How to connect your GraphQL API to your VueJS Frontend

How to connect your GraphQL API to your VueJS Frontend

GraphQL gives you room to build your APIs with ease and saves ... It seems that front-end devs are tired of requesting for APIs every now and then.Now, we will build a very simple Vue app and we'll learn how connect it to our GraphQL API. If something is unclear during the creation of the ...

I recently wrote about how to create an API with Hasura’s GraphQL engine. If you are not familiar with GraphQL yet, I recommend reading this post first. Now, we will build a very simple Vue app and we’ll learn how connect it to our GraphQL API.

If something is unclear during the creation of the Vue app or if you want to see the full solution, you can always view the project on Github.

Table of Contents
  • Creating a Vue project
  • Movie list component]
  • Movie detail component
  • Add movie component
  • Connecting to GraphQL API
  • Fetch actual data from GraphQL API
  • Movies list
  • Add movie
  • What now?
  • Join the community
Creating a Vue project

Let’s create a Vue project in our terminal by running:

vue create harry-potter-app

Select the default preset and open the project in your favourite editor. In order to make the appearance of our app a little prettier, we add the Milligram library. In the public index.html, add these three lines inside the <head>:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="//fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto:300,300italic,700,700italic">

<link rel="stylesheet" href="//cdn.rawgit.com/necolas/normalize.css/master/normalize.css">

<link rel="stylesheet" href="//cdn.rawgit.com/milligram/milligram/master/dist/milligram.min.css">

Go to your terminal, cd into your project, and run your application by typing locally:

With yarn:

yarn serve

With npm:

npm run serve

You should see Vue’s Hello World page with the Vue logo:

When we look at our Harry Potter API that we created in the previous post, we can see that we have several tables: movies, characters, actors and scenes. What we want to in our Vue app is to create components for movie. In the end, we want a component for a list of movies that consists of several components that represent a single movie. And we want to create a component that allows us to add movies.

Movie list component

Let’s get started. First, we’ll register the MoviesList component to the App.vue file. Inside the file, we need to replace the <HelloWorld/> component with <movies-list/>. Now this will fail, because we haven’t registered our new component. A little further down in the same file in the components list, let’s import our renamed component from the right location and replace the HelloWorld component with the MoviesList component. When you’re done, it should look like this:

<template>
<div id="app">
<img alt="Vue logo" src="./assets/logo.png">
<movies-list/>
</div>
</template>

<script>
import MoviesList from "./components/MoviesList.vue";
export default {
name: "app",
components: {
MoviesList
}
};
</script>

Now, we need to rename the HelloWorld.vue file to MoviesList.vue. Inside the file, we’ll replace the <template>and the <script> so it looks like this:

<template>
<div>
<div v-for="movie in movies" :key="movie.id">{{movie.id}}</div>
</div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
name: "MoviesList",
data() {
return {
movies: [
{
id: "123123123",
title: "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix",
director: "David Yates",
composer: "Nicholas Hopper",
release_date: "2007-07-11"
}
]
};
}
};
</script>

Let me explain what happens here. Inside the template, we add a <div> that iterates over all our movies with v-for. We have to tell Vue how to identify each movie, which we’ll do by their id. Using the double curly braces, we tell Vue what to display in the browser, which is in our case the id of the movies. Inside the <script> tag, we define what data should be displayed. For now, we display dummy data which is a movie with an ID that we defined. If you now look at the app in your browser, you’ll see the Vue logo and the id of the movie.


Movie detail component

As we said before, we also need a component to display one movie. The purpose of this being that we can later display a collection of actual MovieItems in the MoviesList, instead of using dummy data. So let’s go ahead and inside the components folder, let’s create a new file called MovieItem.vue. For each MovieItem in the MoviesList, we want to display the title, the director, the composer and the release date. So let’s go ahead and add the component to the MovieItem.vue file.

<template>
<div :key="movie.id">
<h3>{{ movie.title }}</h3>
<p>{{ movie.director }}</p>
<p>{{ movie.composer }}</p>
<span>{{ movie.release_date }}</span>
</div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
name: "MovieItem",
props: ["movie"]
};
</script>

Now, we’ll have to go back to MoviesList.vue, and change it, so that we can display the actual MovieItems in our list.

<template>
<div>
<movie-item v-for="movie in movies" :key="movie.id" :movie="movie"></movie-item>
</div>
</template>

<script>
import MovieItem from "./MovieItem";
export default {
name: "MoviesList",
components: { MovieItem },
data() {
return {
movies: [
{
id: "123123123",
title: "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix",
director: "David Yates",
composer: "Nicholas Hopper",
release_date: "2007-07-11"
}
]
};
}
};
</script>

In order to do so, we need to change line 3 to use the <movie-item> component instead of a simple <div>. Also, in line 8, we need to import the MovieItem from its corresponding file. Finally, in line 11, we need to state that MovieItem is the component that is used inside the current file as an instance of a list of movies.

When you now refresh your browser, it should look like this:


Add movie component

Let’s now add the capability to add new movies to our application. In order to do so, inside the components folder, we’ll create a new file called AddMovie.vue and leave it empty for now. Now we’ll open App.vue and inside the <template>, we’ll add the <add-movie/> component before the <movies-list> component. Also, like with the MoviesList component, we need to import the component from the correct location and add the AddMoviescomponent to our components list. When you’re done, your <template> and <script> should look like this:

<template>
<div id="app">
<img alt="Vue logo" src="./assets/logo.png">
<add-movie/>
<movies-list/>
</div>
</template>

<script>
import MoviesList from "./components/MoviesList.vue";
import AddMovie from "./components/AddMovie.vue";
export default {
name: "app",
components: {
MoviesList,
AddMovie
}
};
</script>

Inside the AddMovie.vue file, we’ll add a form to create new movies. When we have a look at our API, we can see what fields the movie table has. For now, we want to be able to create a movie that has a title, a director, a composer and a release date. The file should look like this:

<template>
<form @submit="submit">
<fieldset>
<input type="text" placeholder="Title" v-model="title">
<input type="text" placeholder="Director" v-model="director">
<input type="text" placeholder="Composer" v-model="composer">
<input type="text" placeholder="Release date" v-model="release_date">
</fieldset>
<input class="button-primary" type="submit" value="Send">
</form>
</template>

<script>
export default {
name: "AddMovie",
data() {
return {
title: "",
director: "",
composer: "",
release_date: ""
};
}
};
</script>

It is a very simple form that allows us to enter the fields for a movie and submit. Note that we haven’t added any methods to the component yet, so nothing happens if we click the submit button.

When you refresh your browser, you should see this:

Connecting to GraphQL API

The next step is to connect our Vue app to our GraphQL API that we created in the last post, so that we can display actual data instead of dummy data. Let’s go ahead and get started.

In the previous post, we’ve seen how we can run queries in the GraphiQL tool. We can go to the Hasura console and in GraphiQL, let’s test the methods to get a list of all movies, as well as the functionality to add a new movie:

query getMovies {
movies {
id
title
director
composer
release_date
}
}

mutation addPost($title:String!, $director:String!, $composer:String!, $release_date:date!) {
insert_movies(objects:[{
title:$title,
director:$director,
composer:$composer,
release_date:$release_date
}]) {
returning {
id
}
}
}

Now, in from Vue project, we want to invoke exactly these methods. In order to do that, we will use the Apollo client. Apollo is a GraphQL platform that allows you to make queries to your API in a simplified language. Let’s install Apollo by running this command in the command line (in your project folder):

with npm:

npm install apollo-client apollo-cache-inmemory apollo-link-http graphql-tag graphql --save

with yarn:

yarn add vue-apollo graphql apollo-client apollo-link apollo-link-http apollo-cache-inmemory graphql-tag

First, we need to establish the link to our Hasura project and to instantiate Apollo. Change your main.js so it looks as follows.

import Vue from 'vue';
import App from './App.vue';
import { createProvider } from './vue-apollo';
import { ApolloClient } from 'apollo-client';
import { HttpLink } from 'apollo-link-http';
import { InMemoryCache } from 'apollo-cache-inmemory';

import VueApollo, { ApolloProvider } from 'vue-apollo';

Vue.config.productionTip = false;

const httpLink = new HttpLink({
uri: 'https://graphql-harry-potter-api.herokuapp.com/v1alpha1/graphql'
});

const apolloClient = new ApolloClient({
link: httpLink,
cache: new InMemoryCache(),
connectToDevTools: true
});

Vue.use(VueApollo);

const apolloProvider = new VueApollo({
defaultClient: apolloClient
});

new Vue({
el: '#app',
apolloProvider,
render: h => h(App)
});

Let’s go through this. First, we need to import the libraries we just installed, because we will use them in this file. Using HttpLink, we establish a connection to our GraphQL API on lines 12–14. You find your own custom link in the GraphiQL tool on your Hasura project:

Next, in lines 16–20, we create an instance of the ApolloClient. As arguments, we pass our HttpLink, so that the data gets polled from the correct API. Next, we pass our cache. InMemoryCache is the default cache implementation for ApolloClient, so we use this one. Finally, we pass the option to connect to dev tools, so that we get an Apollo tab in our chrome inspector in case we have to debug.

On line 22, we configure our Vue instance to use VueApollo.

In order to to be able to make queries and mutations from our Vue app, we need to create an instance of ApolloProvider (lines 24–26). We’ll pass it our Apollo client with which we will commit these operations.

Finally, on lines 28–32, we launch our Vue app where our Apollo provider is passed, so that we can make database queries and manipulations throughout our app.

Fetch actual data from GraphQL API

So far, we’ve been displaying dummy data in our Vue frontend. Now, we want to display actual data. In our MoviesList, we want to display the movies that are currently stored in our database. Also, we want to be able to add movies, so that they get saved in our database and displayed in our frontend.

Movies list

In order to display movies from our database, let’s change MoviesList.vue to the following:

<template>
<div>
<movie-item v-for="movie in movies" :key="movie.id" :movie="movie"></movie-item>
</div>
</template>

<script>
import MovieItem from "./MovieItem";
import gql from "graphql-tag";
const GET_MOVIES = gql query getMovies { movies { id title director composer release_date } };
export default {
name: "MoviesList",
components: { MovieItem },
data() {
return {
movies: []
};
},
apollo: {
movies: {
query: GET_MOVIES
}
}
};
</script>

Inside the <script> tag, we need to import GraphQL, which will allow us to make queries. On lines 11–21, we define the GraphQL query to retrieve the list of movies.

Inside the export default function, we remove the dummy data and return the list of movies that we poll from the database. We also need to tell Apollo which query should be sent to the API, and we pass the GET_MOVIES query that we defined earlier.

