Leonard  Paucek

Leonard Paucek


RDFLib: A Pure Python Package for Working with RDF


RDFLib is a pure Python package for working with RDF. RDFLib contains most things you need to work with RDF, including:

  • parsers and serializers for RDF/XML, N3, NTriples, N-Quads, Turtle, TriX, Trig and JSON-LD
  • a Graph interface which can be backed by any one of a number of Store implementations
  • store implementations for in-memory, persistent on disk (Berkeley DB) and remote SPARQL endpoints
  • a SPARQL 1.1 implementation - supporting SPARQL 1.1 Queries and Update statements
  • SPARQL function extension mechanisms

RDFlib Family of packages

The RDFlib community maintains many RDF-related Python code repositories with different purposes. For example:

  • rdflib - the RDFLib core
  • sparqlwrapper - a simple Python wrapper around a SPARQL service to remotely execute your queries
  • pyLODE - An OWL ontology documentation tool using Python and templating, based on LODE.
  • pyrdfa3 - RDFa 1.1 distiller/parser library: can extract RDFa 1.1/1.0 from (X)HTML, SVG, or XML in general.
  • pymicrodata - A module to extract RDF from an HTML5 page annotated with microdata.
  • pySHACL - A pure Python module which allows for the validation of RDF graphs against SHACL graphs.
  • OWL-RL - A simple implementation of the OWL2 RL Profile which expands the graph with all possible triples that OWL RL defines.

Please see the list for all packages/repositories here:

Help with maintenance of all of the RDFLib family of packages is always welcome and appreciated.

Versions & Releases

See https://rdflib.dev for the release overview.


See https://rdflib.readthedocs.io for our documentation built from the code. Note that there are latest, stable 5.0.0 and 4.2.2 documentation versions, matching releases.


The stable release of RDFLib may be installed with Python's package management tool pip:

$ pip install rdflib

Alternatively manually download the package from the Python Package Index (PyPI) at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/rdflib

The current version of RDFLib is 6.1.1, see the CHANGELOG.md file for what's new in this release.

Installation of the current master branch (for developers)

With pip you can also install rdflib from the git repository with one of the following options:

$ pip install git+https://github.com/rdflib/rdflib@master


$ pip install -e git+https://github.com/rdflib/rdflib@master#egg=rdflib

or from your locally cloned repository you can install it with one of the following options:

$ python setup.py install


$ pip install -e .

Getting Started

RDFLib aims to be a pythonic RDF API. RDFLib's main data object is a Graph which is a Python collection of RDF Subject, Predicate, Object Triples:

To create graph and load it with RDF data from DBPedia then print the results:

from rdflib import Graph
g = Graph()

for s, p, o in g:
    print(s, p, o)

The components of the triples are URIs (resources) or Literals (values).

URIs are grouped together by namespace, common namespaces are included in RDFLib:

from rdflib.namespace import DC, DCTERMS, DOAP, FOAF, SKOS, OWL, RDF, RDFS, VOID, XMLNS, XSD

You can use them like this:

from rdflib import Graph, URIRef, Literal
from rdflib.namespace import RDFS, XSD

g = Graph()
semweb = URIRef('http://dbpedia.org/resource/Semantic_Web')
type = g.value(semweb, RDFS.label)

Where RDFS is the RDFS namespace, XSD the XML Schema Datatypes namespace and g.value returns an object of the triple-pattern given (or an arbitrary one if multiple exist).

Or like this, adding a triple to a graph g:

    Literal("Nick", datatype=XSD.string)

The triple (in n-triples notation) <http://example.com/person/nick> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName> "Nick"^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string> . is created where the property FOAF.givenName is the URI <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName> and XSD.string is the URI <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string>.

You can bind namespaces to prefixes to shorten the URIs for RDF/XML, Turtle, N3, TriG, TriX & JSON-LD serializations:

g.bind("foaf", FOAF)
g.bind("xsd", XSD)

This will allow the n-triples triple above to be serialised like this:


With these results:

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#>

<http://example.com/person/nick> foaf:givenName "Nick"^^xsd:string .

New Namespaces can also be defined:

dbpedia = Namespace('http://dbpedia.org/ontology/')

abstracts = list(x for x in g.objects(semweb, dbpedia['abstract']) if x.language=='en')

See also ./examples


The library contains parsers and serializers for RDF/XML, N3, NTriples, N-Quads, Turtle, TriX, JSON-LD, RDFa and Microdata.

The library presents a Graph interface which can be backed by any one of a number of Store implementations.

This core RDFLib package includes store implementations for in-memory storage and persistent storage on top of the Berkeley DB.

A SPARQL 1.1 implementation is included - supporting SPARQL 1.1 Queries and Update statements.

