Using Python to Make Art with Math

<a href="https://simpleprogrammer.com/need-learn-math-programmer/" target="_blank">Math</a>&nbsp;can be intimidating.

Math can be intimidating.

Depending on the teacher and how it is taught, it can be an infuriating combination of inscrutable and boring.

But, there’s a beauty to math—a symmetry to the intelligence and logic behind numbers. I love math, and I want other people to love it too.

One neat way to make math more approachable and show its beauty visually is to combine it with something called “generative art.” Generative art is where you create a few, usually simple rules which are often math- or geometry-based, and then you tell a computer to process these rules.

Since computers are great for processing instructions quickly, and on a much greater scale than a human could, the designs that are created are often more complex and interesting than you might expect from such simple rules.

This example shows a bunch of floating particles that move with a mesmerizingly natural motion. They float around, link up with other particles, and change directions all on their own. It’s a variation on a “flocking algorithm,” and the amazing thing is that most of this natural motion comes from simply having each particle follow the rules of “don’t run into anybody,” “stay with the flock,” and “go in roughly the same direction as those near you.”

Python is a great option for creating these generative art projects; it is used by data scientists, mathematicians, and engineers (among many others) as an open source option for processing numerical calculations and generating visualizations.

It is also extremely easy to read and write clear code, which makes it an ideal language for outlining the simple rules needed to create this generative art.

One of the simplest mathematical constructs you can create with these rules is an integer sequence, which is an ordered list of integers (whole numbers, including: positive, negative, and zero). Usually, the relationship between these integers is spelled out in some sort of logical way with a set of rules in order to help someone figure out what the next number in the pattern is.

In this article, we are going to take the mathematics of integer sequences, supercharge them with the power of programming in Python, and use them to create some interesting and beautiful generative art.

It is a fun exercise, and the calculations and code samples are simple enough that they should be engaging for programmers, mathematicians, and artists alike.

This is not a beginner’s Python article, though, so I will assume you have some familiarity with Python’s syntax—or, at least, a willingness to pick it up as you go along—as well as how to run Python programs. If you’re not sure how to run them, and you’d like to write code in an application with a big giant “Play” button, the Mu text editor is great for beginners.

The particular sequence I want to talk about this time is the Recamán sequence. The rules are deceptively simple, but when the numbers are given visual or auditory shape, the results can be interesting and even a little spooky.

The Recamán Sequence

Here are the rules:

  1. Start at zero.
  2. Every step you take will be 1 bigger than the last step you took.
  3. If it’s possible to step backward (negatively), do so. Otherwise step forward.
  4. Backward steps are only allowed if the resulting location is positive (greater than zero) and if we’ve never been to that number before.

Let’s do the first few as examples.

We start at zero.

  • 0

The next step size will be 1. Stepping backward would put us at -1, which is not allowed, so we’ll step forward.

  • 0 -> 1

The next step size is 2. Stepping backward would put us at -1. That’s still not allowed, so forward we must go.

  • 0 -> 1 -> 3

The next step size is 3. Stepping backward puts us at 0. Since we’ve already been to 0 (our first starting point), this is not a valid move. I promise the sequence gets interesting soon, but for now, we step forward.

  • 0 -> 1 -> 3 -> 6

The next step size is 4. Stepping backward lands us at 2. Since 2 is positive, and we haven’t seen it yet, we can take our first legitimate backward step!

  • 0 -> 1 -> 3 -> 6 -> 2

Hopefully you’re beginning to see how the rules work. Now, this is kind of interesting to think about, but I’m not sure I would call a list of five numbers beautiful. That’s where we’ll lean a little bit harder on art and code. Luckily Python provides both of these to us in a fun and adorable module in its Standard Library: Turtle.

Introducing Turtle Graphics

Turtle Graphics was originally a key feature of the Logo programming language.

It’s a relatively simple Domain-Specific Language (DSL) where there is an avatar—traditionally shaped like a little turtle—on the screen, and you give it instructions on where to go: forward, left, or right. As it moves, it draws a line wherever it goes with its tail, although you can tell it to pick its tail up or put it down as necessary. It can even jump positions and change colors!