When we refresh the browser, we can see the whole list of movies from our database:

Yay!

Add movie

So far, when we submit our form, nothing happens. We now want to be able to add movies over our form. For this, we need some changes in our AddMovie.vue file:

<template>
<form @submit="submit">
<fieldset>
<input type="text" placeholder="Title" v-model="title">
<input type="text" placeholder="Director" v-model="director">
<input type="text" placeholder="Composer" v-model="composer">
<input type="text" placeholder="Release date" v-model="release_date">
</fieldset>
<input class="button-primary" type="submit" value="Send">
</form>
</template>

<script>
import gql from "graphql-tag";
import { InMemoryCache } from "apollo-cache-inmemory";
const ADD_MOVIE = gql mutation addMovie( $title: String! $director: String! $composer: String! $release_date: date! ) { insert_movies( objects: [ { title: $title director: $director composer: $composer release_date: $release_date } ] ) { returning { id } } };
export default {
name: "AddMovie",
data() {
return {
title: "",
director: "",
composer: "",
release_date: ""
};
},
apollo: {},
methods: {
submit(e) {
e.preventDefault();
const { title, director, composer, release_date } = this.$data;
this.$apollo.mutate({
mutation: ADD_MOVIE,
variables: {
title,
director,
composer,
release_date
},
refetchQueries: ["getMovies"]
});
}
}
};
</script>

Again, inside the <script> tag, we need to import GraphQL. Also, we need to import the InMemoryCache. We’ll see why in just a bit.

In lines 17–39, we define our mutation to add movies to our database. First, we define the parameters that are passed. Second, we pass them as an object for a movie to be inserted. And third, we state the return value of our mutation which is, in our case the id of the movie that we just created.

The most substantial change inside the export default function is reflected in lines 52–67 where define what happens when the submit button is clicked. First, we need to prevent the default behaviour of a form being submitted when clicking on the button. Then, we define the data that is passed to the mutation. Next, we call our mutation on the $apollo instance and we pass the variables for the object creation. In the end, we need to refresh the movies list, because we don’t want to reload the browser for the newly added movie to appear in the list. For this, we need our cache. Because we ran the query to list movies before, we can just refetch it from the cache.

What now?

Good job! We now created a small Vue app and connected it to our GraphQL API. This was quite easy, wasn’t it? But this is just the beginning! There are a lot more features that can be added to our app. For example updating and deleting movies. Or displaying the characters and their corresponding actors for each movie. Check out the Hasura documentation. You can find everything that you need to extend this app.


Originally published by Marion Schleifer  at medium.com

==========================================================


Learn More

☞ Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

☞ Nuxt.js - Vue.js on Steroids

☞ Build Web Apps with Vue JS 2 & Firebase

☞ The Modern GraphQL Bootcamp (Advanced Node.js)

☞ NodeJS - The Complete Guide (incl. MVC, REST APIs, GraphQL)

☞ GraphQL with React: The Complete Developers Guide

☞ Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

☞ Vuejs 2 Authentication Tutorial

☞ GraphQL Tutorial: Understanding Spring Data JPA/SpringBoot

☞ GraphQL API with AWS and Use with React

☞ Build a Simple Web App with Express, Angular, and GraphQL

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

A CMS (Content Management System) helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

A CMS (Content Management System) helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 1: Setting up

The birth of the internet has since redefined content accessibility for the better, causing a distinct rise in content consumption across the globe. The average user of the internet consumes and produces some form of content formally or informally.

An example of an effort at formal content creation is when an someone makes a blog post about their work so that a targeted demographic can easily find their website. This type of content is usually served and managed by a CMS (Content Management System). Some popular ones are WordPress, Drupal, and SilverStripe.

A CMS helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

Our CMS will be able to make new posts, update existing posts, delete posts that we do not need anymore, and also allow users make comments to posts which will be updated in realtime using Pusher. We will also be able to add featured images to posts to give them some visual appeal.

When we are done, we will be able to have a CMS that looks like this:

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Installing the Laravel CLI
The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
The first thing we need to do is install the Laravel CLI, and the Laravel dependencies. The CLI will be instrumental in creating new Laravel projects whenever we need to create one. Laravel requires PHP and a few other tools and extensions, so we need to first install these first before installing the CLI.

Here’s a list of the dependencies as documented on the official Laravel documentation:

Let’s install them one at a time.

Installing PHP

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Open a fresh instance of the terminal and paste the following command:

    # Linux Users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2

    # Mac users
    $ brew install php72


As at the time of writing this article, PHP 7.2 is the latest stable version of PHP so the command above installs it on your machine.

On completion, you can check that PHP has been installed to your machine with the following command:

    $ php -v


Installing the Mbstring extension

To install the mbstring extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mbstring

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the mbstring extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep mbstring


Installing the XML PHP extension

To install the XML extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php-xml

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the xml extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep xml


Installing the ZIP PHP extension

To install the zip extension for PHP, paste the following command in your terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-zip

    # Mac users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


To check if the zip extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

    $ php -m | grep zip


Installing curl

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
To install curl, paste the following command in your terminal:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install curl

    # Mac users using Homebrew (https://brew.sh)
    $ brew install curl


To verify that curl has been installed successfully, run the following command:

    $ curl --version


Installing Composer

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.> The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now that we have curl installed on our machine, let’s pull in Composer with this command:

    $ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer


For us to run Composer in the future without calling sudo, we may need to change the permission, however you should only do this if you have problems installing packages:

    $ sudo chown -R $USER ~/.composer/


Installing the Laravel installer

At this point, we can already create a new Laravel project using Composer’s create-project command, which looks like this:

    $ composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel project-name


But we will go one step further and install the Laravel installer using composer:

    $ composer global require "laravel/installer"


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
After the installation, we will need to add the PATH to the bashrc file so that our terminal can recognize the laravel command:

    $ echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.composer/vendor/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
    $ source ~/.bashrc


Creating the CMS project

Now that we have the official Laravel CLI installed on our machine, let’s create our CMS project using the installer. In your terminal window, cd to the project directory you want to create the project in and run the following command:

    $ laravel new cms


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will navigate into the project directory and serve the application using PHP’s web server:

    $ cd cms
    $ php artisan serve


Now, when we visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/, we will see the default Laravel template:

Setting up the database

In this series, we will be using MySQL as our database system so a prerequisite for this section is that you have MySQL installed on your machine.

You can follow the steps below to install and configure MySQL:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

You will also need a special driver that makes it possible for PHP to work with MySQL, you can install it with this command:

    # Linux users
    $ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql

    # Mac Users
    # You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.


Load the project directory in your favorite text editor and there should be a .env file in the root of the folder. This is where Laravel stores its environment variables.

Create a new MySQL database and call it laravelcms. In the .env file, update the database configuration keys as seen below:

    DB_CONNECTION=mysql
    DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
    DB_PORT=3306
    DB_DATABASE=laravelcms
    DB_USERNAME=YourUsername
    DB_PASSWORD=YourPassword


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Setting up user roles

Like most content management systems, we are going to have a user role system so that our blog can have multiple types of users; the admin and regular user. The admin should be able to create a post and perform other CRUD operations on a post. The regular user, on the other hand, should be able to view and comment on a post.

For us to implement this functionality, we need to implement user authentication and add a simple role authorization system.

Setting up user authentication

Laravel provides user authentication out of the box, which is great, and we can key into the feature by running a single command:

    $ php artisan make:auth


The above will create all that’s necessary for authentication in our application so we do not need to do anything extra.

Setting up role authorization

We need a model for the user roles so let’s create one and an associated migration file:

    $ php artisan make:model Role -m


In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRolesTable class with this snippet:

    <?php // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_roles_table.php

    // [...]

    class CreateRolesTable extends Migration
    {
        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->string('name');
                $table->string('description');
                $table->timestamps();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('roles');
        }
    }

We intend to create a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models so let’s add a relationship method on both models.

Open the User model and add the following method:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function roles() 
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class);
    }

Open the Role model and include the following method:

    // File: ./app/Role.php
    public function users() 
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(User::class);
    }

We are also going to need a pivot table to associate each user with a matching role so let’s create a new migration file for the role_user table:

    $ php artisan make:migration create_role_user_table


In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRoleUserTable class with this snippet:

    // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_role_user_table.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class CreateRoleUserTable extends Migration
    {

        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('role_user', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->integer('role_id')->unsigned();
                $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('role_user');
        }
    }

Next, let’s create seeders that will populate the users and roles tables with some data. In your terminal, run the following command to create the database seeders:

    $ php artisan make:seeder RoleTableSeeder
    $ php artisan make:seeder UserTableSeeder


In the database/seeds folder, open the RoleTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

    // File: ./database/seeds/RoleTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use App\Role;
    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class RoleTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $role_regular_user = new Role;
            $role_regular_user->name = 'user';
            $role_regular_user->description = 'A regular user';
            $role_regular_user->save();

            $role_admin_user = new Role;
            $role_admin_user->name = 'admin';
            $role_admin_user->description = 'An admin user';
            $role_admin_user->save();
        }
    }

Open the UserTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

    // File: ./database/seeds/UserTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;
    use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Hash;
    use App\User;
    use App\Role;

    class UserTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {

        public function run()
        {
            $user = new User;
            $user->name = 'Samuel Jackson';
            $user->email = '[email protected]';
            $user->password = bcrypt('samuel1234');
            $user->save();
            $user->roles()->attach(Role::where('name', 'user')->first());

            $admin = new User;
            $admin->name = 'Neo Ighodaro';
            $admin->email = '[email protected]';
            $admin->password = bcrypt('neo1234');
            $admin->save();
            $admin->roles()->attach(Role::where('name', 'admin')->first());
        }
    }

We also need to update the DatabaseSeeder class. Open the file and update the run method as seen below:

    // File: ./database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $this->call([
                RoleTableSeeder::class, 
                UserTableSeeder::class,
            ]);
        }
    }

Next, let’s update the User model. We will be adding a checkRoles method that checks what role a user has. We will return a 404 page where a user doesn’t have the expected role for a page. Open the User model and add these methods:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function checkRoles($roles) 
    {
        if ( ! is_array($roles)) {
            $roles = [$roles];    
        }

        if ( ! $this->hasAnyRole($roles)) {
            auth()->logout();
            abort(404);
        }
    }

    public function hasAnyRole($roles): bool
    {
        return (bool) $this->roles()->whereIn('name', $roles)->first();
    }

    public function hasRole($role): bool
    {
        return (bool) $this->roles()->where('name', $role)->first();
    }

Let’s modify the RegisterController.php file in the Controllers/Auth folder so that a default role, the user role, is always attached to a new user at registration.

