How to Get Started with Django's Asynchronous Views

Writing asynchronous code gives you the ability to speed up your application with little effort. Django versions >= 3.1 support async views, middleware, and tests. If you haven't already experimented with async views, now's a great time to get them under your belt.

This tutorial looks at how to get started with Django's asynchronous views.


#django #async 

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How to Get Started with Django's Asynchronous Views
Shubham Ankit

Shubham Ankit


How to Automate Excel with Python | Python Excel Tutorial (OpenPyXL)

How to Automate Excel with Python

In this article, We will show how we can use python to automate Excel . A useful Python library is Openpyxl which we will learn to do Excel Automation


Openpyxl is a Python library that is used to read from an Excel file or write to an Excel file. Data scientists use Openpyxl for data analysis, data copying, data mining, drawing charts, styling sheets, adding formulas, and more.

Workbook: A spreadsheet is represented as a workbook in openpyxl. A workbook consists of one or more sheets.

Sheet: A sheet is a single page composed of cells for organizing data.

Cell: The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. Usually represented by A1, B5, etc.

Row: A row is a horizontal line represented by a number (1,2, etc.).

Column: A column is a vertical line represented by a capital letter (A, B, etc.).

Openpyxl can be installed using the pip command and it is recommended to install it in a virtual environment.

pip install openpyxl


We start by creating a new spreadsheet, which is called a workbook in Openpyxl. We import the workbook module from Openpyxl and use the function Workbook() which creates a new workbook.

from openpyxl
import Workbook
#creates a new workbook
wb = Workbook()
#Gets the first active worksheet
ws =
#creating new worksheets by using the create_sheet method

ws1 = wb.create_sheet("sheet1", 0) #inserts at first position
ws2 = wb.create_sheet("sheet2") #inserts at last position
ws3 = wb.create_sheet("sheet3", -1) #inserts at penultimate position

#Renaming the sheet
ws.title = "Example"

#save the workbook = "example.xlsx")


We load the file using the function load_Workbook() which takes the filename as an argument. The file must be saved in the same working directory.

#loading a workbook
wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")




#getting sheet names
result = ['sheet1', 'Sheet', 'sheet3', 'sheet2']

#getting a particular sheet
sheet1 = wb["sheet2"]

#getting sheet title
result = 'sheet2'

#Getting the active sheet
sheetactive =
result = 'sheet1'




#get a cell from the sheet
sheet1["A1"] <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A1 >

  #get the cell value
ws["A1"].value 'Segment'

#accessing cell using row and column and assigning a value
d = ws.cell(row = 4, column = 2, value = 10)




#looping through each row and column
for x in range(1, 5):
  for y in range(1, 5):
  print(x, y, ws.cell(row = x, column = y)

#getting the highest row number

#getting the highest column number

There are two functions for iterating through rows and columns.

Iter_rows() => returns the rows
Iter_cols() => returns the columns {
  min_row = 4, max_row = 5, min_col = 2, max_col = 5
} => This can be used to set the boundaries
for any iteration.


#iterating rows
for row in ws.iter_rows(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in row:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

  #iterating columns
for col in ws.iter_cols(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in col:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

To get all the rows of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.rows and to get all the columns of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.columns. Similarly, to iterate only through the values we use the method worksheet.values.


for row in ws.values:
  for value in row:



Writing to a workbook can be done in many ways such as adding a formula, adding charts, images, updating cell values, inserting rows and columns, etc… We will discuss each of these with an example.




#creates a new workbook
wb = openpyxl.Workbook()

#saving the workbook"new.xlsx")




#creating a new sheet
ws1 = wb.create_sheet(title = "sheet 2")

#creating a new sheet at index 0
ws2 = wb.create_sheet(index = 0, title = "sheet 0")

#checking the sheet names
wb.sheetnames['sheet 0', 'Sheet', 'sheet 2']

#deleting a sheet
del wb['sheet 0']

#checking sheetnames
wb.sheetnames['Sheet', 'sheet 2']




#checking the sheet value

#adding value to cell
ws['B2'] = 367

#checking value




We often require formulas to be included in our Excel datasheet. We can easily add formulas using the Openpyxl module just like you add values to a cell.