Python also includes a “turtle” library packaged along with it in its standard library. Let’s take a look at a sample program to see how it works. Create a file called “example1.py” with the following contents.

import turtle

window = turtle.Screen()
joe = turtle.Turtle()

joe.forward(50)
joe.left(90)
joe.forward(100)

turtle.done()

Here are the important bits:

  • On line 1, we import the “turtle” module. This will have many of the functions that we’re going to use, and we couldn’t use them unless we imported the module first. We’ll use these functions by writing “turtle.function_name,” as you’ll see.
  • On line 3, we create a Window. This is the window that will pop up when you run your code. It holds all of the stuff we’re going to be drawing.
  • On line 4, we actually create our Turtle. We are going to call him “joe” and store him in a variable so that we can give him commands later.
  • Lines 6-8 are us giving “joe” commands. You see the “dot” syntax that should be getting pretty familiar.
  • Line 10 just keeps the window from closing when “joe” is done with his drawing.

If you run your code, you should see something like the following:

Side note: If you want the real, old-fashioned Logo experience, you can add “joe.shape(“turtle”)” to your code, right under the line where you define “joe.” Isn’t he cute?

Okay, now that you’ve seen what “turtle” is all about, let’s get back to the sequence we were working on.

Coding the Sequence

Like anything good, we’re definitely not going to get a perfect result on the first go. We’ll need to do some iteration. I’ll take you through three passes at this art project, and each one will get a little more complicated and a little more visually interesting. After that, I have some potential ideas for further iteration that you can try if this gets your creative spark going. Let’s get to it!

First Try

The code that we write will be very similar to the English we would use to describe the steps for the sequence. Remember the two rules: Go backward when possible, otherwise go forward, and increase the step size by one after each step.

Create a new file named “recaman1.py.” We’ll start with those basic rules and then figure out how to make it actually work. I’m naming our new turtle Euler, after some guy.

import turtle

window = turtle.Screen()
euler = turtle.Turtle() # A good mathy name for our turtle
euler.shape("turtle")

current = 0 # Here's how we know where we are
seen = set() # Here's where we'll keep track of where we've been

Step increases by 1 each time

for step_size in range(1, 100):

backwards = current - step_size

# Step backwards if its positive and we've never been there before
if backwards &gt; 0 and backwards not in seen:
    euler.backward(step_size)
    current = backwards
    seen.add(current)

# Otherwise, go forwards
else:
    euler.forward(step_size)
    current += step_size
    seen.add(current)

turtle.done()

However, when we run it, it doesn’t look very good. In fact, it looks like maybe somebody gave Euler too much coffee.

Second Try

So, that was pretty reasonable. The code seems to read just like we might explain it to someone, which is good.

I’m afraid that the linear motion is just a little boring, though. This is when we want to put our artists’ caps on (do artists wear caps?) and figure out a little more creative way to get Euler from point A to point B.

Luckily turtles don’t have to move in straight lines! They can also move in arcs and circles. Let’s have him bounce from spot to spot on the number line! To make a turtle draw a circle or partial arc, we’ll use the “circle” command, which causes the turtle to follow a circle where the imaginary center is “radius” units to the turtle’s left.

That means we’ll have to orient our turtle before drawing, depending on whether he’s going forward or backward, using the “setheading” command.

Remember that you can find all the turtle commands in the official documentation, just in case you’re curious.

import turtle

window = turtle.Screen()
euler = turtle.Turtle() # A good mathy name for our turtle
euler.shape("turtle")

current = 0 # Here's how we know where we are
seen = set() # Here's where we'll keep track of where we've been

Step increases by 1 each time

for step_size in range(1, 100):

backwards = current - step_size

# Step backwards if its positive and we've never been there before
if backwards &gt; 0 and backwards not in seen:
    euler.setheading(90) # 90 degrees is pointing straight up
    euler.circle(step_size/2, 180)  # 180 degrees means "draw a semicircle"
    current = backwards
    seen.add(current)

# Otherwise, go forwards
else:
    euler.setheading(270)  # 270 degrees is straight down
    euler.circle(step_size/2, 180)
    current += step_size
    seen.add(current)

turtle.done()

That’s neat, but for the first little while, it seems like he just wiggles around in one place and the lines are very close together. Also, he’s not going to be using the whole left half of the screen!