Open the RegisterController and update the create action with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/Auth/RegisterController.php
    protected function create(array $data)
    {       
        $user = User::create([
            'name'     => $data['name'],
            'email'    => $data['email'],
            'password' => bcrypt($data['password']),
        ]);

        $user->roles()->attach(\App\Role::where('name', 'user')->first());

        return $user;
    }

Now let’s migrate and seed the database so that we can log in with the sample accounts. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


In order to test that our roles work as they should, we will make an update to the HomeController.php file. Open the HomeController and update the index method as seen below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        $request->user()->checkRoles('admin');

        return view('home');
    }

Now, only administrators should be able to see the dashboard. In a more complex application, we would use a middleware to do this instead.

We can test that this works by serving the application and logging in both user accounts; Samuel Jackson and Neo Ighodaro.

Remember that in our UserTableSeeder.php file, we defined Samuel as a regular user and Neo as an admin, so Samuel should see a 404 error after logging in and Neo should be able to see the homepage.

Testing the application

Let’s serve the application with this command:

    $ php artisan serve


When we try logging in with Samuel’s credentials, we should see this:

On the other hand, we will get logged in with Neo’s credentials because he has an admin account:

We will also confirm that whenever a new user registers, he is assigned a role and it is the role of a regular user. We will create a new user and call him Greg, he should see a 404 error right after:

It works just as we wanted it to, however, it doesn’t really make any sense for us to redirect a regular user to a 404 page. Instead, we will edit the HomeController so that it redirects users based on their roles, that is, it redirects a regular user to a regular homepage and an admin to an admin dashboard.

Open the HomeController.php file and update the index method as seen below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
            return redirect('/');
        }

        if ($request->user()->hasRole('admin')){
            return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
        }
    }

If we serve our application and try to log in using the admin account, we will hit a 404 error because we do not have a controller or a view for the admin/dashboard route. In the next article, we will start building the basic views for the CMS.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, we learned how to install a fresh Laravel app on our machine and pulled in all the needed dependencies. We also learned how to configure the Laravel app to work with a MySQL database. We also created our models and migrations files and seeded the database using database seeders.

In the next part of this series, we will start building the views for the application.

The source code for this project is available on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 2: Implementing posts

In the previous part of this series, we set up user authentication and role authorization but we didn’t create any views for the application yet. In this section, we will create the Post model and start building the frontend for the application.

Our application allows different levels of accessibility for two kinds of users; the regular user and admin. In this chapter, we will focus on building the view that the regular users are permitted to see.

Before we build any views, let’s create the Post model as it is imperative to rendering the view.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Setting up the Post model

We will create the Post model with an associated resource controller and a migration file using this command:

    $ php artisan make:model Post -mr


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Let’s navigate into the database/migrations folder and update the CreatePostsTable class that was generated for us:

    // File: ./app/database/migrations/*_create_posts_table.php
    <?php 

    // [...]

    class CreatePostsTable extends Migration
    {
        public function up()
        {
            Schema::create('posts', function (Blueprint $table) {
                $table->increments('id');
                $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
                $table->string('title');
                $table->text('body');
                $table->binary('image')->nullable();
                $table->timestamps();
            });
        }

        public function down()
        {
            Schema::dropIfExists('posts');
        }
    }

We included a user_id property because we want to create a relationship between the User and Post models. A Post also has an image field, which is where its associated image’s address will be stored.

Creating a database seeder for the Post table

We will create a new seeder file for the posts table using this command:

    $ php artisan make:seeder PostTableSeeder


Let’s navigate into the database/seeds folder and update the PostTableSeeder.php file:

    // File: ./app/database/seeds/PostsTableSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use App\Post;
    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class PostTableSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $post = new Post;
            $post->user_id = 2;
            $post->title = "Using Laravel Seeders";
            $post->body = "Laravel includes a simple method of seeding your database with test data using seed classes. All seed classes are stored in the database/seeds directory. Seed classes may have any name you wish, but probably should follow some sensible convention, such as UsersTableSeeder, etc. By default, a DatabaseSeeder class is defined for you. From this class, you may use the  call method to run other seed classes, allowing you to control the seeding order.";
            $post->save();

            $post = new Post;
            $post->user_id = 2;
            $post->title = "Database: Migrations";
            $post->body = "Migrations are like version control for your database, allowing your team to easily modify and share the application's database schema. Migrations are typically paired with Laravel's schema builder to easily build your application's database schema. If you have ever had to tell a teammate to manually add a column to their local database schema, you've faced the problem that database migrations solve.";
            $post->save();
        }
    }

When we run this seeder, it will create two new posts and assign both of them to the admin user whose ID is 2. We are attaching both posts to the admin user because the regular users are only allowed to view posts and make comments; they can’t create a post.

Let’s open the DatabaseSeeder and update it with the following code:

    // File: ./app/database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
    <?php 

    use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

    class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
    {
        public function run()
        {
            $this->call([
                RoleTableSeeder::class,
                UserTableSeeder::class,
                PostTableSeeder::class,
            ]);
        }
    }

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will use this command to migrate our tables and seed the database:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Defining the relationships

Just as we previously created a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models, we need to create a different kind of relationship between the Post and User models.

We will define the relationship as a one-to-many relationship because a user will have many posts but a post will only ever belong to one user.

Open the User model and include the method below:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function posts()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Post::class);
    }

Open the Post model and include the method below:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    public function user()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
    }

Setting up the routes

At this point in our application, we do not have a front page with all the posts listed. Let’s create so anyone can see all of the created posts. Asides from the front page, we also need a single post page in case a user needs to read a specific post.

Let’s include two new routes to our routes/web.php file:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
    Route::get('/', '[email protected]');

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.* Basic knowledge of PHP.

  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
    Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');

With these two new routes added, here’s what the routes/web.php file should look like this:

    // File: ./routes/web.php
    <?php 

    Auth::routes();
    Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');
    Route::get('/home', '[email protected]')->name('home');
    Route::get('/', '[email protected]');

Setting up the Post controller

In this section, we want to define the handler action methods that we registered in the routes/web.php file so that our application know how to render the matching views.

First, let’s add the all() method:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function all()
    {
        return view('landing', [
            'posts' => Post::latest()->paginate(5)
        ]);
    }

Here, we want to retrieve five created posts per page and send to the landing view. We will create this view shortly.

Next, let’s add the single() method to the controller:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function single(Post $post)
    {
        return view('single', compact('post'));
    }

In the method above, we used a feature of Laravel named route model binding to map the URL parameter to a Post instance with the same ID. We are returning a single view, which we will create shortly. This will be the view for the single post page.

Building our views

Laravel uses a templating engine called Blade for its frontend. We will use Blade to build these parts of the frontend before switching to Vue in the next chapter.

Navigate to the resources/views folder and create two new Blade files:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

These are the files that will load the views for the landing page and single post page. Before we start writing any code in these files, we want to create a simple layout template that our page views can use as a base.

In the resources/views/layouts folder, create a Blade template file and call it master.blade.php. This is where we will define the inheritable template for our single and landing pages.

Open the master.blade.php file and update it with this code:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
      <head>
        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
        <meta name="description" content="">
        <meta name="author" content="Neo Ighodaro">
        <title>LaravelCMS</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style> 
        body {
          padding-top: 54px;
        }
        @media (min-width: 992px) {
          body {
              padding-top: 56px;
          }
        }
        </style>
      </head>
      <body>
        <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-dark bg-dark fixed-top">
          <div class="container">
            <a class="navbar-brand" href="/">LaravelCMS</a>
            <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarResponsive">
              <ul class="navbar-nav ml-auto">
                 @if (Route::has('login'))
                    @auth
                    <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ url('/home') }}">Home</a>
                    </li>
                    <li class="nav-item">
                      <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('logout') }}"
                                           onclick="event.preventDefault();
                                                         document.getElementById('logout-form').submit();">
                        Log out
                      </a>
                      <form id="logout-form" action="{{ route('logout') }}" method="POST" style="display: none;">
                        @csrf
                      </form>
                     </li>
                     @else
                     <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('login') }}">Login</a>
                    </li>
                     <li class="nav-item">
                         <a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('register') }}">Register</a>
                     </li>
                     @endauth
                 @endif
              </ul>
            </div>
          </div>
        </nav>

        <div id="app">
            @yield('content')
        </div>

        <footer class="py-5 bg-dark">
          <div class="container">
            <p class="m-0 text-center text-white">Copyright &copy; LaravelCMS 2018</p>
          </div>
        </footer>
      </body>
    </html>

Now we can inherit this template in the landing.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/landing.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row align-items-center">
        <div class="col-md-8 mx-auto">
          <h1 class="my-4 text-center">Welcome to the Blog </h1>

          @foreach ($posts as $post)
          <div class="card mb-4">
            <img class="card-img-top" src=" {!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt="Card image cap">
            <div class="card-body">
              <h2 class="card-title text-center">{{ $post->title }}</h2>
              <p class="card-text"> {{ str_limit($post->body, $limit = 280, $end = '...') }} </p>
              <a href="/posts/{{ $post->id }}" class="btn btn-primary">Read More &rarr;</a>
            </div>
            <div class="card-footer text-muted">
              Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }} by
              <a href="#">{{ $post->user->name }} </a>
            </div>
          </div>
          @endforeach

        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Let’s do the same with the single.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto">
          <h3 class="mt-4">{{ $post->title }} <span class="lead"> by <a href="#"> {{ $post->user->name }} </a></span> </h3>
          <hr>
          <p>Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }} </p>
          <hr>
          <img class="img-fluid rounded" src=" {!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt="">
          <hr>
          <p class="lead">{{ $post->body }}</p>
          <hr>
          <div class="card my-4">
            <h5 class="card-header">Leave a Comment:</h5>
            <div class="card-body">
              <form>
                <div class="form-group">
                  <textarea class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
                </div>
                <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
              </form>
            </div>
          </div>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Testing the application

We can test the application to see that things work as we expect. When we serve the application, we expect to see a landing page and a single post page. We also expect to see two posts because that’s the number of posts we seeded into the database.

We will serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We can visit this address to see the application:

We have used simple placeholder images here because we haven’t built the admin dashboard that allows CRUD operations to be performed on posts.

In the coming chapters, we will add the ability for an admin to include a custom image when creating a new post.

Conclusion

In this chapter, we created the Post model and defined a relationship on it to the User model. We also built the landing page and single page.

