Hal  Sauer

Hal Sauer


Cherry MX Blue vs Brown - What are The Best Keyboard Switches?

Which mechanical keyboard switches are your favourite? This video compares the Cherry MX Blue and Cherry MX Brown mechanical switches. Hopefully this will answer the question: Are browns or blues better?!

#cherry mx blue vs brown #keyboard switches

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Cherry MX Blue vs Brown - What are The Best Keyboard Switches?
bindu singh

bindu singh


Procedure To Become An Air Hostess/Cabin Crew

Minimum educational required – 10+2 passed in any stream from a recognized board.

The age limit is 18 to 25 years. It may differ from one airline to another!


Physical and Medical standards –

  • Females must be 157 cm in height and males must be 170 cm in height (for males). This parameter may vary from one airline toward the next.
  • The candidate's body weight should be proportional to his or her height.
  • Candidates with blemish-free skin will have an advantage.
  • Physical fitness is required of the candidate.
  • Eyesight requirements: a minimum of 6/9 vision is required. Many airlines allow applicants to fix their vision to 20/20!
  • There should be no history of mental disease in the candidate's past.
  • The candidate should not have a significant cardiovascular condition.

You can become an air hostess if you meet certain criteria, such as a minimum educational level, an age limit, language ability, and physical characteristics.

As can be seen from the preceding information, a 10+2 pass is the minimal educational need for becoming an air hostess in India. So, if you have a 10+2 certificate from a recognized board, you are qualified to apply for an interview for air hostess positions!

You can still apply for this job if you have a higher qualification (such as a Bachelor's or Master's Degree).

So That I may recommend, joining Special Personality development courses, a learning gallery that offers aviation industry courses by AEROFLY INTERNATIONAL AVIATION ACADEMY in CHANDIGARH. They provide extra sessions included in the course and conduct the entire course in 6 months covering all topics at an affordable pricing structure. They pay particular attention to each and every aspirant and prepare them according to airline criteria. So be a part of it and give your aspirations So be a part of it and give your aspirations wings.

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Hal  Sauer

Hal Sauer


Cherry MX Blue vs Brown - What are The Best Keyboard Switches?

Which mechanical keyboard switches are your favourite? This video compares the Cherry MX Blue and Cherry MX Brown mechanical switches. Hopefully this will answer the question: Are browns or blues better?!

#cherry mx blue vs brown #keyboard switches

Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick


How native is React Native? | React Native vs Native App Development

If you are undertaking a mobile app development for your start-up or enterprise, you are likely wondering whether to use React Native. As a popular development framework, React Native helps you to develop near-native mobile apps. However, you are probably also wondering how close you can get to a native app by using React Native. How native is React Native?

In the article, we discuss the similarities between native mobile development and development using React Native. We also touch upon where they differ and how to bridge the gaps. Read on.

A brief introduction to React Native

Let’s briefly set the context first. We will briefly touch upon what React Native is and how it differs from earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is a popular JavaScript framework that Facebook has created. You can use this open-source framework to code natively rendering Android and iOS mobile apps. You can use it to develop web apps too.

Facebook has developed React Native based on React, its JavaScript library. The first release of React Native came in March 2015. At the time of writing this article, the latest stable release of React Native is 0.62.0, and it was released in March 2020.

Although relatively new, React Native has acquired a high degree of popularity. The “Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019” report identifies it as the 8th most loved framework. Facebook, Walmart, and Bloomberg are some of the top companies that use React Native.

The popularity of React Native comes from its advantages. Some of its advantages are as follows:

  • Performance: It delivers optimal performance.
  • Cross-platform development: You can develop both Android and iOS apps with it. The reuse of code expedites development and reduces costs.
  • UI design: React Native enables you to design simple and responsive UI for your mobile app.
  • 3rd party plugins: This framework supports 3rd party plugins.
  • Developer community: A vibrant community of developers support React Native.

Why React Native is fundamentally different from earlier hybrid frameworks

Are you wondering whether React Native is just another of those hybrid frameworks like Ionic or Cordova? It’s not! React Native is fundamentally different from these earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is very close to native. Consider the following aspects as described on the React Native website:

  • Access to many native platforms features: The primitives of React Native render to native platform UI. This means that your React Native app will use many native platform APIs as native apps would do.
  • Near-native user experience: React Native provides several native components, and these are platform agnostic.
  • The ease of accessing native APIs: React Native uses a declarative UI paradigm. This enables React Native to interact easily with native platform APIs since React Native wraps existing native code.

Due to these factors, React Native offers many more advantages compared to those earlier hybrid frameworks. We now review them.

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FAQs On a Udemy clone app That You Should Know Before Buying!