Let’s do one more iteration together, where we make it even nicer to look at.

Third Try

The goals for this iteration are to make the picture bigger, and to give him more room to work.

import turtle

window = turtle.Screen()
window.setup(width=800, height=600, startx=10, starty=0.5)
euler = turtle.Turtle() # A good mathy name for our turtle
euler.shape("turtle")
scale = 5 # This isn't a turtle module setting. This is just for us.

Move the little buddy over to the left side to give him more room to work

euler.penup()
euler.setpos(-390, 0)
euler.pendown()

current = 0 # Here's how we know where we are
seen = set() # Here's where we'll keep track of where we've been

Step increases by 1 each time

for step_size in range(1, 100):

backwards = current - step_size

# Step backwards if its positive and we've never been there before
if backwards &gt; 0 and backwards not in seen:
    euler.setheading(90)  # 90 degrees is pointing straight up
    # 180 degrees means "draw a semicircle"
    euler.circle(scale * step_size/2, 180)
    current = backwards
    seen.add(current)

# Otherwise, go forwards
else:
    euler.setheading(270)  # 270 degrees is straight down
    euler.circle(scale * step_size/2, 180)
    current += step_size
    seen.add(current)

turtle.done()

As you can see, we’ve added a scaling factor which you can tune to whatever you think works best. I arrived at this value by trying a couple and picking my favorite. We also shifted him over so he starts at the left side of the screen. Since he can never go negative, we know he will only go right from wherever he starts.

Further Tweaking

By now, I think you get the gist, and you’re hopefully starting to see the magic of integer sequences: out of a few simple rules (and with the help of a tireless reptile assistant), you can make some truly interesting and captivating results.

You’ve got all the tools you need to do something even cooler. Here are some ideas to get your creative juices flowing:

  • What if you change the color of the lines? What if you change it continuously?
  • What if you skew the drawing to an angle to take up more of the screen?
  • What if you have multiple turtles drawing sequences in tandem?
  • What if you vary the predictable sequence with a little bit of randomness?
  • What if you incorporate user input (mouse clicks, key presses, etc.) to affect how the turtles behave?
  • What if you make a turtle that draws but is driven by something really slow, like the cycle of the moon?
  • Is there a way you could incorporate a turtle with an IoT project or a web application?
Other Incarnations of the Sequence

If you found the Recamán sequence particularly fascinating, you’re not alone. There are a ton of different incarnations out there people have created, combining the lines with color, sound, and more. Here are a few of my favorite.

This slightly spooky version with sound:


This Numberphile video about the sequence is really interesting:


The Coding Train also did a couple videos on coding this up if you want a cool video walkthrough with an amazing teacher and don’t mind writing JavaScript:

In fact, P5.js (and its Java-based predecessor, Processing) are both great alternatives for making art and animations with code; they come with dedicated editors to help you do that, and they allow support for sound and other add-ins!

Get Your Turtles in Gear

Hopefully this tutorial was enough to spark your interest in using code to generate art, and hopefully (if you were before), you are no longer too intimidated to look to mathematics as a source for your artistic ideas.

Geometry, never-ending constants, golden ratios, Fibonacci spirals, fractals, and number theory are all goldmines of awesome visual projects just waiting to be programmatically generated, and now you have all the tools you need to get your own set of turtles and start generating!


By :  Ryan Palo


What's Python IDLE? How to use Python IDLE to interact with Python?

What's Python IDLE? How to use Python IDLE to interact with Python?

In this tutorial, you’ll learn all the basics of using **IDLE** to write Python programs. You'll know what Python IDLE is and how you can use it to interact with Python directly. You’ve also learned how to work with Python files and customize Python IDLE to your liking.

In this tutorial, you'll learn how to use the development environment included with your Python installation. Python IDLE is a small program that packs a big punch! You'll learn how to use Python IDLE to interact with Python directly, work with Python files, and improve your development workflow.

If you’ve recently downloaded Python onto your computer, then you may have noticed a new program on your machine called IDLE. You might be wondering, “What is this program doing on my computer? I didn’t download that!” While you may not have downloaded this program on your own, IDLE comes bundled with every Python installation. It’s there to help you get started with the language right out of the box. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to work in Python IDLE and a few cool tricks you can use on your Python journey!