In the next part of this series, we will develop the API that will be the medium for communication between the admin user and the post items.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 3: Building an API

In the previous part of this series, we initialized the posts resource and started building the frontend of the CMS. We designed the front page that shows all the posts and the single post page using Laravel’s templating engine, Blade.

In this part of the series, we will start building the API for the application. We will create an API for CRUD operations that an admin will perform on posts and we will test the endpoints using Postman.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Building the API using Laravel’s API resources

The Laravel framework makes it very easy to build APIs. It has an API resources feature that we can easily adopt in our project. You can think of API resources as a transformation layer between Eloquent models and the JSON responses that will be sent back by our API.

Allowing mass assignment on specified fields

Since we are going to be performing CRUD operations on the posts in the application, we have to explicitly specify that it’s permitted for some fields to be mass-assigned data. For security reasons, Laravel prevents mass assignment of data to model fields by default.

Open the Post.php file and include this line of code:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'title', 'body', 'image'];

Defining API routes

We will use the apiResource()method to generate only API routes. Open the routes/api.php file and add the following code:

    // File: ./routes/api.php
    Route::apiResource('posts', 'PostController');


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.### Creating the Post resource

At the beginning of this section, we already talked about what Laravel’s API resources are. Here, we create a resource class for our Post model. This will enable us to retrieve Post data and return formatted JSON format.

To create a resource class for our Post model run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan make:resource PostResource


A new PostResource.php file will be available in the app/Http/Resources directory of our application. Open up the PostResource.php file and replace the toArray() method with the following:

    // File: ./app/Http/Resources/PostResource.php
    public function toArray($request)
    {
        return [
            'id' => $this->id,
            'title' => $this->title,
            'body' => $this->body,
            'image' => $this->image,
            'created_at' => (string) $this->created_at,
            'updated_at' => (string) $this->updated_at,
        ];
    }

The job of this toArray() method is to convert our P``ost resource into an array. As seen above, we have specified the fields on our Post model, which we want to be returned as JSON when we make a request for posts.

We are also explicitly casting the dates, created_at and update_at, to strings so that they would be returned as date strings. The dates are normally an instance of Carbon.

Now that we have created a resource class for our Post model, we can start building the API’s action methods in our PostController and return instances of the PostResource where we want.

Adding the action methods to the Post controller

The usual actions performed on a post include the following:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

In the last article, we already implemented a kind of ‘Read’ functionality when we defined the all and single methods. These methods allow users to browse through posts on the homepage.

In this section, we will define the methods that will resolve our API requests for creating, reading, updating and deleting posts.

The first thing we want to do is import the PostResource class at the top of the PostController.php file:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    use App\Http\Resources\PostResource;

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.### Building the handler action for the create operation

In the PostController update the store() action method with the code snippet below. It will allow us to validate and create a new post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'title' => 'required',
            'body' => 'required',
            'user_id' => 'required',            
            'image' => 'required|mimes:jpeg,png,jpg,gif,svg',
        ]);

        $post = new Post;

        if ($request->hasFile('image')) {
            $image = $request->file('image');
            $name = str_slug($request->title).'.'.$image->getClientOriginalExtension();
            $destinationPath = public_path('/uploads/posts');
            $imagePath = $destinationPath . "/" . $name;
            $image->move($destinationPath, $name);
            $post->image = $name;
        }

        $post->user_id = $request->user_id;
        $post->title = $request->title;
        $post->body = $request->body;
        $post->save();

        return new PostResource($post);
    }

Here’s a breakdown of what this method does:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

Building the handler action for the read operations

What we want here is to be able to read all the created posts or a single post. This is possible because the apiResource() method defines the API routes using standard REST rules.

This means that a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts, should be resolved by the index() action method. Let’s update the index method with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function index()
    {
        return PostResource::collection(Post::latest()->paginate(5));
    }

This method will allow us to return a JSON formatted collection of all of the stored posts. We also want to paginate the response as this will allow us to create a better view on the admin dashboard.

Following the RESTful conventions as we discussed above, a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts/id, should be resolved by the show() action method. Let’s update the method with the fitting snippet:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function show(Post $post)
    {
        return new PostResource($post);
    }

Awesome, now this method will return a single instance of a post resource upon API query.

Building the handler action for the update operation

Next, let’s update the update() method in the PostController class. It will allow us to modify an existing post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function update(Request $request, Post $post)
    {
        $this->validate($request, [
            'title' => 'required',
            'body' => 'required',
        ]);

        $post->update($request->only(['title', 'body']));

        return new PostResource($post);
    }

This method receives a request and a post id as parameters, then we use route model binding to resolve the id into an instance of a Post. First, we validate the $request attributes, then we update the title and body fields of the resolved post.

Building the handler action for the delete operation

Let’s update the destroy() method in the PostController class. This method will allow us to remove an existing post:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
    public function destroy(Post $post)
    {
        $post->delete();

        return response()->json(null, 204);
    }

In this method, we resolve the Post instance, then delete it and return a 204 response code.

Our methods are complete. We have a method to handle our CRUD operations, however, we haven’t built the frontend for the admin dashboard.

At the end of the second article, we defined the [email protected]() action method like this:

    public function index(Request $request)
    {
        if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
            return view('home');
        }

        if ($request->user()->hasRole('admin')) {
            return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
        }
    }

This allowed us to redirect regular users to the view home, and admin users to the URL /admin/dashboard. At this point in this series, a visit to /admin/dashboard will fail because we have neither defined it as a route with a handler Controller nor built a view for it.

Let’s create the AdminController with this command:

    $ php artisan make:controller AdminController


We will add the /admin/ route to our routes/web.php file:

    Route::get('/admin/{any}', '[email protected]')->where('any', '.*');

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Let’s update the AdminController.php file to use the auth middleware and include an index() action method:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/AdminController.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Http\Controllers;

    class AdminController extends Controller
    {
        public function __construct()
        {
            $this->middleware('auth');
        }

        public function index()
        {
            if (request()->user()->hasRole('admin')) {
                return view('admin.dashboard');
            }

            if (request()->user()->hasRole('user')) {
                return redirect('/home');
            }
        }
    }

In the index()action method, we included a snippet that will ensure that only admin users can visit the admin dashboard and perform CRUD operations on posts.

We will not start building the admin dashboard in this article but will test that our API works properly. We will use Postman to make requests to the application.

Testing the application

Let’s test that our API works as expected. We will, first of all, serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We can visit http://localhost:8000 to see our application and there should be exactly two posts available; these are the posts we seeded into the database during the migration:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s create a new post over the API interface using Postman. Send a POST request as seen below:

Now let’s update this post we just created. In Postman, we will pass only the title and body fields to a PUT request.

To make it easy, you can just copy the payload below and use the raw request data type for the Body:

    {
      "title": "We made an edit to the Post on APIs",
      "body": "To a developer, 'What's an API?' might be a straightforward - if not exactly simple - question. But to anyone who doesn't have experience with code. APIs can come across as confusing or downright intimidating."
    }


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Finally, let’s delete the post using Postman:

We are sure the post is deleted because the response status is 204 No Content as we specified in the PostController.

Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about Laravel’s API resources and we created a resource class for the Post model. We also used the apiResources() method to generate API only routes for our application. We wrote the methods to handle the API operations and tested them using Postman.

In the next part, we will build the admin dashboard and develop the logic that will enable the admin user to manage posts over the API.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 4: Building the dashboard

In the last article of this series, we built the API interface and used Laravel API resources to return neatly formatted JSON responses. We tested that the API works as we defined it to using Postman.

In this part of the series, we will start building the admin frontend of the CMS. This is the first part of the series where we will integrate Vue and explore Vue’s magical abilities.

When we are done with this part, our application will have some added functionalities as seen below:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Building the frontend

Laravel ships with Vue out of the box so we do not need to use the Vue-CLI or reference Vue from a CDN. This makes it possible for us to have all of our application, the frontend, and backend, in a single codebase.

Every newly created instance of a Laravel installation has some Vue files included by default, we can see these files when we navigate into the resources/assets/js/components folder.

Setting up Vue and VueRouter

Before we can start using Vue in our application, we need to first install some dependencies using NPM. To install the dependencies that come by default with Laravel, run the command below:

    $ npm install


We will be managing all of the routes for the admin dashboard using vue-router so let’s pull it in:

    $ npm install --save vue-router


When the installation is complete, the next thing we want to do is open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace its contents with the code below:

    // File: ./resources/assets/js/app.js
    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue from 'vue'
    import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Read from './components/Read'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        router,
        components: { Homepage },
    });

In the snippet above, we imported the VueRouter and added it to the Vue application. We also imported a Homepage and a Read component. These are the components where we will write our markup so let’s create both files.

Open the resources/assets/js/components folder and create four files:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined a routes array and in it, we registered a read route. During render time, this route’s path will be mapped to the Read component.

In the previous article, we specified that admin users should be shown an admin.dashboard view in the index method, however, we didn’t create this view. Let’s create the view. Open the resources/views folder and create a new folder called admin. Within the new resources/views/admin folder, create a new file and called dashboard.blade.php. This is going to be the entry point to the admin dashboard, further from this route, we will let the VueRouter handle everything else.

Open the resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file and paste in the following code:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php -->
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
        <title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style>
            html, body {
            background-color: #202B33;
            color: #738491;
            font-family: "Open Sans";
            font-size: 16px;
            font-smoothing: antialiased;
            overflow: hidden;
            }
        </style>
    </head>
    <body>

      <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>
    </body>
    </html>

Our goal here is to integrate Vue into the application, so we included the resources/assets/js/app.js file with this line of code:

    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>


For our app to work, we need a root element to bind our Vue instance unto. Before the <script> tag, add this snippet of code:

    <div id="app">
      <Homepage 
        :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)' 
        :user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'
      ></Homepage>
    </div>

We earlier defined the Homepage component as the wrapping component, that’s why we pulled it in here as the root component. For some of the frontend components to work correctly, we require some details of the logged in admin user to perform CRUD operations. This is why we passed down the userName and userId props to the Homepage component.

We need to prevent the CSRF error from occurring in our Vue frontend, so include this snippet of code just before the <title> tag:

    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
    <script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>

This snippet will ensure that the correct token is always included in our frontend, Laravel provides the CSRF protection for us out of the box.