BSETEC's Udemy clone app based on formalized teaching but with the help of electronic resources is known as E-learning.E-learning, also referred to as online learning or electronic learning, is the acquisition of knowledge which takes place through electronic technologies .

Udemy, which was founded more than a decade ago, has established itself as a global leader in the online teaching industry. People in our digital era rely on technology and devices for nearly everything, including education. When it comes to online learning, or eLearning, which is regarded as a lifesaver– capable of sustaining the educational environment even during the Covid-19 pandemic– it has evolved into a platform bursting with potential, not only for students but also for tutors, educators, and instructors. Furthermore, when compared to traditional educational techniques, the flexibility and customization given by online tutoring software like Expertplus LMS are unrivalled. As a result, it is gradually becoming an important component of the learning process, which is why eLearning is here to stay– even after the epidemic has passed, it is a huge increase in the number of eLearning applications and websites, and most businesses are choosing for Udemy Clone App instead of starting from scratch.

BigBlueButton Technology – Make Efficient Interaction with LMS

How can I get started with your own online tutoring company?

To use the Udemy Clone App script to establish an online tutoring marketplace similar to Udemy, bear the following factors in mind:

  • How to define your target audience?– Before you start developing your Learning Management System, you should think about who you're going to serve, what their background is, what kind of job they want to do, and what their career goals are. These are all things to consider before you begin the development process. As a result, you must be clear about who you are developing your app for.
  • Why have a clear set of goals and objectives in mind?– If you're creating an app for eLearning, you should have a solid strategy and set of goals in mind. You can't simply take a leap of faith and draw conclusions. You must have both long and short term objectives, and you must put them into action.
  • Why create a simple and speedy registration process?– No one wants to spend more than a minute or two on a signup screen, especially if the app is intended for educational reasons. As a result, it's critical that the user registration, login, and signup procedure be simple and quick. It should provide one-tap or social login options so that the AI can read the social account and fill in the data on its own.
  • Why have a visually appealing homepage– "The first impression is the final impression" and "The last impression is the enduring impression" are two prominent expressions. When you initially open the app, the first thing that appears on your screen is the homepage, and if it isn't appealing enough, you will most likely not want to use it. As a result, the user interface must be simple to use and appealing to the eye.
  • Why do we alter and revise– Once you've begun creating the app, you can customise and revise it to meet the needs of your users, thanks to the Udemy Clone Script's high level of customization and a large range of templates and motifs to select from.

If you want to develop a platform with high-quality eLearning features that cater to the needs of a large mass of audience, then opt for ExpertPlus LMS, and contact BSEtec now! Hurry!

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Keyboard: Take Full Control Of Keyboard With This Small Python Library

Hook and simulate global keyboard events on Windows and Linux.

Take full control of your keyboard with this small Python library. Hook global events, register hotkeys, simulate key presses and much more.


  • Global event hook on all keyboards (captures keys regardless of focus).
  • Listen and send keyboard events.
  • Works with Windows and Linux (requires sudo), with experimental OS X support (thanks @glitchassassin!).
  • Pure Python, no C modules to be compiled.
  • Zero dependencies. Trivial to install and deploy, just copy the files.
  • Python 2 and 3.
  • Complex hotkey support (e.g. ctrl+shift+m, ctrl+space) with controllable timeout.
  • Includes high level API (e.g. record and play, add_abbreviation).
  • Maps keys as they actually are in your layout, with full internationalization support (e.g. Ctrl+ç).
  • Events automatically captured in separate thread, doesn't block main program.
  • Tested and documented.
  • Doesn't break accented dead keys (I'm looking at you, pyHook).
  • Mouse support available via project mouse (pip install mouse).


Install the PyPI package:

pip install keyboard

or clone the repository (no installation required, source files are sufficient):

git clone https://github.com/boppreh/keyboard

or download and extract the zip into your project folder.

Then check the API docs below to see what features are available.


Use as library:

import keyboard

keyboard.press_and_release('shift+s, space')

keyboard.write('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.')

keyboard.add_hotkey('ctrl+shift+a', print, args=('triggered', 'hotkey'))

# Press PAGE UP then PAGE DOWN to type "foobar".
keyboard.add_hotkey('page up, page down', lambda: keyboard.write('foobar'))

# Blocks until you press esc.

# Record events until 'esc' is pressed.
recorded = keyboard.record(until='esc')
# Then replay back at three times the speed.
keyboard.play(recorded, speed_factor=3)

# Type @@ then press space to replace with abbreviation.
keyboard.add_abbreviation('@@', 'my.long.email@example.com')

# Block forever, like `while True`.

Use as standalone module:

# Save JSON events to a file until interrupted:
python -m keyboard > events.txt

cat events.txt
# {"event_type": "down", "scan_code": 25, "name": "p", "time": 1622447562.2994788, "is_keypad": false}
# {"event_type": "up", "scan_code": 25, "name": "p", "time": 1622447562.431007, "is_keypad": false}
# ...