RDFLib is open source and is maintained on GitHub. RDFLib releases, current and previous are listed on PyPI

Multiple other projects are contained within the RDFlib "family", see https://github.com/RDFLib/.

Running tests

Running the tests on the host

Run the test suite with pytest.


Running test coverage on the host with coverage report

Run the test suite and generate a HTML coverage report with pytest and pytest-cov.

pytest --cov

Running the tests in a Docker container

Run the test suite inside a Docker container for cross-platform support. This resolves issues such as installing BerkeleyDB on Windows and avoids the host and port issues on macOS.

make tests

Tip: If the underlying Dockerfile for the test runner changes, use make build.

Running the tests in a Docker container with coverage report

Run the test suite inside a Docker container with HTML coverage report.

make coverage

Viewing test coverage

Once tests have produced HTML output of the coverage report, view it by running:

pytest --cov --cov-report term --cov-report html
python -m http.server --directory=htmlcov


RDFLib survives and grows via user contributions! Please read our contributing guide to get started. Please consider lodging Pull Requests here:

You can also raise issues here:

Support & Contacts

For general "how do I..." queries, please use https://stackoverflow.com and tag your question with rdflib. Existing questions:

If you want to contact the rdflib maintainers, please do so via:

Author: RDFLib
Source Code: https://github.com/RDFLib/rdflib
License: BSD-3-Clause License


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RDFLib: A Pure Python Package for Working with RDF
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Top 20 Most Useful Python Modules or Packages

 March 25, 2021  Deepak@321  0 Comments

Welcome to my blog, In this article, we will learn the top 20 most useful python modules or packages and these modules every Python developer should know.

Hello everybody and welcome back so in this article I’m going to be sharing with you 20 Python modules you need to know. Now I’ve split these python modules into four different categories to make little bit easier for us and the categories are:

  1. Web Development
  2. Data Science
  3. Machine Learning
  4. AI and graphical user interfaces.

Near the end of the article, I also share my personal favorite Python module so make sure you stay tuned to see what that is also make sure to share with me in the comments down below your favorite Python module.

#python #packages or libraries #python 20 modules #python 20 most usefull modules #python intersting modules #top 20 python libraries #top 20 python modules #top 20 python packages

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt


Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas. 

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities. 

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly. 

5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps 

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks 

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions. 

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events. 

Simple to read and compose 

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building. 

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties. 

Utilized by the best 

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player. 

Massive community support 

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions. 

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking. 

Progressive applications 

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.


Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential. 

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Difference Between Python Module and Python Package?

Difference between python module and python package?

What’s the difference between a Python module and a Python package?

Module:  It is a simple Python file that contains collections of functions and global variables and has a “.py”  extension file. It’s an executable file and we have something called a “Package” in Python to organize all these modules.

Package:  It is a simple directory which has collections of modules, i.e., a package is a directory of Python modules containing an additional init.py  file. It is the init.py  which maintains the distinction between a package and a directory that contains a bunch of Python scripts. A Package simply is a namespace. A package can also contain sub-packages.

When we import a module or a package, Python creates a corresponding object which is always of type module . This means that the dissimilarity is just at the file system level between module and package.

#technology #python #what's the difference between a python module and a python package? #python package #python module

How to Install Pyenv on Ubuntu 18.04

What is Pyenv?
Pyenv is a fantastic tool for installing and managing multiple Python versions. It enables a developer to quickly gain access to newer versions of Python and keeps the system clean and free of unnecessary package bloat. It also offers the ability to quickly switch from one version of Python to another, as well as specify the version of Python a given project uses and can automatically switch to that version. This tutorial covers how to install pyenv on Ubuntu 18.04.

#tutorials #apt #debian #environment #git #github #linux #package #package management #package manager #personal package archive #ppa #pyenv #python #python 3 #python support #python-pip #repository #smb #software #source install #ubuntu #ubuntu 18.04 #venv #virtualenv #web application development

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Python Packages in SQL Server – Get Started with SQL Server Machine Learning Services


When installing Machine Learning Services in SQL Server by default few Python Packages are installed. In this article, we will have a look on how to get those installed python package information.

Python Packages

When we choose Python as Machine Learning Service during installation, the following packages are installed in SQL Server,

  • revoscalepy – This Microsoft Python package is used for remote compute contexts, streaming, parallel execution of rx functions for data import and transformation, modeling, visualization, and analysis.
  • microsoftml – This is another Microsoft Python package which adds machine learning algorithms in Python.
  • Anaconda 4.2 – Anaconda is an opensource Python package

#machine learning #sql server #executing python in sql server #machine learning using python #machine learning with sql server #ml in sql server using python #python in sql server ml #python packages #python packages for machine learning services #sql server machine learning services