At this point, this should be the contents of your resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
        <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
        <script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>
        <title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
        <style>
          html, body {
            background-color: #202B33;
            color: #738491;
            font-family: "Open Sans";
            font-size: 16px;
            font-smoothing: antialiased;
            overflow: hidden;
          }
        </style>
    </head>
    <body>
    <div id="app">
      <Homepage 
        :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)' 
        :user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'>
      </Homepage>
    </div>
    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>
    </body>
    </html>

Setting up the Homepage view

Open the Homepage.vue file that we created some time ago and include this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Homepage.vue -->
    <template>
      <div>
        <nav>
          <section>
            <a style="color: white" href="/admin/dashboard">Laravel-CMS</a> &nbsp; ||  &nbsp;
            <a style="color: white" href="/">HOME</a>
            <hr>
            <ul>
               <li>
                 <router-link :to="{ name: 'create', params: { userId } }">
                   NEW POST
                 </router-link>
               </li>
            </ul>
          </section>
        </nav>
        <article>
          <header>
            <header class="d-inline">Welcome, {{ userName }}</header>
            <p @click="logout" class="float-right mr-3" style="cursor: pointer">Logout</p>
          </header>
          <div> 
            <router-view></router-view> 
          </div>
        </article>
      </div>
    </template>

We added a router-link in this template, which routes to the Create component.

We are passing the userId data to the create component because a userId is required during Post creation.

Let’s include some styles so that the page looks good. Below the closing template tag, paste the following code:

    <style scoped>
      @import url(https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Dosis:300|Lato:300,400,600,700|Roboto+Condensed:300,700|Open+Sans+Condensed:300,600|Open+Sans:400,300,600,700|Maven+Pro:400,700);
      @import url("https://netdna.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.2.0/css/font-awesome.css");
      * {
        -moz-box-sizing: border-box;
        -webkit-box-sizing: border-box;
        box-sizing: border-box;
      }
      header {
        color: #d3d3d3;
      }
      nav {
        position: absolute;
        top: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        right: 82%;
        left: 0;
        padding: 22px;
        border-right: 2px solid #161e23;
      }
      nav > header {
        font-weight: 700;
        font-size: 0.8rem;
        text-transform: uppercase;
      }
      nav section {
        font-weight: 600;
      }
      nav section header {
        padding-top: 30px;
      }
      nav section ul {
        list-style: none;
        padding: 0px;
      }
      nav section ul a {
        color: white;
        text-decoration: none;
        font-weight: bold;
      }
      article {
        position: absolute;
        top: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        right: 0;
        left: 18%;
        overflow: auto;
        border-left: 2px solid #2a3843;
        padding: 20px;
      }
      article > header {
        height: 60px;
        border-bottom: 1px solid #2a3843;
      }
    </style>

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Next, let’s add the <script> section that will use the props we passed down from the parent component. We will also define the method that controls the log out feature here. Below the closing style tag, paste the following code:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        },
        userName: {
          type: String,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {};
      },
      methods: {
        logout() {
          axios.post("/logout").then(() => {
            window.location = "/";
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

Setting up the Read view

In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined the path of the read component as /admin/dashboard, which is the same address as the Homepage component. This will make sure the Read component always loads by default.

In the Read component, we want to load all of the available posts. We are also going to add Update and Delete options to each post. Clicking on these options will lead to the update and delete views respectively.

Open the Read.vue file and paste the following:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Read.vue -->
    <template>
        <div id="posts">
            <p class="border p-3" v-for="post in posts">
                {{ post.title }}
                <router-link :to="{ name: 'update', params: { postId : post.id } }">
                    <button type="button" class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-light">
                        Update
                    </button>
                </router-link>
                <button 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="deletePost(post.id)" 
                    class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-danger"
                >
                    Delete
                </button>
            </p>
            <div>
                <button 
                    v-if="next" 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="navigate(next)" 
                    class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
                >
                  Next
                </button>
                <button 
                    v-if="prev" 
                    type="button" 
                    @click="navigate(prev)" 
                    class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
                >
                  Previous
                </button>
            </div>
        </div>
    </template>

Above, we have the template to handle the posts that are loaded from the API. Next, paste the following below the closing template tag:

    <script>
    export default {
      mounted() {
        this.getPosts();
      },
      data() {
        return {
          posts: {},
          next: null,
          prev: null
        };
      },
      methods: {
        getPosts(address) {
          axios.get(address ? address : "/api/posts").then(response => {
            this.posts = response.data.data;
            this.prev = response.data.links.prev;
            this.next = response.data.links.next;
          });
        },
        deletePost(id) {
          axios.delete("/api/posts/" + id).then(response => this.getPosts())
        },
        navigate(address) {
          this.getPosts(address)
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the script above, we defined a getPosts() method that requests a list of posts from the backend server. We also defined a posts object as a data property. This object will be populated whenever posts are received from the backend server.

We defined next and prev data string properties to store pagination links and only display the pagination options where it is available.

Lastly, we defined a deletePost() method that takes the id of a post as a parameter and sends a DELETE request to the API interface using Axios.

Testing the application

Now that we have completed the first few components, we can serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


We will also build the assets so that our JavaScript is compiled for us. To do this, will run the command below in the root of the project folder:

    $ npm run dev


We can visit the application’s URL http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user, and delete a post:

Conclusion

In this part of the series, we started building the admin dashboard using Vue. We installed VueRouter to make the admin dashboard a SPA. We added the homepage view of the admin dashboard and included read and delete functionalities.

We are not done with the dashboard just yet. In the next part, we will add the views that lets us create and update posts.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 5: Completing our dashboards

In the previous part of this series, we built the first parts of the admin dashboard using Vue. We also made it into an SPA with the VueRouter, this means that visiting the pages does not cause a reload to the web browser.

We only built the wrapper component and the Read component that retrieves the posts to be loaded so an admin can manage them.

Here’s a recording of what we ended up with, in the last article:

In this article, we will build the view that will allow users to create and update posts. We will start writing code in the Update.vue and Create.vue files that we created in the previous article.

When we are done with this part, we will have additional functionalities like create and updating:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Including the new routes in VueRouter

In the previous article, we only defined the route for the Read component, we need to include the route configuration for the new components that we are about to build; Update and Create.

Open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace the contents with the code below:

    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue from 'vue'
    import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Create from './components/Create'
    import Read from './components/Read'
    import Update from './components/Update'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/create',
                name: 'create',
                component: Create,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/update',
                name: 'update',
                component: Update,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        router,
        components: { Homepage },
    });

Above, we have added two new components to the JavaScript file. We have the Create and Read components. We also added them to the router so that they can be loaded using the specified URLs.

Building the create view

Open the Create.vue file and update it with this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Create.vue -->
    <template>
      <div class="container">
        <form>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', (successful ? 'alert-success' : '')]">
            <span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Published!</span>
          </div>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']">
            <span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.title[0] }}
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger"> 
              {{ errors.body[0] }} 
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.image" class="label label-danger"> 
              {{ errors.image[0] }} 
            </span>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required></textarea>
          </div>

          <div class="custom-file mb-3">
            <input type="file" ref="image" name="image" class="custom-file-input" id="image" required>
            <label class="custom-file-label" >Choose file...</label>
          </div>

          <button type="submit" @click.prevent="create" class="btn btn-primary block">
            Submit
          </button>
        </form>
      </div>
    </template>

Above we have the template for the Create component. If there is an error during post creation, there will be a field indicating the specific error. When a post is successfully published, there will also a message saying it was successful.

Let’s include the script logic that will perform the sending of posts to our backend server and read back the response.

After the closing template tag add this:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          error: false,
          successful: false,
          errors: []
        };
      },
      methods: {
        create() {
          const formData = new FormData();
          formData.append("title", this.$refs.title.value);
          formData.append("body", this.$refs.body.value);
          formData.append("user_id", this.userId);
          formData.append("image", this.$refs.image.files[0]);

          axios
            .post("/api/posts", formData)
            .then(response => {
              this.successful = true;
              this.error = false;
              this.errors = [];
            })
            .catch(error => {
              if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
                if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
                  this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
                  this.successful = false;
                  this.error = true;
                }
              }
            });

          this.$refs.title.value = "";
          this.$refs.body.value = "";
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the script above, we defined a create() method that takes the values of the input fields and uses the Axios library to send them to the API interface on the backend server. Within this method, we also update the status of the operation, so that an admin user can know when a post is created successfully or not.

Building the update view

Let’s start building the Update component. Open the Update.vue file and update it with this markup template:

    <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Update.vue -->
    <template>
      <div class="container">
        <form>
          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', successful ? 'alert-success' : '']">
            <span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Updated!</span>
          </div>

          <div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']">
            <span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.title[0] }}
            </span>
            <span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger">
              {{ errors.body[0] }}
            </span>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required>
          </div>

          <div class="form-group">
            <textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required></textarea>
          </div>

          <button type="submit" @click.prevent="update" class="btn btn-primary block">
            Submit
          </button>
        </form>
      </div>
    </template>

This template is similar to the one in the Create component. Let’s add the script for the component.

Below the closing template tag, paste the following:

    <script>
    export default {
      mounted() {
        this.getPost();
      },
      props: {
        postId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          error: false,
          successful: false,
          errors: []
        };
      },
      methods: {
        update() {
          let title = this.$refs.title.value;
          let body = this.$refs.body.value;

          axios
            .put("/api/posts/" + this.postId, { title, body })
            .then(response => {
              this.successful = true;
              this.error = false;
              this.errors = [];
            })
            .catch(error => {
              if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
                if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
                  this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
                  this.successful = false;
                  this.error = true;
                }
              }
            });
        },
        getPost() {
          axios.get("/api/posts/" + this.postId).then(response => {
            this.$refs.title.value = response.data.data.title;
            this.$refs.body.value = response.data.data.body;
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>


In the script above, we make a call to the getPosts() method as soon as the component is mounted. The getPosts() method fetches the data of a single post from the backend server, using the postId.

When Axios sends back the data for the post, we update the input fields in this component so they can be updated.

Finally, the update() method takes the values of the fields in the components and attempts to send them to the backend server for an update. In a situation where the fails, we get instant feedback.

Testing the application

To test that our changes work, we want to refresh the database and restore it back to a fresh state. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Next, let’s compile our JavaScript files and assets. This will make sure all the changes we made in the Vue component and the app.js file gets built. To recompile, run the command below in your terminal:

    $ npm run dev


Lastly, we need to serve the application. To do this, run the following command in your terminal window:

    $ php artisan serve


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
We will visit the application’s http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user. From the dashboard, you can test the create and update feature:

Conclusion

In this part of the series, we updated the dashboard to include the Create and Update component so the administrator can add and update posts.

In the next article, we will build the views that allow for the creation and updating of a post.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 6: Adding Realtime Comments

In the previous part of this series, we finished building the backend of the application using Vue. We were able to add the create and update component, which is used for creating a new post and updating an existing post.

