Juanita  Apio

Juanita Apio


TestNG vs JUnit : Which testing framework should you choose?

A test automation framework is a set of components that facilitates the execution of tests along with reporting the results of the test execution. However, the discovery of the right test automation framework can be super-challenging since there are so many options at your perusal. Picture this – When performing Selenium automation testing using Java, you have to choose from a gruelling list of 10 Java testing frameworks.

As far as test automation frameworks in Selenium Java are concerned, JUnit and TestNG are preferred in comparison to the other frameworks in the list. Some of the pertinent questions are:

  • How does JUnit stack up against TestNG in the TestNG vs JUnit comparison?
  • Is it possible to run JUnit tests with TestNG (and vice-versa)?
  • What annotations are present in JUnit and TestNG?

A side-by-side comparison of TestNG vs JUnit will give a clear indication of how the two prominent test automation frameworks stack up against each other. Unearthing the difference between JUnit and TestNG frameworks in Selenium WebDriver will help in deciding the best-suited framework for automation tests.

In this blog, we do a thorough TestNG vs JUnit comparison – learnings of which will help in arriving at a wise decision for choosing the ideal test automation framework for your project. In this TestNG vs JUnit comparison, we have used JUnit 5 (the latest version of the JUnit framework) for showcasing example implementation.


Introduction to JUnit &TestNG Test Automation Frameworks

Before we get started with the TestNG vs JUnit comparison, let’s look at some of the basic essentials of the two frameworks. JUnit is an open-source unit testing framework for Java that was first introduced in 1997. At the time of writing this blog, JUnit 5 is the latest version of the JUnit framework. As the Selenium framework supports Java; many QA engineers prefer using the JUnit framework for web automation testing. In case you are getting started with JUnit, you could check out our earlier blog that helps in setting up JUnit Environment for the first test.

TestNG is also a popular open-source testing framework for Java. TestNG was created in 2007 with a goal to cover a wider range of test categories – Unit Testing, Functional Testing, End-To-End Testing, Integration Testing, and more. As of writing this blog, the latest version of TestNG is 7.3.0. You can check out our introductory blog on how to create a TestNG project in Eclipse for realizing web automation testing with TestNG.

It is necessary to know the difference between JUnit and TestNG so that you can make an informed decision when it comes to choosing the ideal test automation framework. This is the primary reason why we came up with a head-on TestNG vs JUnit comparison.

TestNG vs JUnit – Comparison of the best test automation frameworks

Both TestNG and JUnit are amongst the top automation frameworks in Java. Though they are hugely popular, the fact is that both frameworks have their own share of pros and cons. We would keep this discussion for a later blog since the TestNG vs JUnit can be a good reference to choose the framework for your automation project.

For the TestNG vs JUnit comparison, we have made use of the JUnit 5 (latest version of JUnit framework) instead of JUnit 4 framework. If you are still using the JUnit 4 framework with Selenium WebDriver, you can still execute JUnit 4 tests with JUnit 5 framework.

#automation #selenium java #testng

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TestNG vs JUnit : Which testing framework should you choose?
Joseph  Murray

Joseph Murray


7 Test Frameworks To Follow in 2021 for Java/Fullstack Developers

It is time to learn new test frameworks in 2021 to improve your code quality and decrease the time of your testing phase. Let’s explore 6 options for devs.

It is time to learn new test frameworks to improve your code quality and decrease the time of your testing phase. I have selected six testing frameworks that sound promising. Some have existed for quite a long time but I have not heard about them before.

At the end of the article, please tell me what you think about them and what your favorite ones are.

Robot Framework

Robot Framework is a generic open-source automation framework. It can be used for test automation and robotic process automation (RPA).

Robot Framework is open and extensible and can be integrated with virtually any other tool to create powerful and flexible automation solutions. Being open-source also means that Robot Framework is free to use without licensing costs.

The RoboFramework is a framework** to write test cases and automation processes.** It means that it may replace** your classic combo Selenium + Cucumber + Gherkins**. To be more precise, the Cucumber Gherkins custom implementation you wrote will be handled by RoboFramework and Selenium invoked below.

For the Java developers, this framework can be executed with Maven or Gradle (but less mature for the latter solution).

#java #testing #test #java framework #java frameworks #testing and developing #java testing #robot framework #test framework #2021

Lindsey  Koepp

Lindsey Koepp


Top 10 Test Automation Frameworks in 2020

We are moving toward a future where everything is going to be autonomous, fast, and highly efficient. To match the pace of this fast-moving ecosystem, application delivery times will have to be accelerated, but not at the cost of quality. Achieving quality at speed is imperative and therefore quality assurance gets a lot of attention. To fulfill the demands for exceptional quality and faster time to market, automation testing will assume priority. It is becoming necessary for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to automate their testing processes. But the most crucial aspect is to choose the right test automation framework. So let’s understand what a test automation framework is.