For example:

import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']

ws['A9'] = '=SUM(A2:A8)'"new2.xlsx")

The above program will add the formula (=SUM(A2:A8)) in cell A9. The result will be as below.




Two or more cells can be merged to a rectangular area using the method merge_cells(), and similarly, they can be unmerged using the method unmerge_cells().

For example:
Merge cells

#merge cells B2 to C9
ws['B2'] = "Merged cells"

Adding the above code to the previous example will merge cells as below.




#unmerge cells B2 to C9

The above code will unmerge cells from B2 to C9.


To insert an image we import the image function from the module openpyxl.drawing.image. We then load our image and add it to the cell as shown in the below example.


import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.drawing.image
import Image

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']
#loading the image(should be in same folder)
img = Image('logo.png')
ws['A1'] = "Adding image"
#adjusting size
img.height = 130
img.width = 200
#adding img to cell A3

ws.add_image(img, 'A3')"new2.xlsx")




Charts are essential to show a visualization of data. We can create charts from Excel data using the Openpyxl module chart. Different forms of charts such as line charts, bar charts, 3D line charts, etc., can be created. We need to create a reference that contains the data to be used for the chart, which is nothing but a selection of cells (rows and columns). I am using sample data to create a 3D bar chart in the below example:


import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.chart
import BarChart3D, Reference, series

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")
ws =

values = Reference(ws, min_col = 3, min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 40)
chart = BarChart3D()
ws.add_chart(chart, "E3")"MyChart.xlsx")


How to Automate Excel with Python with Video Tutorial

Welcome to another video! In this video, We will cover how we can use python to automate Excel. I'll be going over everything from creating workbooks to accessing individual cells and stylizing cells. There is a ton of things that you can do with Excel but I'll just be covering the core/base things in OpenPyXl.

⭐️ Timestamps ⭐️
00:00 | Introduction
02:14 | Installing openpyxl
03:19 | Testing Installation
04:25 | Loading an Existing Workbook
06:46 | Accessing Worksheets
07:37 | Accessing Cell Values
08:58 | Saving Workbooks
09:52 | Creating, Listing and Changing Sheets
11:50 | Creating a New Workbook
12:39 | Adding/Appending Rows
14:26 | Accessing Multiple Cells
20:46 | Merging Cells
22:27 | Inserting and Deleting Rows
23:35 | Inserting and Deleting Columns
24:48 | Copying and Moving Cells
26:06 | Practical Example, Formulas & Cell Styling

📄 Resources 📄
OpenPyXL Docs: 
Code Written in This Tutorial: 


Ahebwe  Oscar

Ahebwe Oscar


Django admin full Customization step by step

Welcome to my blog , hey everyone in this article you learn how to customize the Django app and view in the article you will know how to register  and unregister  models from the admin view how to add filtering how to add a custom input field, and a button that triggers an action on all objects and even how to change the look of your app and page using the Django suit package let’s get started.


Custom Titles of Django Admin

Exclude in Django Admin

Fields in Django Admin

#django #create super user django #customize django admin dashboard #django admin #django admin custom field display #django admin customization #django admin full customization #django admin interface #django admin register all models #django customization

Ahebwe  Oscar

Ahebwe Oscar


How model queries work in Django

How model queries work in Django

Welcome to my blog, hey everyone in this article we are going to be working with queries in Django so for any web app that you build your going to want to write a query so you can retrieve information from your database so in this article I’ll be showing you all the different ways that you can write queries and it should cover about 90% of the cases that you’ll have when you’re writing your code the other 10% depend on your specific use case you may have to get more complicated but for the most part what I cover in this article should be able to help you so let’s start with the model that I have I’ve already created it.

