065
wide char string #2 .. 0.0128 ........ 0.0291 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0082
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0040 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0120 ........ 0.0058
fix array #2 ......... 0.0279 ........ 0.0390 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0415 ........ 0.0463 ...... 0.0162 ........ 0.0187
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1349 ........ 0.1628 ...... 0.0334 ........ 0.0341
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0345 ........ 0.0391 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0168
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0459 ........ 0.0473 ...... 0.0151 ........ 0.0163
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2518 ........ 0.2962 ...... 0.0400 ........ 0.0490
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2380 ........ 0.2682 ...... 0.0545 ........ 0.0579
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  1.5625          2.3866        0.7735          0.7243
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

With JIT:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0001 ........ 0.0052 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0042
false ................ 0.0007 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0043
true ................. 0.0008 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0021 ........ 0.0043 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0022 ........ 0.0044 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0030 ........ 0.0048 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0032 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0050
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0044
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0082 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0095 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0047
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0088 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0039
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0118 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0097 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0095 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0047
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0053 ........ 0.0083 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0089 ........ 0.0097 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0046
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0093 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0122 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0087 ........ 0.0120 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0121 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0149 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0045
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0160 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0046
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0152 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0045
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0044
fix string #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0045 ...... 0.0071 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0075 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0060
fix string #3 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0086 ...... 0.0068 ........ 0.0060
fix string #4 ........ 0.0050 ........ 0.0088 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0059
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0081 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0062
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0128 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0065
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0126 ...... 0.0115 ........ 0.0065
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0105 ........ 0.0137 ...... 0.0128 ........ 0.0068
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1510 ........ 0.1486 ...... 0.1526 ........ 0.1391
32-bit string ........ 0.1517 ........ 0.1475 ...... 0.1504 ........ 0.1370
wide char string #1 .. 0.0044 ........ 0.0085 ...... 0.0067 ........ 0.0057
wide char string #2 .. 0.0081 ........ 0.0125 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0063
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0014 ........ 0.0059 ...... 0.0132 ........ 0.0055
fix array #2 ......... 0.0146 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0155 ........ 0.0148
fix array #3 ......... 0.0211 ........ 0.0229 ...... 0.0179 ........ 0.0180
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0673 ........ 0.0498 ...... 0.0343 ........ 0.0388
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0148 ........ 0.0180 ...... 0.0156 ........ 0.0179
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0201 ...... 0.0214 ........ 0.0167
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1027 ........ 0.0836 ...... 0.0388 ........ 0.0510
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1104 ........ 0.1010 ...... 0.0556 ........ 0.0602
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  0.9642          1.0909        0.8224          0.7213
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

Note that the msgpack extension (v2.1.2) doesn't support ext, bin and UTF-8 str types.

License

The library is released under the MIT License. See the bundled LICENSE file for details.

Author: rybakit
Source Code: https://github.com/rybakit/msgpack.php
License: MIT License

#php 

Treebender: A Symbolic Natural Language Parsing Library for Rust

Treebender

A symbolic natural language parsing library for Rust, inspired by HDPSG.

What is this?

This is a library for parsing natural or constructed languages into syntax trees and feature structures. There's no machine learning or probabilistic models, everything is hand-crafted and deterministic.

You can find out more about the motivations of this project in this blog post.

But what are you using it for?

I'm using this to parse a constructed language for my upcoming xenolinguistics game, Themengi.

Motivation

Using a simple 80-line grammar, introduced in the tutorial below, we can parse a simple subset of English, checking reflexive pronoun binding, case, and number agreement.

$ cargo run --bin cli examples/reflexives.fgr
> she likes himself
Parsed 0 trees

> her likes herself
Parsed 0 trees

> she like herself
Parsed 0 trees

> she likes herself
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: she))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: herself)))
[
  child-2: [
    case: acc
    pron: ref
    needs_pron: #0 she
    num: sg
    child-0: [ word: herself ]
  ]
  child-1: [
    tense: nonpast
    child-0: [ word: likes ]
    num: #1 sg
  ]
  child-0: [
    child-0: [ word: she ]
    case: nom
    pron: #0
    num: #1
  ]
]