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

  • What Python IDLE is
  • How to interact with Python directly using IDLE
  • How to edit, execute, and debug Python files with IDLE
  • How to customize Python IDLE to your liking

Table of Contents

What Is Python IDLE?

Every Python installation comes with an Integrated Development and Learning Environment, which you’ll see shortened to IDLE or even IDE. These are a class of applications that help you write code more efficiently. While there are many IDEs for you to choose from, Python IDLE is very bare-bones, which makes it the perfect tool for a beginning programmer.

Python IDLE comes included in Python installations on Windows and Mac. If you’re a Linux user, then you should be able to find and download Python IDLE using your package manager. Once you’ve installed it, you can then use Python IDLE as an interactive interpreter or as a file editor.

An Interactive Interpreter

The best place to experiment with Python code is in the interactive interpreter, otherwise known as a shell. The shell is a basic Read-Eval-Print Loop (REPL). It reads a Python statement, evaluates the result of that statement, and then prints the result on the screen. Then, it loops back to read the next statement.

The Python shell is an excellent place to experiment with small code snippets. You can access it through the terminal or command line app on your machine. You can simplify your workflow with Python IDLE, which will immediately start a Python shell when you open it.

A File Editor

Every programmer needs to be able to edit and save text files. Python programs are files with the .py extension that contain lines of Python code. Python IDLE gives you the ability to create and edit these files with ease.

Python IDLE also provides several useful features that you’ll see in professional IDEs, like basic syntax highlighting, code completion, and auto-indentation. Professional IDEs are more robust pieces of software and they have a steep learning curve. If you’re just beginning your Python programming journey, then Python IDLE is a great alternative!

How to Use the Python IDLE Shell

The shell is the default mode of operation for Python IDLE. When you click on the icon to open the program, the shell is the first thing that you see:

This is a blank Python interpreter window. You can use it to start interacting with Python immediately. You can test it out with a short line of code:

Here, you used print() to output the string "Hello, from IDLE!" to your screen. This is the most basic way to interact with Python IDLE. You type in commands one at a time and Python responds with the result of each command.

Next, take a look at the menu bar. You’ll see a few options for using the shell:

You can restart the shell from this menu. If you select that option, then you’ll clear the state of the shell. It will act as though you’ve started a fresh instance of Python IDLE. The shell will forget about everything from its previous state:

In the image above, you first declare a variable, x = 5. When you call print(x), the shell shows the correct output, which is the number 5. However, when you restart the shell and try to call print(x) again, you can see that the shell prints a traceback. This is an error message that says the variable x is not defined. The shell has forgotten about everything that came before it was restarted.

You can also interrupt the execution of the shell from this menu. This will stop any program or statement that’s running in the shell at the time of interruption. Take a look at what happens when you send a keyboard interrupt to the shell:

A KeyboardInterrupt error message is displayed in red text at the bottom of your window. The program received the interrupt and has stopped executing.

How to Work With Python Files

Python IDLE offers a full-fledged file editor, which gives you the ability to write and execute Python programs from within this program. The built-in file editor also includes several features, like code completion and automatic indentation, that will speed up your coding workflow. First, let’s take a look at how to write and execute programs in Python IDLE.

Opening a File

To start a new Python file, select File → New File from the menu bar. This will open a blank file in the editor, like this:

From this window, you can write a brand new Python file. You can also open an existing Python file by selecting File → Open… in the menu bar. This will bring up your operating system’s file browser. Then, you can find the Python file you want to open.

If you’re interested in reading the source code for a Python module, then you can select File → Path Browser. This will let you view the modules that Python IDLE can see. When you double click on one, the file editor will open up and you’ll be able to read it.

The content of this window will be the same as the paths that are returned when you call sys.path. If you know the name of a specific module you want to view, then you can select File → Module Browser and type in the name of the module in the box that appears.

Editing a File

Once you’ve opened a file in Python IDLE, you can then make changes to it. When you’re ready to edit a file, you’ll see something like this:

The contents of your file are displayed in the open window. The bar along the top of the window contains three pieces of important information:

  1. The name of the file that you’re editing
  2. The full path to the folder where you can find this file on your computer
  3. The version of Python that IDLE is using

In the image above, you’re editing the file myFile.py, which is located in the Documents folder. The Python version is 3.7.1, which you can see in parentheses.