**Read More : **How to make Chatbot in Python.

Read More : Django Admin Full Customization step by step

let’s just get into this diagram that I made so in here:

django queries aboutDescribe each parameter in Django querset

we’re making a simple query for the myModel table so we want to pull out all the information in the database so we have this variable which is gonna hold a return value and we have our myModel models so this is simply the myModel model name so whatever you named your model just make sure you specify that and we’re gonna access the objects attribute once we get that object’s attribute we can simply use the all method and this will return all the information in the database so we’re gonna start with all and then we will go into getting single items filtering that data and go to our command prompt.

Here and we’ll actually start making our queries from here to do this let’s just go ahead and run** Python shell** and I am in my project file so make sure you’re in there when you start and what this does is it gives us an interactive shell to actually start working with our data so this is a lot like the Python shell but because we did it allows us to do things a Django way and actually query our database now open up the command prompt and let’s go ahead and start making our first queries.

#django #django model queries #django orm #django queries #django query #model django query #model query #query with django

Monty  Boehm

Monty Boehm


Twitter.jl: Julia Package to Access Twitter API


A Julia package for interacting with the Twitter API.

Twitter.jl is a Julia package to work with the Twitter API v1.1. Currently, only the REST API methods are supported; streaming API endpoints aren't implemented at this time.

All functions have required arguments for those parameters required by Twitter and an options keyword argument to provide a Dict{String, String} of optional parameters Twitter API documentation. Most function calls will return either a Dict or an Array <: TwitterType. Bad requests will return the response code from the API (403, 404, etc).

DataFrame methods are defined for functions returning composite types: Tweets, Places, Lists, and Users.


Before one can make use of this package, you must create an application on the Twitter's Developer Platform.

Once your application is approved, you can access your dashboard/portal to grab your authentication credentials from the "Details" tab of the application.

Note that you will also want to ensure that your App has Read / Write OAuth access in order to post tweets. You can find out more about this on Stack Overflow.


To install this package, enter ] on the REPL to bring up Julia's package manager. Then add the package:

julia> ]
(v1.7) pkg> add Twitter

Tip: Press Ctrl+C to return to the julia> prompt.


To run Twitter.jl, enter the following command in your Julia REPL

julia> using Twitter

Then the a global variable has to be declared with the twitterauth function. This function holds the consumer_key(API Key), consumer_secret(API Key Secret), oauth_token(Access Token), and oauth_secret(Access Token Secret) respectively.

twitterauth("6nOtpXmf...", # API Key
            "sES5Zlj096S...", # API Key Secret
            "98689850-Hj...", # Access Token
            "UroqCVpWKIt...") # Access Token Secret
  • Ensure you put your credentials in an env file to avoid pushing your secrets to the public 🙀.

Note: This package does not currently support OAuth authentication.

Code examples

See runtests.jl for example function calls.

using Twitter, Test
using JSON, OAuth

# set debugging


mentions_timeline_default = get_mentions_timeline()
tw = mentions_timeline_default[1]
tw_df = DataFrame(mentions_timeline_default)
@test 0 <= length(mentions_timeline_default) <= 20
@test typeof(mentions_timeline_default) == Vector{Tweets}
@test typeof(tw) == Tweets
@test size(tw_df)[2] == 30

user_timeline_default = get_user_timeline(screen_name = "randyzwitch")
@test typeof(user_timeline_default) == Vector{Tweets}

home_timeline_default = get_home_timeline()
@test typeof(home_timeline_default) == Vector{Tweets}

get_tweet_by_id = get_single_tweet_id(id = "434685122671939584")
@test typeof(get_tweet_by_id) == Tweets

duke_tweets = get_search_tweets(q = "#Duke", count = 200)
@test typeof(duke_tweets) <: Dict

#test sending/deleting direct messages
#commenting out because Twitter API changed. Come back to fix
# send_dm = post_direct_messages_send(text = "Testing from Julia, this might disappear later $(time())", screen_name = "randyzwitch")
# get_single_dm = get_direct_messages_show(id =
# destroy = post_direct_messages_destroy(id =
# @test typeof(send_dm) == Tweets
# @test typeof(get_single_dm) == Tweets
# @test typeof(destroy) == Tweets