Low resource language? Low problem! No need to train on gigabytes of text, just write a grammar using your brain. Let's hypothesize that in American Sign Language, topicalized nouns (expressed with raised eyebrows) must appear first in the sentence. We can write a small grammar (18 lines), and plug in some sentences:

$ cargo run --bin cli examples/asl-wordorder.fgr -n
> boy sit
Parsed 1 tree
(0..2: S
  (0..1: NP ((0..1: N (0..1: boy))))
  (1..2: IV (1..2: sit)))

> boy throw ball
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: NP ((0..1: N (0..1: boy))))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: throw))
  (2..3: NP ((2..3: N (2..3: ball)))))

> ball nm-raised-eyebrows boy throw
Parsed 1 tree
(0..4: S
  (0..2: NP
    (0..1: N (0..1: ball))
    (1..2: Topic (1..2: nm-raised-eyebrows)))
  (2..3: NP ((2..3: N (2..3: boy))))
  (3..4: TV (3..4: throw)))

> boy throw ball nm-raised-eyebrows
Parsed 0 trees

Tutorial

As an example, let's say we want to build a parser for English reflexive pronouns (himself, herself, themselves, themself, itself). We'll also support number ("He likes X" v.s. "They like X") and simple embedded clauses ("He said that they like X").

Grammar files are written in a custom language, similar to BNF, called Feature GRammar (.fgr). There's a VSCode syntax highlighting extension for these files available as fgr-syntax.

We'll start by defining our lexicon. The lexicon is the set of terminal symbols (symbols in the actual input) that the grammar will match. Terminal symbols must start with a lowercase letter, and non-terminal symbols must start with an uppercase letter.

// pronouns
N -> he
N -> him
N -> himself
N -> she
N -> her
N -> herself
N -> they
N -> them
N -> themselves
N -> themself

// names, lowercase as they are terminals
N -> mary
N -> sue
N -> takeshi
N -> robert

// complementizer
Comp -> that

// verbs -- intransitive, transitive, and clausal
IV -> falls
IV -> fall
IV -> fell

TV -> likes
TV -> like
TV -> liked

CV -> says
CV -> say
CV -> said

Next, we can add our sentence rules (they must be added at the top, as the first rule in the file is assumed to be the top-level rule):

// sentence rules
S -> N IV
S -> N TV N
S -> N CV Comp S

// ... previous lexicon ...

Assuming this file is saved as examples/no-features.fgr (which it is :wink:), we can test this file with the built-in CLI:

$ cargo run --bin cli examples/no-features.fgr
> he falls
Parsed 1 tree
(0..2: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: IV (1..2: falls)))
[
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: falls ] ]
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: he ] ]
]

> he falls her
Parsed 0 trees

> he likes her
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: her)))
[
  child-2: [ child-0: [ word: her ] ]
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: likes ] ]
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: he ] ]
]

> he likes
Parsed 0 trees

> he said that he likes her
Parsed 1 tree
(0..6: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: CV (1..2: said))
  (2..3: Comp (2..3: that))
  (3..6: S
    (3..4: N (3..4: he))
    (4..5: TV (4..5: likes))
    (5..6: N (5..6: her))))
[
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: he ] ]
  child-2: [ child-0: [ word: that ] ]
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: said ] ]
  child-3: [
    child-2: [ child-0: [ word: her ] ]
    child-1: [ child-0: [ word: likes ] ]
    child-0: [ child-0: [ word: he ] ]
  ]
]

> he said that he
Parsed 0 trees

This grammar already parses some correct sentences, and blocks some trivially incorrect ones. However, it doesn't care about number, case, or reflexives right now:

> she likes himself  // unbound reflexive pronoun
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: she))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: himself)))
[
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: she ] ]
  child-2: [ child-0: [ word: himself ] ]
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: likes ] ]
]

> him like her  // incorrect case on the subject pronoun, should be nominative
                // (he) instead of accusative (him)
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: him))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: like))
  (2..3: N (2..3: her)))
[
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: him ] ]
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: like ] ]
  child-2: [ child-0: [ word: her ] ]
]

> he like her  // incorrect verb number agreement
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: like))
  (2..3: N (2..3: her)))
[
  child-2: [ child-0: [ word: her ] ]
  child-1: [ child-0: [ word: like ] ]
  child-0: [ child-0: [ word: he ] ]
]

To fix this, we need to add features to our lexicon, and restrict the sentence rules based on features.