There are also two numbers in the bottom right corner of the window:

  1. Ln: shows the line number that your cursor is on.
  2. Col: shows the column number that your cursor is on.

It’s useful to see these numbers so that you can find errors more quickly. They also help you make sure that you’re staying within a certain line width.

There are a few visual cues in this window that will help you remember to save your work. If you look closely, then you’ll see that Python IDLE uses asterisks to let you know that your file has unsaved changes:

The file name shown in the top of the IDLE window is surrounded by asterisks. This means that there are unsaved changes in your editor. You can save these changes with your system’s standard keyboard shortcut, or you can select File → Save from the menu bar. Make sure that you save your file with the .py extension so that syntax highlighting will be enabled.

Executing a File

When you want to execute a file that you’ve created in IDLE, you should first make sure that it’s saved. Remember, you can see if your file is properly saved by looking for asterisks around the filename at the top of the file editor window. Don’t worry if you forget, though! Python IDLE will remind you to save whenever you attempt to execute an unsaved file.

To execute a file in IDLE, simply press the F5 key on your keyboard. You can also select Run → Run Module from the menu bar. Either option will restart the Python interpreter and then run the code that you’ve written with a fresh interpreter. The process is the same as when you run python3 -i [filename] in your terminal.

When your code is done executing, the interpreter will know everything about your code, including any global variables, functions, and classes. This makes Python IDLE a great place to inspect your data if something goes wrong. If you ever need to interrupt the execution of your program, then you can press Ctrl+C in the interpreter that’s running your code.

How to Improve Your Workflow

Now that you’ve seen how to write, edit, and execute files in Python IDLE, it’s time to speed up your workflow! The Python IDLE editor offers a few features that you’ll see in most professional IDEs to help you code faster. These features include automatic indentation, code completion and call tips, and code context.

Automatic Indentation

IDLE will automatically indent your code when it needs to start a new block. This usually happens after you type a colon (:). When you hit the enter key after the colon, your cursor will automatically move over a certain number of spaces and begin a new code block.

You can configure how many spaces the cursor will move in the settings, but the default is the standard four spaces. The developers of Python agreed on a standard style for well-written Python code, and this includes rules on indentation, whitespace, and more. This standard style was formalized and is now known as PEP 8. To learn more about it, check out How to Write Beautiful Python Code With PEP 8.

Code Completion and Call Tips

When you’re writing code for a large project or a complicated problem, you can spend a lot of time just typing out all of the code you need. Code completion helps you save typing time by trying to finish your code for you. Python IDLE has basic code completion functionality. It can only autocomplete the names of functions and classes. To use autocompletion in the editor, just press the tab key after a sequence of text.

Python IDLE will also provide call tips. A call tip is like a hint for a certain part of your code to help you remember what that element needs. After you type the left parenthesis to begin a function call, a call tip will appear if you don’t type anything for a few seconds. For example, if you can’t quite remember how to append to a list, then you can pause after the opening parenthesis to bring up the call tip:

The call tip will display as a popup note, reminding you how to append to a list. Call tips like these provide useful information as you’re writing code.

Code Context

The code context functionality is a neat feature of the Python IDLE file editor. It will show you the scope of a function, class, loop, or other construct. This is particularly useful when you’re scrolling through a lengthy file and need to keep track of where you are while reviewing code in the editor.

To turn it on, select Options → Code Context in the menu bar. You’ll see a gray bar appear at the top of the editor window:

As you scroll down through your code, the context that contains each line of code will stay inside of this gray bar. This means that the print() functions you see in the image above are a part of a main function. When you reach a line that’s outside the scope of this function, the bar will disappear.

How to Debug in IDLE

A bug is an unexpected problem in your program. They can appear in many forms, and some are more difficult to fix than others. Some bugs are tricky enough that you won’t be able to catch them by just reading through your program. Luckily, Python IDLE provides some basic tools that will help you debug your programs with ease!

Interpreter DEBUG Mode

If you want to run your code with the built-in debugger, then you’ll need to turn this feature on. To do so, select Debug → Debugger from the Python IDLE menu bar. In the interpreter, you should see [DEBUG ON] appear just before the prompt (>>>), which means the interpreter is ready and waiting.