# Replay events
python -m keyboard < events.txt

Known limitations:

  • Events generated under Windows don't report device id (event.device == None). #21
  • Media keys on Linux may appear nameless (scan-code only) or not at all. #20
  • Key suppression/blocking only available on Windows. #22
  • To avoid depending on X, the Linux parts reads raw device files (/dev/input/input*) but this requires root.
  • Other applications, such as some games, may register hooks that swallow all key events. In this case keyboard will be unable to report events.
  • This program makes no attempt to hide itself, so don't use it for keyloggers or online gaming bots. Be responsible.
  • SSH connections forward only the text typed, not keyboard events. Therefore if you connect to a server or Raspberry PI that is running keyboard via SSH, the server will not detect your key events.

Common patterns and mistakes

Preventing the program from closing

import keyboard
keyboard.add_hotkey('space', lambda: print('space was pressed!'))
# If the program finishes, the hotkey is not in effect anymore.

# Don't do this! This will use 100% of your CPU.
#while True: pass

# Use this instead

# or this
import time
while True:

Waiting for a key press one time

import keyboard

# Don't do this! This will use 100% of your CPU until you press the key.
#while not keyboard.is_pressed('space'):
#    continue
#print('space was pressed, continuing...')

# Do this instead
print('space was pressed, continuing...')

Repeatedly waiting for a key press

import keyboard

# Don't do this!
#while True:
#    if keyboard.is_pressed('space'):
#        print('space was pressed!')
# This will use 100% of your CPU and print the message many times.

# Do this instead
while True:
    print('space was pressed! Waiting on it again...')

# or this
keyboard.add_hotkey('space', lambda: print('space was pressed!'))

Invoking code when an event happens

import keyboard

# Don't do this! This will call `print('space')` immediately then fail when the key is actually pressed.
#keyboard.add_hotkey('space', print('space was pressed'))

# Do this instead
keyboard.add_hotkey('space', lambda: print('space was pressed'))

# or this
def on_space():
    print('space was pressed')
keyboard.add_hotkey('space', on_space)

# or this
while True:
    # Wait for the next event.
    event = keyboard.read_event()
    if event.event_type == keyboard.KEY_DOWN and event.name == 'space':
        print('space was pressed')

'Press any key to continue'

# Don't do this! The `keyboard` module is meant for global events, even when your program is not in focus.
#import keyboard
#print('Press any key to continue...')

# Do this instead
input('Press enter to continue...')

# Or one of the suggestions from here
# https://stackoverflow.com/questions/983354/how-to-make-a-script-wait-for-a-pressed-key


Table of Contents


= 'down'


= 'up'

class keyboard.KeyboardEvent








KeyboardEvent.to_json(self, ensure_ascii=False)



= {'alt', 'alt gr', 'ctrl', 'left alt', 'left ctrl', 'left shift', 'left windows', 'right alt', 'right ctrl', 'right shift', 'right windows', 'shift', 'windows'}


= {'alt', 'ctrl', 'shift', 'windows'}


= '0.13.5'



Returns True if key is a scan code or name of a modifier key.

keyboard.key_to_scan_codes(key, error_if_missing=True)


Returns a list of scan codes associated with this key (name or scan code).



Parses a user-provided hotkey into nested tuples representing the parsed structure, with the bottom values being lists of scan codes. Also accepts raw scan codes, which are then wrapped in the required number of nestings.


parse_hotkey("alt+shift+a, alt+b, c")
#    Keys:    ^~^ ^~~~^ ^  ^~^ ^  ^
#    Steps:   ^~~~~~~~~~^  ^~~~^  ^

# ((alt_codes, shift_codes, a_codes), (alt_codes, b_codes), (c_codes,))

keyboard.send(hotkey, do_press=True, do_release=True)


Sends OS events that perform the given hotkey hotkey.

  • hotkey can be either a scan code (e.g. 57 for space), single key (e.g. 'space') or multi-key, multi-step hotkey (e.g. 'alt+F4, enter').
  • do_press if true then press events are sent. Defaults to True.
  • do_release if true then release events are sent. Defaults to True.

send('alt+F4, enter')

Note: keys are released in the opposite order they were pressed.



Presses and holds down a hotkey (see send).



Releases a hotkey (see send).