Features are added with square brackets, and are key: value pairs separated by commas. **top** is a special feature value, which basically means "unspecified" -- we'll come back to it later. Features that are unspecified are also assumed to have a **top** value, but sometimes explicitly stating top is more clear.

/// Pronouns
// The added features are:
// * num: sg or pl, whether this noun wants a singular verb (likes) or
//   a plural verb (like). note this is grammatical number, so for example
//   singular they takes plural agreement ("they like X", not *"they likes X")
// * case: nom or acc, whether this noun is nominative or accusative case.
//   nominative case goes in the subject, and accusative in the object.
//   e.g., "he fell" and "she likes him", not *"him fell" and *"her likes he"
// * pron: he, she, they, or ref -- what type of pronoun this is
// * needs_pron: whether this is a reflexive that needs to bind to another
//   pronoun.
N[ num: sg, case: nom, pron: he ]                    -> he
N[ num: sg, case: acc, pron: he ]                    -> him
N[ num: sg, case: acc, pron: ref, needs_pron: he ]   -> himself
N[ num: sg, case: nom, pron: she ]                   -> she
N[ num: sg, case: acc, pron: she ]                   -> her
N[ num: sg, case: acc, pron: ref, needs_pron: she]   -> herself
N[ num: pl, case: nom, pron: they ]                  -> they
N[ num: pl, case: acc, pron: they ]                  -> them
N[ num: pl, case: acc, pron: ref, needs_pron: they ] -> themselves
N[ num: sg, case: acc, pron: ref, needs_pron: they ] -> themself

// Names
// The added features are:
// * num: sg, as people are singular ("mary likes her" / *"mary like her")
// * case: **top**, as names can be both subjects and objects
//   ("mary likes her" / "she likes mary")
// * pron: whichever pronoun the person uses for reflexive agreement
//   mary    pron: she  => mary likes herself
//   sue     pron: they => sue likes themself
//   takeshi pron: he   => takeshi likes himself
N[ num: sg, case: **top**, pron: she ]  -> mary
N[ num: sg, case: **top**, pron: they ] -> sue
N[ num: sg, case: **top**, pron: he ]   -> takeshi
N[ num: sg, case: **top**, pron: he ]   -> robert

// Complementizer doesn't need features
Comp -> that

// Verbs -- intransitive, transitive, and clausal
// The added features are:
// * num: sg, pl, or **top** -- to match the noun numbers.
//   **top** will match either sg or pl, as past-tense verbs in English
//   don't agree in number: "he fell" and "they fell" are both fine
// * tense: past or nonpast -- this won't be used for agreement, but will be
//   copied into the final feature structure, and the client code could do
//   something with it
IV[ num:      sg, tense: nonpast ] -> falls
IV[ num:      pl, tense: nonpast ] -> fall
IV[ num: **top**, tense: past ]    -> fell

TV[ num:      sg, tense: nonpast ] -> likes
TV[ num:      pl, tense: nonpast ] -> like
TV[ num: **top**, tense: past ]    -> liked

CV[ num:      sg, tense: nonpast ] -> says
CV[ num:      pl, tense: nonpast ] -> say
CV[ num: **top**, tense: past ]    -> said

Now that our lexicon is updated with features, we can update our sentence rules to constrain parsing based on those features. This uses two new features, tags and unification. Tags allow features to be associated between nodes in a rule, and unification controls how those features are compatible. The rules for unification are:

  1. A string feature can unify with a string feature with the same value
  2. A top feature can unify with anything, and the nodes are merged
  3. A complex feature ([ ... ] structure) is recursively unified with another complex feature.

If unification fails anywhere, the parse is aborted and the tree is discarded. This allows the programmer to discard trees if features don't match.