Here’s a screen recording of what we have been able to achieve:

In this final part of the series, we will be adding support for comments. We will also ensure that the comments on each post are updated in realtime, so a user doesn’t have to refresh the page to see new comments.

When we are done, our application will have new features and will work like this:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.## Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
Adding comments to the backend

When we were creating the API, we did not add the support for comments to the post resource, so we will have to do so now. Open the API project in your text editor as we will be modifying the project a little.

The first thing we want to do is create a model, controller, and a migration for the comment resource. To do this, open your terminal and cd to the project directory and run the following command:

    $ php artisan make:model Comment -mc


The command above will create a model called Comment, a controller called CommentController, and a migration file in the database/migrations directory.

Updating the comments migration file

To update the comments migration navigate to the database/migrations folder and find the newly created migration file for the Comment model. Let’s update the up() method in the file:

    // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_comments_table.php
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('comments', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->timestamps();
            $table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
            $table->integer('post_id')->unsigned();
            $table->text('body');
        });
    }

We included user_id and post_id fields because we intend to create a link between the comments, users, and posts. The body field will contain the actual comment.

Defining the relationships among the Comment, User, and Post models

In this application, a comment will belong to a user and a post because a user can make a comment on a specific post, so we need to define the relationship that ties everything up.

Open the User model and include this method:

    // File: ./app/User.php
    public function comments()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
    }

This is a relationship that simply says that a user can have many comments. Now let’s define the same relationship on the Post model. Open the Post.php file and include this method:

    // File: ./app/Post.php
    public function comments()
    {
        return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
    }

Finally, we will include two methods in the Comment model to complete the second half of the relationships we defined in the User and Post models.

Open the app/Comment.php file and include these methods:

    // File: ./app/Comment.php
    public function user()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
    }

    public function post()
    {
        return $this->belongsTo(Post::class);
    }

Since we want to be able to mass assign data to specific fields of a comment instance during comment creation, we will include this array of permitted assignments in the app/Comment.php file:

    protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'post_id', 'body'];

We can now run our database migration for our comments:

    $ php artisan migrate


Configuring Laravel to broadcast events using Pusher

We already said that the comments will have a realtime functionality and we will be building this using Pusher, so we need to enable Laravel’s event broadcasting feature.

Open the config/app.php file and uncomment the following line in the providers array:

    App\Providers\BroadcastServiceProvider


Next, we need to configure the broadcast driver in the .env file:

    BROADCAST_DRIVER=pusher


Let’s pull in the Pusher PHP SDK using composer:

    $ composer require pusher/pusher-php-server


Configuring Pusher

For us to use Pusher in this application, it is a prerequisite that you have a Pusher account. You can create a free Pusher account here then login to your dashboard and create an app.

Once you have created an app, we will use the app details to configure pusher in the .env file:

    PUSHER_APP_ID=xxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_KEY=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_SECRET=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER=xx


Update the Pusher keys with the app credentials provided for you under the Keys section on the Overview tab on the Pusher dashboard.

Broadcasting an event for when a new comment is sent

To make the comment update realtime, we have to broadcast an event based on the comment creation activity. We will create a new event and call it CommentSent. It is to be fired when there is a successful creation of a new comment.

Run command in your terminal:

    php artisan make:event CommentSent


There will be a newly created file in the app\Events directory, open the CommentSent.php file and ensure that it implements the ShouldBroadcast interface.

Open and replace the file with the following code:

    // File: ./app/Events/CommentSent.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Events;

    use App\Comment;
    use App\User;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\Channel;
    use Illuminate\Queue\SerializesModels;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PrivateChannel;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PresenceChannel;
    use Illuminate\Foundation\Events\Dispatchable;
    use Illuminate\Broadcasting\InteractsWithSockets;
    use Illuminate\Contracts\Broadcasting\ShouldBroadcast;

    class CommentSent implements ShouldBroadcast
    {
        use Dispatchable, InteractsWithSockets, SerializesModels;

        public $user;

        public $comment;

        public function __construct(User $user, Comment $comment)
        {
            $this->user = $user;

            $this->comment = $comment;
        }

        public function broadcastOn()
        {
            return new PrivateChannel('comment');
        }
    }

In the code above, we created two public properties, user and comment, to hold the data that will be passed to the channel we are broadcasting on. We also created a private channel called comment. We are using a private channel so that only authenticated clients can subscribe to the channel.

Defining the routes for handling operations on a comment

We created a controller for the comment model earlier but we haven’t defined the web routes that will redirect requests to be handled by that controller.

Open the routes/web.php file and include the code below:

    // File: ./routes/web.php
    Route::get('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');
    Route::post('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');

Setting up the action methods in the CommentController

We need to include two methods in the CommentController.php file, these methods will be responsible for storing and retrieving methods. In the store() method, we will also be broadcasting an event when a new comment is created.

Open the CommentController.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

    // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/CommentController.php
    <?php 

    namespace App\Http\Controllers;

    use App\Comment;
    use App\Events\CommentSent;
    use App\Post;
    use Illuminate\Http\Request;

    class CommentController extends Controller
    {
        public function store(Post $post)
        {
            $this->validate(request(), [
                'body' => 'required',
            ]);

            $user = auth()->user();

            $comment = Comment::create([
                'user_id' => $user->id,
                'post_id' => $post->id,
                'body' => request('body'),
            ]);

            broadcast(new CommentSent($user, $comment))->toOthers();

            return ['status' => 'Message Sent!'];
        }

        public function index(Post $post)
        {
            return $post->comments()->with('user')->get();
        }
    }

In the store method above, we are validating then creating a new post comment. After the comment has been created, we broadcast the CommentSent event to other clients so they can update their comments list in realtime.

In the index method we just return the comments belonging to a post along with the user that made the comment.

Adding a layer of authentication

Let’s add a layer of authentication that ensures that only authenticated users can listen on the private comment channel we created.

Add the following code to the routes/channels.php file:

    // File: ./routes/channels.php
    Broadcast::channel('comment', function ($user) {
        return auth()->check();
    });

Adding comments to the frontend

In the second article of this series, we created the view for the single post landing page in the single.blade.php file, but we didn’t add the comments functionality. We are going to add it now. We will be using Vue to build the comments for this application so the first thing we will do is include Vue in the frontend of our application.

Open the master layout template and include Vue to its <head> tag. Just before the <title> tag appears in the master.blade.php file, include this snippet:

    <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
    <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}" defer></script>

The csrf_token() is there so that users cannot forge requests in our application. All our requests will pick the randomly generated csrf-token and use that to make requests.

Related: CSRF in Laravel: how VerifyCsrfToken works and how to prevent attacks

Now the next thing we want to do is update the resources/assets/js/app.js file so that it includes a template for the comments view.

Open the file and replace its contents with the code below:

    require('./bootstrap');

    import Vue          from 'vue'
    import VueRouter    from 'vue-router'
    import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
    import Create   from './components/Create'
    import Read     from './components/Read'
    import Update   from './components/Update'
    import Comments from './components/Comments'

    Vue.use(VueRouter)

    const router = new VueRouter({
        mode: 'history',
        routes: [
            {
                path: '/admin/dashboard',
                name: 'read',
                component: Read,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/create',
                name: 'create',
                component: Create,
                props: true
            },
            {
                path: '/admin/update',
                name: 'update',
                component: Update,
                props: true
            },
        ],
    });

    const app = new Vue({
        el: '#app',
        components: { Homepage, Comments },
        router,
    });

Above we imported the Comment component and then we added it to the list of components in the applications Vue instance.

Now create a Comments.vue file in the resources/assets/js/components directory. This is where all the code for our comment view will go. We will populate this file later on.

Installing Pusher and Laravel Echo

For us to be able to use Pusher and subscribe to events on the frontend, we need to pull in both Pusher and Laravel Echo. We will do so by running this command:

    $ npm install --save laravel-echo pusher-js


The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s configure Laravel Echo to work in our application. In the resources/assets/js/bootstrap.js file, find and uncomment this snippet of code:

    import Echo from 'laravel-echo'

    window.Pusher = require('pusher-js');

    window.Echo = new Echo({
         broadcaster: 'pusher',
         key: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_KEY,
         cluster: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER,
         encrypted: true
    });

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.
Now let’s import the Comments component into the single.blade.php file and pass along the required the props.

Open the single.blade.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

    {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
    @extends('layouts.master')

    @section('content')
    <div class="container">
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto">
          <br>
          <h3 class="mt-4">
            {{ $post->title }} 
            <span class="lead">by <a href="#">{{ $post->user->name }}</a></span>
          </h3>
          <hr>
          <p>Posted {{ $post->created_at->diffForHumans() }}</p>
          <hr>
          <img class="img-fluid rounded" src="{!! !empty($post->image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post->image : 'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!}" alt="">
          <hr>
          <div>
            <p>{{ $post->body }}</p>
            <hr>
            <br>
          </div>

          @auth
          <Comments
              :post-id='@json($post->id)' 
              :user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)'>
          </Comments>
          @endauth
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    @endsection

Building the comments view

Open the Comments.vue file and add the following markup template below:

    <template>
      <div class="card my-4">
        <h5 class="card-header">Leave a Comment:</h5>
        <div class="card-body">
          <form>
            <div class="form-group">
              <textarea ref="body" class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
            </div>
            <button type="submit" @click.prevent="addComment" class="btn btn-primary">
              Submit
            </button>
          </form>
        </div>
        <p class="border p-3" v-for="comment in comments">
           <strong>{{ comment.user.name }}</strong>: 
           <span>{{ comment.body }}</span>
        </p>
      </div>
    </template>

Now, we’ll add a script that defines two methods:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

In the same file, add the following below the closing template tag:

    <script>
    export default {
      props: {
        userName: {
          type: String,
          required: true
        },
        postId: {
          type: Number,
          required: true
        }
      },
      data() {
        return {
          comments: []
        };
      },

      created() {
        this.fetchComments();

        Echo.private("comment").listen("CommentSent", e => {
            this.comments.push({
              user: {name: e.user.name},
              body: e.comment.body,
            });
        });
      },

      methods: {
        fetchComments() {
          axios.get("/" + this.postId + "/comments").then(response => {
            this.comments = response.data;
          });
        },

        addComment() {
          let body = this.$refs.body.value;
          axios.post("/" + this.postId + "/comments", { body }).then(response => {
            this.comments.push({
              user: {name: this.userName},
              body: this.$refs.body.value
            });
            this.$refs.body.value = "";
          });
        }
      }
    };
    </script>

In the created() method above, we first made a call to the fetchComments() method, then we created a listener to the private comment channel using Laravel Echo. Once this listener is triggered, the comments property is updated.