What Is a Test Automation Framework?

A test automation framework is the scaffolding that is laid to provide an execution environment for the automation test scripts. The framework provides the user with various benefits that help them to develop, execute, and report the automation test scripts efficiently. It is more like a system that was created specifically to automate our tests. In a very simple language, we can say that a framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections, etc. to pillar automation testing. Thus, the user can follow these guidelines while automating applications to take advantage of various productive results.

The advantages can be in different forms like the ease of scripting, scalability, modularity, understandability, process definition, re-usability, cost, maintenance, etc. Thus, to be able to grab these benefits, developers are advised to use one or more of the Test Automation Framework. Moreover, the need for a single and standard Test Automation Framework arises when you have a bunch of developers working on the different modules of the same application and when we want to avoid situations where each of the developers implements his/her approach towards automation. So let’s have a look at different types of test automation frameworks.

Types of Automated Testing Frameworks

Now that we have a basic idea about Automation Frameworks, let’s check out the various types of Test Automation Frameworks available in the marketplace. There is a divergent range of Automation Frameworks available nowadays. These frameworks may differ from each other based on their support to different key factors to do automation like reusability, ease of maintenance, etc.

Types of Test Automation Frameworks:

  1. Module Based Testing Framework
  2. Library Architecture Testing Framework
  3. Data-Driven Testing Framework
  4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework
  5. Hybrid Testing Framework
  6. Behavior Driven Development Framework

Benefits of a Test Automation Framework

Apart from the minimal manual intervention required in automation testing, there are many advantages of using a test automation framework. Some of them are listed below:

  1. Faster time-to-market: Using a good test automation framework helps reduce the time-to-market of an application by allowing constant execution of test cases. Once automated, the test library execution is faster and runs longer than manual testing.
  2. Earlier detection of defects: The documentation of software defects becomes considerably easier for the testing teams. It increases the overall development speed while ensuring correct functionality across areas. The earlier a defect is identified, the more cost-effective it is to resolve the issue.
  3. Improved Testing efficiency: Testing takes up a significant portion of the overall development lifecycle. Even the slightest improvement of the overall efficiency can make an enormous difference to the entire timeframe of the project. Although the setup time takes longer initially, automated tests eventually take up a significantly lesser amount of time. They can be run virtually unattended, leaving the results to be monitored toward the end of the process.
  4. Better ROI: while the initial investment may be on the higher side, automated testing saves organizations many a lot of money. This is due to the drop in the amount of time required to run tests, which leads to a higher quality of work. This in turn decreases the necessity for fixing glitches after release, thereby reducing project costs.
  5. Higher test coverage: In test automation, a higher number of tests can be executed about an application. This leads to higher test coverage, which is a manual testing approach that would imply a massive team, limited heavily with their amount of time. An increased test coverage leads to testing more features and a better quality of the application.
  6. Reusability of automated tests: The repetitive nature of test cases in test automation helps software developers to assess program reaction, in addition to the relatively easy configuration of their setup. Automated test cases can be utilized through different approaches as they are reusable.

#devops #testing #software testing #framework #automation testing #mobile app testing #test framework

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes


TestNG Vs JUnit: Comparison Between Two Popular Testing Frameworks

TestNG and JUnit are two very popular terms spoken amongst the testers simply because they are used very heavily in the community. If you are a tester, I am quite confident you must have heard these terms, or are learning these frameworks, or are already working on them for your testing. In other words, it is needless to say that they both have their powerful features and easiness, which is ultimately the reason for any framework’s success. Moreover, when it comes to the tester’s personal choice, it is imperative to maintain a yardstick for their decision as they will be giving this their time and resources to them. Since both of them are unit testing frameworks, a better in-depth analysis of **TestNG vs JUnit**will surely help you choose a better framework.

Another good reason for going through these differences is for the fellow students and professionals who have not tried their hands on any unit testing framework and are putting their first step in the same field. Additionally, a better understanding of unit testing will, therefore, come in handy, which is the foundation of these frameworks. With all this said, let’s see our index for the tutorial:

  • What is Unit Testing?
  • What is the JUnit framework?
  • Also, what is the TestNG framework?
  • Difference between TestNG and JUnit.

What is Unit Testing?