When you execute your Python file, the debugger window will appear:

In this window, you can inspect the values of your local and global variables as your code executes. This gives you insight into how your data is being manipulated as your code runs.

You can also click the following buttons to move through your code:

  • Go: Press this to advance execution to the next breakpoint. You’ll learn about these in the next section.
  • Step: Press this to execute the current line and go to the next one.
  • Over: If the current line of code contains a function call, then press this to step over that function. In other words, execute that function and go to the next line, but don’t pause while executing the function (unless there is a breakpoint).
  • Out: If the current line of code is in a function, then press this to step out of this function. In other words, continue the execution of this function until you return from it.

Be careful, because there is no reverse button! You can only step forward in time through your program’s execution.

You’ll also see four checkboxes in the debug window:

  1. Globals: your program’s global information
  2. Locals: your program’s local information during execution
  3. Stack: the functions that run during execution
  4. Source: your file in the IDLE editor

When you select one of these, you’ll see the relevant information in your debug window.

Breakpoints

A breakpoint is a line of code that you’ve identified as a place where the interpreter should pause while running your code. They will only work when DEBUG mode is turned on, so make sure that you’ve done that first.

To set a breakpoint, right-click on the line of code that you wish to pause. This will highlight the line of code in yellow as a visual indication of a set breakpoint. You can set as many breakpoints in your code as you like. To undo a breakpoint, right-click the same line again and select Clear Breakpoint.

Once you’ve set your breakpoints and turned on DEBUG mode, you can run your code as you would normally. The debugger window will pop up, and you can start stepping through your code manually.

Errors and Exceptions

When you see an error reported to you in the interpreter, Python IDLE lets you jump right to the offending file or line from the menu bar. All you have to do is highlight the reported line number or file name with your cursor and select Debug → Go to file/line from the menu bar. This is will open up the offending file and take you to the line that contains the error. This feature works regardless of whether or not DEBUG mode is turned on.

Python IDLE also provides a tool called a stack viewer. You can access it under the Debug option in the menu bar. This tool will show you the traceback of an error as it appears on the stack of the last error or exception that Python IDLE encountered while running your code. When an unexpected or interesting error occurs, you might find it helpful to take a look at the stack. Otherwise, this feature can be difficult to parse and likely won’t be useful to you unless you’re writing very complicated code.

How to Customize Python IDLE

There are many ways that you can give Python IDLE a visual style that suits you. The default look and feel is based on the colors in the Python logo. If you don’t like how anything looks, then you can almost always change it.

To access the customization window, select Options → Configure IDLE from the menu bar. To preview the result of a change you want to make, press Apply. When you’re done customizing Python IDLE, press OK to save all of your changes. If you don’t want to save your changes, then simply press Cancel.

There are 5 areas of Python IDLE that you can customize:

  1. Fonts/Tabs
  2. Highlights
  3. Keys
  4. General
  5. Extensions

Let’s take a look at each of them now.

Fonts/Tabs

The first tab allows you to change things like font color, font size, and font style. You can change the font to almost any style you like, depending on what’s available for your operating system. The font settings window looks like this:

You can use the scrolling window to select which font you prefer. (I recommend you select a fixed-width font like Courier New.) Pick a font size that’s large enough for you to see well. You can also click the checkbox next to Bold to toggle whether or not all text appears in bold.

This window will also let you change how many spaces are used for each indentation level. By default, this will be set to the PEP 8 standard of four spaces. You can change this to make the width of your code more or less spread out to your liking.

Highlights

The second customization tab will let you change highlights. Syntax highlighting is an important feature of any IDE that highlights the syntax of the language that you’re working in. This helps you visually distinguish between the different Python constructs and the data used in your code.

Python IDLE allows you to fully customize the appearance of your Python code. It comes pre-installed with three different highlight themes:

  1. IDLE Day
  2. IDLE Night
  3. IDLE New

You can select from these pre-installed themes or create your own custom theme right in this window:

Unfortunately, IDLE does not allow you to install custom themes from a file. You have to create customs theme from this window. To do so, you can simply start changing the colors for different items. Select an item, and then press Choose color for. You’ll be brought to a color picker, where you can select the exact color that you want to use.

