FB-BotMill: Awesome Framework to Build Facebook Bots Using Java

FB-BotMill - Awesome Framework to Build Facebook Bots

FB-BotMill is designed to ease the process of developing, designing and running bots that exist inside Facebook.

It provides a semantic Java API that can be imported on your Java EE Project to send and receive messages from Facebook so that developers can focus on developing the actual application instead of dealing with Facebook API endpoints.

Getting Started

The FB-BotMill can be imported as a dependency via Maven.

<dependency>
  <groupId>co.aurasphere.botmill</groupId>
  <artifactId>fb-botmill</artifactId>
  <version>2.0.0-RC3</version>
</dependency>

Gradle

compile 'co.aurasphere.botmill:fb-botmill:2.0.0-RC3'

Groovy

@Grapes( 
    @Grab(group='co.aurasphere.botmill', module='fb-botmill', version='2.0.0-RC3') 
)

Other ways to import, visit Maven central repo site

Creating your first Facebook ChatBot with Fb-BotMill

Once you've imported the API. You need to register the FbBotMillServlet. To do that, add the following to your web.xml.

<servlet>
    <servlet-name>myFbBot</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>co.aurasphere.botmill.fb.FbBotMillServlet</servlet-class>
</servlet>
<servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>myFbBot</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/myFbBot</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>

Take note of the url mapping since this will be used on your webhook configuration in Facebook.

Creating your Bot Definition.

The Bot Definition is the heart of your Facebook ChatBot. This is where we put all other chatbot event handlers and responses.

1st: Setup the page token and validation token. Create botmill.properties file in your classpath and add the your tokens.

fb.page.token=<PAGE_TOKEN>
fb.validation.token=<VALIDATION_TOKEN>

Note that you can encrypt the properties file using our built in jaspyt-based encryption. Go to our Wiki here on how to setup your encrypted botmill.properties file.

2nd: Setup your Encryption class. We strictly push the use of Jaspyt to encrypt the tokens, for this, we need to make sure you create your own Jaspyt Encryption class. To do this, create the following on your project.

@BotEncryption
public class DefaultEncryption {
    public DefaultEncryption() {
        StandardPBEStringEncryptor enc = new StandardPBEStringEncryptor();
        enc.setPassword("password"); // can be sourced out
        ConfigurationUtils.loadEncryptedConfigurationFile(enc, "botmill.properties");
    }
}

The password is up to you and can be sourced anywhere (via https or ftp). The key thing here is that this text is what will Jaspyt use to decrypt your botmill.properties file.

...
enc.setPassword("https://mydomain.com/encryptionpassword/password.txt"); // can be sourced out
..

Once you've done this, we need to use the botmill-crypto-util project to create the encrypted version of your page token and validation token. Download the botmill-crypto-util [here] (https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots/co/aurasphere/botmill/botmill-crypto-util/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/botmill-crypto-util-0.0.1-20170228.035750-1-jar-with-dependencies.jar) and run the following command:

java -jar botmill-crypto-util-0.0.1-20170228.035750-1-jar-with-dependencies.jar enc java -jar botmill-crypto-util-0.0.1-20170228.035750-1-jar-with-dependencies.jar enc 

This will spit out the encrypted version of your text file. Modify your botmill.properties with these values but make sure to put it inside the ENC(***)

fb.page.token=ENC(<ENCRYPTED_PAGE_TOKEN>)
fb.validation.token=ENC(<ENCRYPTED_VALIDATION_TOKEN>)

Redeploy and you're good to go.

3rd: Setup your BotConfiguration The BotConfiguration class will take care of the one time processes that needs to happen (persistent menus, facebook api authentication etc). Create a FbBotConfiguration below and put all your initial configuration (one time config) on the constructor. This will also initialize the fb authentication.