// Sentence rules
// Intransitive verb:
// * Subject must be nominative case
// * Subject and verb must agree in number (copied through #1)
S -> N[ case: nom, num: #1 ] IV[ num: #1 ]
// Transitive verb:
// * Subject must be nominative case
// * Subject and verb must agree in number (copied through #2)
// * If there's a reflexive in the object position, make sure its `needs_pron`
//   feature matches the subject's `pron` feature. If the object isn't a
//   reflexive, then its `needs_pron` feature will implicitly be `**top**`, so
//   will unify with anything.
S -> N[ case: nom, pron: #1, num: #2 ] TV[ num: #2 ] N[ case: acc, needs_pron: #1 ]
// Clausal verb:
// * Subject must be nominative case
// * Subject and verb must agree in number (copied through #1)
// * Reflexives can't cross clause boundaries (*"He said that she likes himself"),
//   so we can ignore reflexives and delegate to inner clause rule
S -> N[ case: nom, num: #1 ] CV[ num: #1 ] Comp S

Now that we have this augmented grammar (available as examples/reflexives.fgr), we can try it out and see that it rejects illicit sentences that were previously accepted, while still accepting valid ones:

> he fell
Parsed 1 tree
(0..2: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: IV (1..2: fell)))
[
  child-1: [
    child-0: [ word: fell ]
    num: #0 sg
    tense: past
  ]
  child-0: [
    pron: he
    case: nom
    num: #0
    child-0: [ word: he ]
  ]
]

> he like him
Parsed 0 trees

> he likes himself
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: he))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: himself)))
[
  child-1: [
    num: #0 sg
    child-0: [ word: likes ]
    tense: nonpast
  ]
  child-2: [
    needs_pron: #1 he
    num: sg
    child-0: [ word: himself ]
    pron: ref
    case: acc
  ]
  child-0: [
    child-0: [ word: he ]
    pron: #1
    num: #0
    case: nom
  ]
]

> he likes herself
Parsed 0 trees

> mary likes herself
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: mary))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: herself)))
[
  child-0: [
    pron: #0 she
    num: #1 sg
    case: nom
    child-0: [ word: mary ]
  ]
  child-1: [
    tense: nonpast
    child-0: [ word: likes ]
    num: #1
  ]
  child-2: [
    child-0: [ word: herself ]
    num: sg
    pron: ref
    case: acc
    needs_pron: #0
  ]
]

> mary likes themself
Parsed 0 trees

> sue likes themself
Parsed 1 tree
(0..3: S
  (0..1: N (0..1: sue))
  (1..2: TV (1..2: likes))
  (2..3: N (2..3: themself)))
[
  child-0: [
    pron: #0 they
    child-0: [ word: sue ]
    case: nom
    num: #1 sg
  ]
  child-1: [
    tense: nonpast
    num: #1
    child-0: [ word: likes ]
  ]
  child-2: [
    needs_pron: #0
    case: acc
    pron: ref
    child-0: [ word: themself ]
    num: sg
  ]
]

> sue likes himself
Parsed 0 trees

If this is interesting to you and you want to learn more, you can check out my blog series, the excellent textbook Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction (2nd ed.), and the DELPH-IN project, whose work on the LKB inspired this simplified version.

Using from code

I need to write this section in more detail, but if you're comfortable with Rust, I suggest looking through the codebase. It's not perfect, it started as one of my first Rust projects (after migrating through F# -> TypeScript -> C in search of the right performance/ergonomics tradeoff), and it could use more tests, but overall it's not too bad.

Basically, the processing pipeline is:

  1. Make a Grammar struct
  • Grammar is defined in rules.rs.
  • The easiest way to make a Grammar is Grammar::parse_from_file, which is mostly a hand-written recusive descent parser in parse_grammar.rs. Yes, I recognize the irony here.
  1. It takes input (in Grammar::parse, which does everything for you, or Grammar::parse_chart, which just does the chart)
  2. The input is first chart-parsed in earley.rs
  3. Then, a forest is built from the chart, in forest.rs, using an algorithm I found in a very useful blog series I forget the URL for, because the algorithms in the academic literature for this are... weird.
  4. Finally, the feature unification is used to prune the forest down to only valid trees. It would be more efficient to do this during parsing, but meh.

The most interesting thing you can do via code and not via the CLI is probably getting at the raw feature DAG, as that would let you do things like pronoun coreference. The DAG code is in featurestructure.rs, and should be fairly approachable -- there's a lot of Rust ceremony around Rc<RefCell<...>> because using an arena allocation crate seemed too harlike overkill, but that is somewhat mitigated by the NodeRef type alias. Hit me up at https://vgel.me/contact if you need help with anything here!

Download Details:
Author: vgel
Source Code: https://github.com/vgel/treebender
License: MIT License

#rust  #machinelearning 

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