You’ll then be prompted to save this theme as a new custom theme, and you can enter a name of your choosing. You can then continue changing the colors of different items if you’d like. Remember to press Apply to see your changes in action!

Keys

The third customization tab lets you map different key presses to actions, also known as keyboard shortcuts. These are a vital component of your productivity whenever you use an IDE. You can either come up with your own keyboard shortcuts, or you can use the ones that come with IDLE. The pre-installed shortcuts are a good place to start:

The keyboard shortcuts are listed in alphabetical order by action. They’re listed in the format Action - Shortcut, where Action is what will happen when you press the key combination in Shortcut. If you want to use a built-in key set, then select a mapping that matches your operating system. Pay close attention to the different keys and make sure your keyboard has them!

Creating Your Own Shortcuts

The customization of the keyboard shortcuts is very similar to the customization of syntax highlighting colors. Unfortunately, IDLE does not allow you to install custom keyboard shortcuts from a file. You must create a custom set of shortcuts from the Keys tab.

Select one pair from the list and press Get New Keys for Selection. A new window will pop up:

Here, you can use the checkboxes and scrolling menu to select the combination of keys that you want to use for this shortcut. You can select Advanced Key Binding Entry >> to manually type in a command. Note that this cannot pick up the keys you press. You have to literally type in the command as you see it displayed to you in the list of shortcuts.

General

The fourth tab of the customization window is a place for small, general changes. The general settings tab looks like this:

Here, you can customize things like the window size and whether the shell or the file editor opens first when you start Python IDLE. Most of the things in this window are not that exciting to change, so you probably won’t need to fiddle with them much.

Extensions

The fifth tab of the customization window lets you add extensions to Python IDLE. Extensions allow you to add new, awesome features to the editor and the interpreter window. You can download them from the internet and install them to right into Python IDLE.

To view what extensions are installed, select Options → Configure IDLE -> Extensions. There are many extensions available on the internet for you to read more about. Find the ones you like and add them to Python IDLE!

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you’ve learned all the basics of using IDLE to write Python programs. You know what Python IDLE is and how you can use it to interact with Python directly. You’ve also learned how to work with Python files and customize Python IDLE to your liking.

You’ve learned how to:

  • Work with the Python IDLE shell
  • Use Python IDLE as a file editor
  • Improve your workflow with features to help you code faster
  • Debug your code and view errors and exceptions
  • Customize Python IDLE to your liking

Now you’re armed with a new tool that will let you productively write Pythonic code and save you countless hours down the road. Happy programming!

Importance of Python Programming skills

Importance of Python Programming skills

Python is one among the most easiest and user friendly programming languages when it comes to the field of software engineering. The codes and syntaxes of python is so simple and easy to use that it can be deployed in any problem solving...

Python is one among the most easiest and user friendly programming languages when it comes to the field of software engineering. The codes and syntaxes of python is so simple and easy to use that it can be deployed in any problem solving challenges. The codes of Python can easily be deployed in Data Science and Machine Learning. Due to this ease of deployment and easier syntaxes, this platform has a lot of real world problem solving applications. According to the sources the companies are eagerly hunting for the professionals with python skills along with SQL. An average python developer in the united states makes around 1 lakh U.S Dollars per annum. In some of the top IT hubs in our country like Bangalore, the demand for professionals in the domains of Data Science and Python Programming has surpassed over the past few years. As a result of which a lot of various python certification courses are available right now.

Array in Python: An array is defined as a data structure that can hold a fixed number of elements that are of the same python data type. The following are some of the basic functions of array in python:

  1. To find the transverse
  2. For insertion of the elements
  3. For deletion of the elements
  4. For searching the elements

Along with this one can easily crack any python interview by means of python interview questions

Tkinter Python Tutorial | Python GUI Programming Using Tkinter Tutorial | Python Training

This video on Tkinter tutorial covers all the basic aspects of creating and making use of your own simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Python. It establishes all of the concepts needed to get started with building your own user interfaces while coding in Python.

This video on Tkinter tutorial covers all the basic aspects of creating and making use of your own simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Python. It establishes all of the concepts needed to get started with building your own user interfaces while coding in Python.

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Original video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMP1oQOxfM0