@BotConfiguration
public class MyBotConfiguration extends FbBotConfiguration {

    public MyBotConfiguration() {
    
        MessengerProfileApi.setGetStartedButton("get_started");
        MessengerProfileApi.setGreetingMessage("Hello!");
        
        List<PersistentMenu> persistentMenus = new ArrayList<PersistentMenu>();
        PersistentMenu persistentMenu = new PersistentMenu("default", false);
        
        persistentMenu.addCallToAction(ButtonFactory.createPostbackButton("Menu 1", "menu1"));
        persistentMenu.addCallToAction(ButtonFactory.createPostbackButton("Menu 2", "menu2"));
        
        CallToActionNested theNestedMenu = new CallToActionNested("Menu 3 Nested");
        theServices.addCallToActionButton(ButtonFactory.createPostbackButton("Nested1", "nested1"));
        theServices.addCallToActionButton(ButtonFactory.createPostbackButton("Nested2", "nested2"));
        theServices.addCallToActionButton(ButtonFactory.createPostbackButton("Nested3", "nested3"));
        persistentMenu.addCallToAction(theNestedMenu);
        
        persistentMenus.add(persistentMenu);
        
        MessengerProfileApi.setPersistentMenus(persistentMenus);
        
        HomeUrl homeUrl = new HomeUrl();
        homeUrl.setInTest(true);
        homeUrl.setUrl("https://extensionlink.co");
        homeUrl.setWebviewHeightRatio(WebViewHeightRatioType.TALL);
        homeUrl.setWebviewShareButton(WebViewShareButton.SHOW);
        
        MessengerProfileApi.setHomeUrl(homeUrl);
        
    }
    
}

4th: Setup the FbBot Class/Classes. Our framework makes it easy and straightforward to define a Facebook Bot Behaviour by tagging classes as behaviour objects.

@Bot
public class MyBotClass extends FbBot {
    
    @FbBotMillController(eventType=FbBotMillEventType.MESSAGE, text="Hi",caseSensitive = true)
    public void sendMessage(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
        reply(new MessageAutoReply("Hello World!"));
    }
}

@Bot(state = BotBeanState.PROTOTYPE) // creates a new instance per call
public class MyBotClass1 extends FbBot {
    
    @FbBotMillController(eventType=FbBotMillEventType.MESSAGE, text="Hi",caseSensitive = true)
    public void sendMessage(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
        reply(new MessageAutoReply("Hello World on BotClass1"));
    }
}

@Bot(state = BotBeanState.SINGLETON) // uses the same reference/instance (this is the default).
public class MyBotClass2 extends FbBot {
    
    @FbBotMillController(eventType=FbBotMillEventType.MESSAGE, text="Hi",caseSensitive = true)
    public void sendMessage(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
        reply(new MessageAutoReply("Hello World on BotClass2"));
    }
}

catch a pattern and respond with a quick reply

@FbBotMillController(eventType = FbBotMillEventType.MESSAGE_PATTERN, pattern = "(?i:hi)|(?i:hello)|(?i:hey)|(?i:good day)|(?i:home)")
public void replyWithQuickReply(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
    reply(new AutoReply() {
        @Override
        public FbBotMillResponse createResponse(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
            return ReplyFactory.addTextMessageOnly("Text message with quick replies")
                    .addQuickReply("Quick reply 1", "Payload for quick reply 1").build(envelope);
        }
    });
}

or respond with a button

@FbBotMillController(eventType = FbBotMillEventType.MESSAGE_PATTERN, pattern = "(?i:hi)|(?i:hello)|(?i:hey)|(?i:good day)|(?i:home)")
public void replyWithButtonTemplate(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
    reply(new AutoReply() {
        @Override
        public FbBotMillResponse createResponse(MessageEnvelope envelope) {
            return ReplyFactory.addButtonTemplate("Test button template")
                    .addPostbackButton("postback button", "postback button payload")
                    .addPhoneNumberButton("phone number button", "+123456789")
                    .addUrlButton("web url button", "https://github.com/BotMill/fb-botmill").build(envelope);
        }
    });
}

Visit our docs for a complete list of EventTypes and Response.

Key components in building your ChatBot

  • @Bot - annotating a class with @Bot will mark the class as a Facebook ChatBot behaviour.
  • @BotEncryption - use to create an isolated java class to handle encryption.
  • @BotConfiguration - use to create an isolated java class to handle one time processes that needs to happen before any bots are created.
  • @FbBotMillInit - can be use to annotate a method and invoke it prior to any @FbBotMillController annotated methods.
  • @FbBotMillController - Use to create a method that catches specific user-driven event (such as user entering a message, selecting a quick reply etc.
  • FbBot.reply() - allows the developers to create a response based on the @FbBotMillController event. For the list of all events and reply, go to our Wiki page here
  • FbBot.botMillSession() - allows you to store and access data. Note that you need to setup a mongodb connection to make this work, mongodb connection configuration can also be set via botmill.properties. For more information about this, visit our [BotMillSession guide here]https://github.com/BotMill/fb-botmill/wiki/Developing-with-FB-BotMill).