Testing the application

Now let’s test the application to see if it is working as intended. Before running the application, we need to refresh our database so as to revert any changes. To do this, run the command below in your terminal:

    $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed


Next, let’s build the application so that all the changes will be compiled and included as a part of the JavaScript file. To do this, run the following command on your terminal:

    $ npm run dev


Finally, let’s serve the application using this command:

    $ php artisan serve


To test that our application works visit the application URL http://localhost:8000 on two separate browser windows, we will log in to our application on each of the windows as a different user.

We will finally make a comment on the same post on each of the browser windows and check that it updates in realtime on the other window:

Conclusion

In this final tutorial of this series, we created the comments feature of the CMS and also made it realtime. We were able to accomplish the realtime functionality using Pusher.

In this entire series, we learned how to build a CMS using Laravel and Vue.

The source code for this article series is available here on Github.

Learn More

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Fullstack Vue App with Node, Express and MongoDB

Build a Simple CRUD App with Spring Boot and Vue.js

Build a Basic CRUD App with Laravel and Angular

Build a Basic CRUD App with Laravel and React

PHP Programming Language - PHP Tutorial for Beginners

Vuejs 2 Authentication Tutorial

Vue Authentication And Route Handling Using Vue-router

Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

Nuxt.js - Vue.js on Steroids

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10 Tips for Building and Maintaining Large Vue.js Projects

10 Tips for Building and Maintaining Large Vue.js Projects

Here are the top best practices I've developed while working on Vue projects with a large code base. These tips will help you develop more efficient code that is easier to maintain and share.

Here are the top best practices I've developed while working on Vue projects with a large code base. These tips will help you develop more efficient code that is easier to maintain and share.

When freelancing this year, I had the opportunity to work on some large Vue applications. I am talking about projects with more than 😰 a dozen Vuex stores, a high number of components (sometimes hundreds) and many views (pages). 😄 It was actually quite a rewarding experience for me as I discovered many interesting patterns to make the code scalable. I also had to fix some bad practices that resulted in the famous spaghetti code dilemma. 🍝

Thus, today I’m sharing 10 best practices with you that I would recommend to follow if you are dealing with a large code base. 🧚🏼‍♀️

1. Use Slots to Make Your Components Easier to Understand and More Powerful

I recently wrote an article about some important things you need to know regarding slots in Vue.js. It highlights how slots can make your components more reusable and easier to maintain and why you should use them.

🧐 But what does this have to do with large Vue.js projects? A picture is usually worth a thousand words, so I will paint you a picture about the first time I deeply regretted not using them.

One day, I simply had to create a popup. Nothing really complex at first sight as it was just including a title, a description and some buttons. So what I did was to pass everything as props. I ended up with three props that you would use to customize the components and an event was emitted when people clicked on the buttons. Easy peasy! 😅

But, as the project grew over time, the team requested that we display a lot of other new things in it: form fields, different buttons depending on which page it was displayed on, cards, a footer, and the list goes on. I figured out that if I kept using props to make this component evolve, it would be ok. But god, 😩 how wrong I was! The component quickly became too complex to understand as it was including countless child components, using way too many props and emitting a large number of events. 🌋 I came to experience that terrible situation in which when you make a change somewhere and somehow it ends up breaking something else on another page. I had built a Frankenstein monster instead of a maintainable component! 🤖

However, things could have been better if I had relied on slots from the start. I ended up refactoring everything to come up with this tiny component. Easier to maintain, faster to understand and way more extendable!

<template>
  <div class="c-base-popup">
    <div v-if="$slot.header" class="c-base-popup__header">
      <slot name="header">
    </div>
    <div v-if="$slot.subheader" class="c-base-popup__subheader">
      <slot name="subheader">
    </div>
    <div class="c-base-popup__body">
      <h1>{{ title }}</h1>
      <p v-if="description">{{ description }}</p>
    </div>
    <div v-if="$slot.actions" class="c-base-popup__actions">
      <slot name="actions">
    </div>
    <div v-if="$slot.footer" class="c-base-popup__footer">
      <slot name="footer">
    </div>
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  props: {
    description: {
      type: String,
      default: null
    },
    title: {
      type: String,
      required: true
    }
  }
}
</script>

My point is that, from experience, projects built by developers who know when to use slots does make a big difference on its future maintainability. Way fewer events are being emitted, the code is easier to understand, and it offers way more flexibility as you can display whatever components you wish inside.

⚠️ As a rule of thumb, keep in mind that when you end up duplicating your child components' props inside their parent component, you should start using slots at that point.

2. Organize Your Vuex Store Properly

Usually, new Vue.js developers start to learn about Vuex because they stumbled upon on of these two issues:

  • Either they need to access the data of a given component from another one that’s actually too far apart in the tree structure, or
  • They need the data to persist after the component is destroyed.

That's when they create their first Vuex store, learn about modules and start organizing them in their application. 💡

The thing is that there is no single pattern to follow when creating modules. However, 👆🏼 I highly recommend you think about how you want to organize them. From what I've seen, most developers prefer to organize them per feature. For instance:

  • Auth.
  • Blog.
  • Inbox.
  • Settings.

😜 On my side, I find it easier to understand when they are organized according to the data models they fetch from the API. For example:

  • Users
  • Teams
  • Messages
  • Widgets
  • Articles

Which one you choose is up to you. The only thing to keep in mind is that a well-organized Vuex store will result in a more productive team in the long run. It will also make newcomers better predisposed to wrap their minds around your code base when they join your team.

3. Use Actions to Make API Calls and Commit the Data

Most of my API calls (if not all) are made inside my Vuex actions. You may wonder: why is that a good place to do so? 🤨

🤷🏼‍♀️ Simply because most of them fetch the data I need to commit in my store. Besides, they provide a level of encapsulation and reusability I really enjoy working with. Here are some other reasons I do so:

  • If I need to fetch the first page of articles in two different places (let's say the blog and the homepage), I can just call the appropriate dispatcher with the right parameters. The data will be fetched, committed and returned with no duplicated code other than the dispatcher call.

  • If I need to create some logic to avoid fetching this first page when it has already been fetched, I can do so in one place. In addition to decreasing the load on my server, I am also confident that it will work everywhere.

  • I can track most of my Mixpanel events inside these actions, making the analytics code base really easy to maintain. I do have some applications where all the Mixpanel calls are solely made in the actions. 😂 I can't tell you how much of a joy it is to work this way when I don't have to understand what is tracked from what is not and when they are being sent.

4. Simplify Your Code Base with mapState, mapGetters, mapMutations and mapActions

There usually is no need to create multiple computed properties or methods when you just need to access your state/getters or call your actions/mutations inside your components. Using mapState, mapGetters, mapMutations and mapActions can help you shorten your code and make things easier to understand by grouping what is coming from your store modules in one place.

// NPM
import { mapState, mapGetters, mapActions, mapMutations } from "vuex";

export default {
  computed: {
    // Accessing root properties
    ...mapState("my_module", ["property"]),
    // Accessing getters
    ...mapGetters("my_module", ["property"]),
    // Accessing non-root properties
    ...mapState("my_module", {
      property: state => state.object.nested.property
    })
  },

  methods: {
    // Accessing actions
    ...mapActions("my_module", ["myAction"]),
    // Accessing mutations
    ...mapMutations("my_module", ["myMutation"])
  }
};

All the information you'll need on these handy helpers is available here in the official Vuex documentation. 🤩

5. Use API Factories

I usually like to create a this.$api helper that I can call anywhere to fetch my API endpoints. At the root of my project, I have an api folder that includes all my classes (see one of them below).

api
├── auth.js
├── notifications.js
└── teams.js

Each one is grouping all the endpoints for its category. Here is how I initialize this pattern with a plugin in my Nuxt applications (it is quite a similar process in a standard Vue app).

// PROJECT: API
import Auth from "@/api/auth";
import Teams from "@/api/teams";
import Notifications from "@/api/notifications";

export default (context, inject) => {
  if (process.client) {
    const token = localStorage.getItem("token");
    // Set token when defined
    if (token) {
      context.$axios.setToken(token, "Bearer");
    }
  }
  // Initialize API repositories
  const repositories = {
    auth: Auth(context.$axios),
    teams: Teams(context.$axios),
    notifications: Notifications(context.$axios)
  };
  inject("api", repositories);
};

export default $axios => ({
  forgotPassword(email) {
    return $axios.$post("/auth/password/forgot", { email });
  },

  login(email, password) {
    return $axios.$post("/auth/login", { email, password });
  },

  logout() {
    return $axios.$get("/auth/logout");
  },

  register(payload) {
    return $axios.$post("/auth/register", payload);
  }
});

Now, I can simply call them in my components or Vuex actions like this:

export default {
  methods: {
    onSubmit() {
      try {
        this.$api.auth.login(this.email, this.password);
      } catch (error) {
        console.error(error);
      }
    }
  }
};

6. Use $config to access your environment variables (especially useful in templates)

Your project probably have some global configuration variables defined in some files:

config
├── development.json
└── production.json

I like to quickly access them through a this.$config helper, especially when I am inside a template. As always, it's quite easy to extend the Vue object:

// NPM
import Vue from "vue";

// PROJECT: COMMONS
import development from "@/config/development.json";
import production from "@/config/production.json";

if (process.env.NODE_ENV === "production") {
  Vue.prototype.$config = Object.freeze(production);
} else {
  Vue.prototype.$config = Object.freeze(development);
}

7. Follow a Single Convention to Name Your Commits

As the project grows, you will need to browse the history for your components on a regular basis. If your team does not follow the same convention to name their commits, it will make it harder to understand what each one does.

I always use and recommend the Angular commit message guidelines. I follow it in every project I work on, and in many cases other team members are quick to figure out that it's better to follow too.

Following these guidelines leads to more readable messages that make commits easier to track when looking through the project history. In a nutshell, here is how it works:

git commit -am "<type>(<scope>): <subject>"

# Here are some samples
git commit -am "docs(changelog): update changelog to beta.5"
git commit -am "fix(release): need to depend on latest rxjs and zone.js"

Have a look at their README file to learn more about it and its conventions.