Returns True if the key is pressed.

is_pressed(57) #-> True
is_pressed('space') #-> True
is_pressed('ctrl+space') #-> True

keyboard.call_later(fn, args=(), delay=0.001)


Calls the provided function in a new thread after waiting some time. Useful for giving the system some time to process an event, without blocking the current execution flow.

keyboard.hook(callback, suppress=False, on_remove=<lambda>)


Installs a global listener on all available keyboards, invoking callback each time a key is pressed or released.

The event passed to the callback is of type keyboard.KeyboardEvent, with the following attributes:

  • name: an Unicode representation of the character (e.g. "&") or description (e.g. "space"). The name is always lower-case.
  • scan_code: number representing the physical key, e.g. 55.
  • time: timestamp of the time the event occurred, with as much precision as given by the OS.

Returns the given callback for easier development.

keyboard.on_press(callback, suppress=False)


Invokes callback for every KEY_DOWN event. For details see hook.

keyboard.on_release(callback, suppress=False)


Invokes callback for every KEY_UP event. For details see hook.

keyboard.hook_key(key, callback, suppress=False)


Hooks key up and key down events for a single key. Returns the event handler created. To remove a hooked key use unhook_key(key) or unhook_key(handler).

Note: this function shares state with hotkeys, so clear_all_hotkeys affects it as well.

keyboard.on_press_key(key, callback, suppress=False)


Invokes callback for KEY_DOWN event related to the given key. For details see hook.

keyboard.on_release_key(key, callback, suppress=False)


Invokes callback for KEY_UP event related to the given key. For details see hook.



Removes a previously added hook, either by callback or by the return value of hook.



Removes all keyboard hooks in use, including hotkeys, abbreviations, word listeners, recorders and waits.



Suppresses all key events of the given key, regardless of modifiers.

keyboard.remap_key(src, dst)


Whenever the key src is pressed or released, regardless of modifiers, press or release the hotkey dst instead.



Parses a user-provided hotkey. Differently from parse_hotkey, instead of each step being a list of the different scan codes for each key, each step is a list of all possible combinations of those scan codes.

keyboard.add_hotkey(hotkey, callback, args=(), suppress=False, timeout=1, trigger_on_release=False)


Invokes a callback every time a hotkey is pressed. The hotkey must be in the format ctrl+shift+a, s. This would trigger when the user holds ctrl, shift and "a" at once, releases, and then presses "s". To represent literal commas, pluses, and spaces, use their names ('comma', 'plus', 'space').

  • args is an optional list of arguments to passed to the callback during each invocation.
  • suppress defines if successful triggers should block the keys from being sent to other programs.
  • timeout is the amount of seconds allowed to pass between key presses.
  • trigger_on_release if true, the callback is invoked on key release instead of key press.

The event handler function is returned. To remove a hotkey call remove_hotkey(hotkey) or remove_hotkey(handler). before the hotkey state is reset.

Note: hotkeys are activated when the last key is pressed, not released. Note: the callback is executed in a separate thread, asynchronously. For an example of how to use a callback synchronously, see wait.


# Different but equivalent ways to listen for a spacebar key press.
add_hotkey(' ', print, args=['space was pressed'])
add_hotkey('space', print, args=['space was pressed'])
add_hotkey('Space', print, args=['space was pressed'])
# Here 57 represents the keyboard code for spacebar; so you will be
# pressing 'spacebar', not '57' to activate the print function.
add_hotkey(57, print, args=['space was pressed'])

add_hotkey('ctrl+q', quit)
add_hotkey('ctrl+alt+enter, space', some_callback)



Removes a previously hooked hotkey. Must be called with the value returned by add_hotkey.



Removes all keyboard hotkeys in use, including abbreviations, word listeners, recorders and waits.

keyboard.remap_hotkey(src, dst, suppress=True, trigger_on_release=False)


Whenever the hotkey src is pressed, suppress it and send dst instead.


remap('alt+w', 'ctrl+up')



Builds a list of all currently pressed scan codes, releases them and returns the list. Pairs well with restore_state and restore_modifiers.



Given a list of scan_codes ensures these keys, and only these keys, are pressed. Pairs well with stash_state, alternative to restore_modifiers.



Like restore_state, but only restores modifier keys.

keyboard.write(text, delay=0, restore_state_after=True, exact=None)


Sends artificial keyboard events to the OS, simulating the typing of a given text. Characters not available on the keyboard are typed as explicit unicode characters using OS-specific functionality, such as alt+codepoint.

To ensure text integrity, all currently pressed keys are released before the text is typed, and modifiers are restored afterwards.