Contribution

We'd love to get more people involve in the project. We're looking for enthusiastic maintainers that can put our framework on another level and we'd love to hear your ideas about it. Feel free to Chat with us via Gitter to get started!

Download Details:
Author: BotMill
Source Code: https://github.com/BotMill/fb-botmill
License: MIT License

#chatbot #java 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

FB-BotMill: Awesome Framework to Build Facebook Bots Using Java
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1600135200

How to Install OpenJDK 11 on CentOS 8

What is OpenJDK?

OpenJDk or Open Java Development Kit is a free, open-source framework of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (or Java SE). It contains the virtual machine, the Java Class Library, and the Java compiler. The difference between the Oracle OpenJDK and Oracle JDK is that OpenJDK is a source code reference point for the open-source model. Simultaneously, the Oracle JDK is a continuation or advanced model of the OpenJDK, which is not open source and requires a license to use.

In this article, we will be installing OpenJDK on Centos 8.

#tutorials #alternatives #centos #centos 8 #configuration #dnf #frameworks #java #java development kit #java ee #java environment variables #java framework #java jdk #java jre #java platform #java sdk #java se #jdk #jre #open java development kit #open source #openjdk #openjdk 11 #openjdk 8 #openjdk runtime environment

Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

1667425440

Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

Joseph  Murray

Joseph Murray

1621492530

7 Test Frameworks To Follow in 2021 for Java/Fullstack Developers

It is time to learn new test frameworks in 2021 to improve your code quality and decrease the time of your testing phase. Let’s explore 6 options for devs.

It is time to learn new test frameworks to improve your code quality and decrease the time of your testing phase. I have selected six testing frameworks that sound promising. Some have existed for quite a long time but I have not heard about them before.

At the end of the article, please tell me what you think about them and what your favorite ones are.

Robot Framework

Robot Framework is a generic open-source automation framework. It can be used for test automation and robotic process automation (RPA).

Robot Framework is open and extensible and can be integrated with virtually any other tool to create powerful and flexible automation solutions. Being open-source also means that Robot Framework is free to use without licensing costs.

The RoboFramework is a framework** to write test cases and automation processes.** It means that it may replace** your classic combo Selenium + Cucumber + Gherkins**. To be more precise, the Cucumber Gherkins custom implementation you wrote will be handled by RoboFramework and Selenium invoked below.

For the Java developers, this framework can be executed with Maven or Gradle (but less mature for the latter solution).

#java #testing #test #java framework #java frameworks #testing and developing #java testing #robot framework #test framework #2021

Joseph  Murray

Joseph Murray

1623304800

Why We Need Collection Framework in Java?

A framework is a set of classes and interfaces which provide a ready-made architecture. In order to implement a new feature or a class, there is no need to define a framework. However, an optimal object-oriented design always includes a framework with a collection of classes such that all the classes perform the same kind of task. Before Collection Framework(or before JDK 1.2) was introduced, the standard methods for grouping Java objects (or collections) were Arrays or Vectors, or Hash tables. All of these collections had no common interface. Therefore, though the main aim of all the collections is the same, the implementation of all these collections was defined independently and had no correlation among them. And also, it is very difficult for the users to remember all the different methods, syntax, and constructors present in every collection class.

Collection Framework is a powerful framework in java. This framework defines the most common methods that can be used for any collection of objects. But the question arises that we have an array concept in java then why we need collection framework in java? Now let’s see that why we need collection framework in java with some valid points of difference between array and collection.

#java #java-collections #why we need collection framework in java #java collections framework #framework in java

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1623834960

Top 10 Popular Java Frameworks Every Developer Should Know in 2021

Java frameworks are essentially blocks of pre-written code, to which a programmer may add his code to solve specific problems. Several Java frameworks exist, all of which have their pros and cons. All of them can be used to solve problems in a variety of fields and domains. Java frameworks reduce the amount of coding from scratch that programmers have to do to come up with a solution.

Table of Contents

#full stack development #frameworks #java #java frameworks #top 10 popular java frameworks every developer should know in 2021 #top 10 popular java frameworks