Before starting with the differences between TestNG and JUnit, we should understand what is meant by unit testing in brief. The word “unit” is used very popularly in two major fields: mathematics and budgeting. In mathematics, the unit means “1” like I traveled a unit distance from my home, etc. Similarly, in budgeting, we say “unit” when we want to refer to a single element of which many are available. For example, I bought eighty umbrellas for $3 per unit. So literally, the term unit refers to singularity.

Therefore, Unit testing means testing the smallest piece of code that is logical and isolated. Isolating means it does not depend on any other code from any other element. If unit testing happens on non-isolating terms, in that case, the test will fail. Moreover, Unit testing is done by putting the values by the tester and can be associated with the functions of a program or a single module, etc. What does the unit testing offer us? Unit testing helps in faster development of software, easing out the debugging process and makes the code reusable. Additionally, for a detailed guide, you can visit our post What Is Unit Testing and What are its benefits?

What is JUnit Framework?

JUnit is a testing framework written in Java. Moreover, JUnit is used for unit testing in Java and gets its name from the combination of Java + unit testing. In addition to that, it is beneficial for the tester to write and execute repeatable automation tests. The framework is very popular in the testing community today. Moreover, for writing the automation tests for the web, JUnit is used quite extensively with the Selenium web driver. The features of JUnit are in a different section.

What is TestNG Framework?

The TestNG framework was released after JUnit and served the same purpose, along with some additional functionalities. Additionally, the TestNG framework is used for testing and written in Java for the Java programming language. The JUnit and NUnit frameworks inspired the TestNG framework and covered a vast area in testing. Moreover, the TestNG framework performs unit testing, end-to-end testing, integration testing, etc. The testNG framework is very powerful. Additionally, you can visit our complete covering all the features of TestNG along with practical examples in Selenium.

TestNG vs Junit

Now that we have a basic knowledge or overview of unit testing and both of the frameworks, we will categorize the differences into significant features. Moreover, if you do not know about that feature, I will provide a link to visit a detailed guide for that.


Annotations In JUnit and TestNG

Both TestNG and JUnit implement annotations, and they work quite similarly in both of them. However, there is a slight difference between the name of some of the annotations, but their working remains the same. Subsequently, the following table analyses the TestNG vs JUnit in terms of annotations and would help you assess the annotation differences.


JUnit 5


Test annotation



Execute before the first test method in the current class is invoked. @BeforeAll


Execute after all the test methods in the current class have been run. @AfterAll


Execute before each test method



Execute after each test method



Ignore Test



Expected exception



Exception.class) Timeout

@Test(timeout = 1000)

@Test(timeout = 1000)

Execute before all tests in this suite have run N/A


Execute after all tests in this suite have run. N/A


Execute before the test



Execute after the test



Execute before the first test method that belongs to any of these groups is invoked. N/A


Execute after the last test method that belongs to any of these groups is invoked. N/A


#testng #frameworks #junit

Tamia  Walter

Tamia Walter


Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

Ways to Test Microservices

It is easy to fall into the trap of making testing microservices complicated, but there are ways to avoid this problem. Testing microservices doesn’t have to be complicated at all when you have the right strategy in place.

There are several ways to test microservices too, including:

  • Unit testing: Which allows developers to test microservices in a granular way. It doesn’t limit testing to individual microservices, but rather allows developers to take a more granular approach such as testing individual features or runtimes.
  • Integration testing: Which handles the testing of microservices in an interactive way. Microservices still need to work with each other when they are deployed, and integration testing is a key process in making sure that they do.
  • End-to-end testing: Which⁠—as the name suggests⁠—tests microservices as a complete app. This type of testing enables the testing of features, UI, communications, and other components that construct the app.

What’s important to note is the fact that these testing approaches allow for asynchronous testing. After all, asynchronous development is what makes developing microservices very appealing in the first place. By allowing for asynchronous testing, you can also make sure that components or microservices can be updated independently to one another.

#blog #microservices #testing #caylent #contract testing #end-to-end testing #hoverfly #integration testing #microservices #microservices architecture #pact #testing #unit testing #vagrant #vcr

Software Testing 101: Regression Tests, Unit Tests, Integration Tests

Automation and segregation can help you build better software
If you write automated tests and deliver them to the customer, he can make sure the software is working properly. And, at the end of the day, he paid for it.

Ok. We can segregate or separate the tests according to some criteria. For example, “white box” tests are used to measure the internal quality of the software, in addition to the expected results. They are very useful to know the percentage of lines of code executed, the cyclomatic complexity and several other software metrics. Unit tests are white box tests.

#testing #software testing #regression tests #unit tests #integration tests