  • delay is the number of seconds to wait between keypresses, defaults to no delay.
  • restore_state_after can be used to restore the state of pressed keys after the text is typed, i.e. presses the keys that were released at the beginning. Defaults to True.
  • exact forces typing all characters as explicit unicode (e.g. alt+codepoint or special events). If None, uses platform-specific suggested value.

keyboard.wait(hotkey=None, suppress=False, trigger_on_release=False)


Blocks the program execution until the given hotkey is pressed or, if given no parameters, blocks forever.



Returns a string representation of hotkey from the given key names, or the currently pressed keys if not given. This function:

  • normalizes names;
  • removes "left" and "right" prefixes;
  • replaces the "+" key name with "plus" to avoid ambiguity;
  • puts modifier keys first, in a standardized order;
  • sort remaining keys;
  • finally, joins everything with "+".


get_hotkey_name(['+', 'left ctrl', 'shift'])
# "ctrl+shift+plus"



Blocks until a keyboard event happens, then returns that event.



Blocks until a keyboard event happens, then returns that event's name or, if missing, its scan code.



Similar to read_key(), but blocks until the user presses and releases a hotkey (or single key), then returns a string representing the hotkey pressed.


# "ctrl+shift+p"

keyboard.get_typed_strings(events, allow_backspace=True)


Given a sequence of events, tries to deduce what strings were typed. Strings are separated when a non-textual key is pressed (such as tab or enter). Characters are converted to uppercase according to shift and capslock status. If allow_backspace is True, backspaces remove the last character typed.

This function is a generator, so you can pass an infinite stream of events and convert them to strings in real time.

Note this functions is merely an heuristic. Windows for example keeps per- process keyboard state such as keyboard layout, and this information is not available for our hooks.

get_type_strings(record()) #-> ['This is what', 'I recorded', '']



Starts recording all keyboard events into a global variable, or the given queue if any. Returns the queue of events and the hooked function.

Use stop_recording() or unhook(hooked_function) to stop.



Stops the global recording of events and returns a list of the events captured.

keyboard.record(until='escape', suppress=False, trigger_on_release=False)


Records all keyboard events from all keyboards until the user presses the given hotkey. Then returns the list of events recorded, of type keyboard.KeyboardEvent. Pairs well with play(events).

Note: this is a blocking function. Note: for more details on the keyboard hook and events see hook.

keyboard.play(events, speed_factor=1.0)


Plays a sequence of recorded events, maintaining the relative time intervals. If speed_factor is <= 0 then the actions are replayed as fast as the OS allows. Pairs well with record().

Note: the current keyboard state is cleared at the beginning and restored at the end of the function.

keyboard.add_word_listener(word, callback, triggers=['space'], match_suffix=False, timeout=2)


Invokes a callback every time a sequence of characters is typed (e.g. 'pet') and followed by a trigger key (e.g. space). Modifiers (e.g. alt, ctrl, shift) are ignored.

  • word the typed text to be matched. E.g. 'pet'.
  • callback is an argument-less function to be invoked each time the word is typed.
  • triggers is the list of keys that will cause a match to be checked. If the user presses some key that is not a character (len>1) and not in triggers, the characters so far will be discarded. By default the trigger is only space.
  • match_suffix defines if endings of words should also be checked instead of only whole words. E.g. if true, typing 'carpet'+space will trigger the listener for 'pet'. Defaults to false, only whole words are checked.
  • timeout is the maximum number of seconds between typed characters before the current word is discarded. Defaults to 2 seconds.

Returns the event handler created. To remove a word listener use remove_word_listener(word) or remove_word_listener(handler).

Note: all actions are performed on key down. Key up events are ignored. Note: word matches are case sensitive.



Removes a previously registered word listener. Accepts either the word used during registration (exact string) or the event handler returned by the add_word_listener or add_abbreviation functions.

keyboard.add_abbreviation(source_text, replacement_text, match_suffix=False, timeout=2)


Registers a hotkey that replaces one typed text with another. For example

add_abbreviation('tm', u'™')

Replaces every "tm" followed by a space with a ™ symbol (and no space). The replacement is done by sending backspace events.

  • match_suffix defines if endings of words should also be checked instead of only whole words. E.g. if true, typing 'carpet'+space will trigger the listener for 'pet'. Defaults to false, only whole words are checked.
  • timeout is the maximum number of seconds between typed characters before the current word is discarded. Defaults to 2 seconds.

For more details see add_word_listener.



Given a key name (e.g. "LEFT CONTROL"), clean up the string and convert to the canonical representation (e.g. "left ctrl") if one is known.

Author: boppreh
Source Code: https://github.com/boppreh/keyboard
License: MIT License

#python #keyboard