8. Always Freeze Your Package Versions When Your Project is in Production

I know... All packages should follow the semantic versioning rules. But the reality is, some of them don't. 😅

To avoid having to wake up in the middle of the night because one of your dependencies broke your entire project, locking all your package versions should make your mornings at work less stressful. 😇

What it means is simply this: avoid versions prefixed with ^:

{
  "name": "my project",

  "version": "1.0.0",

  "private": true,

  "dependencies": {
    "axios": "0.19.0",
    "imagemin-mozjpeg": "8.0.0",
    "imagemin-pngquant": "8.0.0",
    "imagemin-svgo": "7.0.0",
    "nuxt": "2.8.1",
  },

  "devDependencies": {
    "autoprefixer": "9.6.1",
    "babel-eslint": "10.0.2",
    "eslint": "6.1.0",
    "eslint-friendly-formatter": "4.0.1",
    "eslint-loader": "2.2.1",
    "eslint-plugin-vue": "5.2.3"
  }
}

9. Use Vue Virtual Scroller When Displaying a Large Amount of Data

When you need to display a lot of rows in a given page or when you need to loop over a large amount of data, you might have noticed that the page can quickly become quite slow to render. To fix this, you can use vue-virtual-scoller.

npm install vue-virtual-scroller

It will render only the visible items in your list and re-use components and dom elements to be as efficient and performant as possible. It really is easy to use and works like a charm! ✨

<template>
  <RecycleScroller
    class="scroller"
    :items="list"
    :item-size="32"
    key-field="id"
    v-slot="{ item }"
  >
    <div class="user">
      {{ item.name }}
    </div>
  </RecycleScroller>
</template>

10. Track the Size of Your Third-Party Packages

When a lot of people work in the same project, the number of installed packages can quickly become incredibly high if no one is paying attention to them. To avoid your application becoming slow (especially on slow mobile networks), I use the import cost package in Visual Studio Code. This way, I can see right from my editor how large an imported module library is, and can check out what's wrong when it's getting too large.

For instance, in a recent project, the entire lodash library was imported (which is approximately 24kB gzipped). The issue? Only the cloneDeep method was used. By identifying this issue with the import cost package, we fixed it with:

npm remove lodash
npm install lodash.clonedeep

The clonedeep function could then be imported where needed:

import cloneDeep from "lodash.clonedeep";

⚠️ To optimize things even further, you can also use the Webpack Bundle Analyzer package to visualize the size of your webpack output files with an interactive zoomable treemap.


Do you have other best practices when dealing with a large Vue code base? Feel free to tell me in the comments below

Download Files with Axios and Vue

Download Files with Axios and Vue

In this artilce, you'll learn how to download file using Axios and Vue with example

If you need to download image or any file from url or blob in Node.js, React.js etc then you can do it using Axios. We can also use get or post request for download file in Vue.js axios. it will also use with Laravel Vue download file.

As we know **Axios **is a very popular for http request. you can fire get, post, put etc request using Axios in Vue.js, Node.js, react js etc. But if you need same requirement to download file response from api and user to give download using Axios then how you can do that? I will help you to do file downloading using Axios.

You can see bellow peace of code for Axios request example:

axios({
    url: 'http://localhost:8000/api/get-file',
    method: 'GET',
    responseType: 'blob',
}).then((response) => {
     var fileURL = window.URL.createObjectURL(new Blob([response.data]));
     var fileLink = document.createElement('a');
  
     fileLink.href = fileURL;
     fileLink.setAttribute('download', 'file.pdf');
     document.body.appendChild(fileLink);
   
     fileLink.click();
});

You can also see full example with Vue.js here:

Make sure you need to create your local pdf file url or you can give any live url for download.

Let's see bellow code:

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <title>How to Download File using Axios Vue JS? - ItSolutionStuff.com</title>
    <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/vue"></script>
    <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/axios/0.19.0/axios.min.js" integrity="sha256-S1J4GVHHDMiirir9qsXWc8ZWw74PHHafpsHp5PXtjTs=" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>
</head>
<body>
  
<div id="app">
   
  <button @click="onClick()">DownLoad</button>
  
</div>
  
<script type="text/javascript">
   
    var app = new Vue({
      el: '#app',
      methods: {
          onClick() {
              axios({
                    url: 'http://localhost:8000/my.pdf',
                    method: 'GET',
                    responseType: 'blob',
                }).then((response) => {
                     var fileURL = window.URL.createObjectURL(new Blob([response.data]));
                     var fileLink = document.createElement('a');
   
                     fileLink.href = fileURL;
                     fileLink.setAttribute('download', 'file.pdf');
                     document.body.appendChild(fileLink);
   
                     fileLink.click();
                });
          }
      }
    })
  
</script>
  
</body>
</html>

I hope it can help you...

How to Get Query String Parameters in Vue.js

How to Get Query String Parameters in Vue.js

In this article, I will show you how to get url parameters in Vue.js. We can get query string params in Vue.js. We will get query string parameter using Vue.js route.

I will give you very simple example using Vue router and we will getting all Url query parameters in Vue.js application.

In this example you can see to getting all params and also you can get single particular field parameter value. Let's see bellow example:

You can try this type of Url

http://localhost:8000?name=Hardik&[email protected]

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <title>Vue JS - Get Query Parameters Example - ItSolutionStuff.com</title>
    <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/vue"></script>
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/vue-router"></script>
</head>
<body>

<div id="app">

</div>

<script type="text/javascript">

var router = new VueRouter({
mode: 'history',
routes: []
});

var myApp = new Vue({
router,
el: '#app',
mounted: function() {
parameters = this.$route.query
console.log(parameters)

    name = this.$route.query.name
    console.log(name)

},

});

</script>

</body>
</html>

I hope it can help you...

Thanks for reading

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Further reading

The Complete JavaScript Course 2019: Build Real Projects!

Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

Nuxt.js - Vue.js on Steroids

Best JavaScript Frameworks, Libraries and Tools to Use in 2019

Build a Progressive Web App In VueJs

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

Beginner’s Guide to Vue.js

Beginner’s Guide to Vue.js

Hands-on Vue.js for Beginners

Top 3 Mistakes That Vue.js Developers Make and Should be Avoided

Microfrontends — Connecting JavaScript frameworks together (React, Angular, Vue etc)

Ember.js vs Vue.js - Which is JavaScript Framework Works Better for You

Vue.js Tutorial: Zero to Sixty


Building a Vue SPA With Laravel

Building a Vue SPA With Laravel

Laravel 5.7 + Vue + Vue Router = SPA .The reason to mention the version of Laravel is to avoid confusion because time to time the folder structure of Laravel might be changed.

Prerequisite

  1. Fundamental of Laravel
  2. Fundamental of Vue
  3. Fundamental of VueRouter

1. Install Laravel

composer global require "laravel/installer"

This command allows you to install the Laravel installer, so you can create a new laravel project easily in the future.

Once it completed downloaded. Enter the following command.

laravel new <any-projects-name-you-want>

You just have to wait until it completes to download.

1.1 Remove preset scaffolding Optional

This is the optional step.

We are not using the scaffolding in this tutorial. Therefore, I am going to remove it to keep the folder structure as neat as possible.

Simply enter the command below.

php artisan preset none

After removing the scaffolding, remember to run npm install to install all the dependencies.

Thanks to John LeVan

2. Install Vue, VueRouter and Vuetify

npm install vue vue-router vuetify

By enter this command, Vue, Vue Router and Vuetify will be downloaded into your node_modules folder.

3. Create app.blade.php

Rename welcome.blade.php to app.blade.php under resources/views directory.

Remove the code and tweak it like the screenshot below.

The reason to do so is to keep your code simple and clean.

We included Vuetify CSS because we will be using it later. You can find the the code easily from here.

You need to add <meta> of CSRF. Axios need to fetch the CSRF from the meta and insert it into Axios header. If you don’t do so, you are not allow to submit your form by using POST method.

You can get the line of code from this Laravel CSRF.

4. Modify Laravel routes

Go to routes/ directory and open the web.php.

Replace the default with the code below.

Route::get('/{any}', '[email protected]')->where('any', '.*');

Without this line of code in the web.php, your Vue Router can’t work properly.

5. Create Controller

After updating the web.php file, we need to create a SinglePageControllerto handle the route.

Go to your terminal and enter the command below:

php artisan make:controller SinglePageController

You will see the controller are created under app/Http/Controllers/ directory.

Open the SinglePageController.php file and add the line of codes below into the class.

public function index() {
    return view('app');
}


6. Modify app.js

Open your app.js file under resources/js/ and tweak the script as screenshot below.

I prefer to use import for my own preferences.

Read this post from Stack Overflow if you want to know more about import and require

If you run npm run watch now, you will receive an error message from the Toast.

This is because we still haven’t create the routes.js and App.vue.

7. Structure the js directory

We have to create some folders into the resources/js/ directory.

Although we are not using the folder now, but I always keep this as a habit when I am setting up for SPA by using Laravel.

We are creating a layouts, pages, views and stores folder. By right, I also need to create a routes folder but I will skip this for now in this tutorial.

8. Setup Vue Components

We need to create some components now.

Let’s create Home.vue and About.vue under resources/js/components/ directory.

You can delete the ExampleComponent.vue component if you want to. Since we are not using it.

We just need to create a very simple template here.

And now, we need to create App.vue under resources/js/views/. This would be the main file that used to render those files which fall under those directories which we created earlier.

You might find these HTML tags are very complex. You can ignore them for now because those HTML tags are used for Vuetify.

The most important part of the scripts is the <router-view>. This is where you see your content of the component.

If you npm run watch, you will realize the error about App.vue is missing. This is because we have created the file.

9. Setup Vue Router

We need to create a route in order for us to navigate.

You will need to create a routes.js file under resources/js/ directory.

Then you just need to input the code as shown below.

As you can see we import the components we created earlier under resources/js/components/

If you compile the file by enter the command of npm run watch now, you will receive an error, because the compiler does not understand what does the @ used for.

10. Setup webpack.mix.js

Let’s go to webpack.mix.js at your root directory.

We need to define the @ in order to tell the compiler what does the @ uses for.

After adding the alias in webpack.mix.js, then the compiler would understand the @ is represent resources/.

Why we want to do so? In the future your directory might have a lot of levels. This is to save your time to typing ../ instead you just need to type @.

Now, re-run your npm run watch again.

Because your compiler need to re-compile the webpack you adjusted in order to understand the alias.

You will see this in a while.

11. Let’s run and see the result.

Let run the command below, php artisan serve

By doing so, your website is now live on your localhost, [[http://localhost:8000](http://localhost:8000)](http://localhost:8000](http://localhost:8000) "http://localhost:8000](http://localhost:8000)").

Some of you might ask why I want to post the screenshot but not sharing the code.

Well, simply because I want all of you to code by yourself and memorize it.

I hope you enjoy my tutorial.

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