#creating/destroying friendships
add_friend = post_friendships_create(screen_name = "kyrieirving")

unfollow = post_friendships_destroy(screen_name = "kyrieirving")
unfollow_df = DataFrame(unfollow)
@test typeof(add_friend) == Users
@test typeof(unfollow) == Users
@test size(unfollow_df)[2] == 40

# create a cursor for follower ids
follow_cursor_test = get_followers_ids(screen_name = "twitter", count = 10_000)
@test length(follow_cursor_test["ids"]) == 10_000

# create a cursor for friend ids - use barackobama because he follows a lot of accounts!
friend_cursor_test = get_friends_ids(screen_name = "BarackObama", count = 10_000)
@test length(friend_cursor_test["ids"]) == 10_000

# create a test for home timelines
home_t = get_home_timeline(count = 2)
@test length(home_t) > 1

# TEST of cursoring functionality on user timelines
user_t = get_user_timeline(screen_name = "stefanjwojcik", count = 400)
@test length(user_t) == 400
# get the minimum ID of the tweets returned (the earliest)
minid = minimum( for x in user_t);

# now iterate until you hit that tweet: should return 399
# WARNING: current versions of julia cannot use keywords in macros? read here:
# eventually replace since_id = minid
tweets_since = get_user_timeline(screen_name = "stefanjwojcik", count = 400, since_id = 1001808621053898752, include_rts=1)

@test length(tweets_since)>=399

# testing get_mentions_timeline
mentions = get_mentions_timeline(screen_name = "stefanjwojcik", count = 300) 
@test length(mentions) >= 50 #sometimes API doesn't return number requested (twitter API specifies count is the max returned, may be much lower)
@test Tweets<:typeof(mentions[1])

# testing retweets_of_me
my_rts = get_retweets_of_me(count = 300)
@test Tweets<:typeof(my_rts[1])

Want to contribute?

Contributions are welcome! Kindly refer to the contribution guidelines.

Linux: Build Status 

CodeCov: codecov

Author: Randyzwitch
Source Code: 
License: View license

#julia #api #twitter 

Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta


Main Pros and Cons of Django As A Web Framework for Python Developers

Django depicts itself as “the web system for fussbudgets with cutoff times”. It was intended to help Python engineers take applications from idea to consummation as fast as could be expected under the circumstances.

It permits fast turn of events on the off chance that you need to make a CRUD application with batteries included. With Django, you won’t need to rehash an already solved problem. It just works and lets you center around your business rationale and making something clients can utilize.

Pros of Django

“Batteries included” theory

The standard behind batteries-included methods normal usefulness for building web applications accompanies the system, not as isolated libraries.

Django incorporates much usefulness you can use to deal with normal web advancement undertakings. Here are some significant level functionalities that Django gives you, which else you need to stay together if you somehow happened to utilize a small scale structure:


Database relocations

Client validation

Administrator board


Normalized structure

Django as a system proposes the right structure of an undertaking. That structure helps designers in making sense of how and where to execute any new component.

With a generally acknowledged venture structure that is like numerous tasks, it is a lot simpler to discover online good arrangements or approach the network for help. There are numerous energetic Python designers who will assist you with comprehending any issue you may experience.

Django applications

Django applications (or applications for short) permit designers to separate a task into numerous applications. An application is whatever is introduced by putting in settings.INSTALLED_APPS. This makes it simpler for engineers to add usefulness to the web application by coordinating outer Django applications into the venture.

There are many reusable modules and applications to accelerate your turn of events learn through Online Django Class and Check the Django website.

Secure of course

Django gives great security assurance out of the crate and incorporates avoidance components for basic assaults like SQL Injection (XSS) and Cross-site Request Forgery (CSRF). You can discover more subtleties in the official security diagram control.

REST structure for building APIs

Django REST Framework, commonly condensed “DRF”, is a Python library for building APIs. It has secluded and adaptable engineering that functions admirably for both straightforward and complex web APIs.

DRF gives a lot of verification and authorization strategies out of the case. It is an adaptable, full-included library with measured and adjustable engineering. It accompanies nonexclusive classes for CRUD tasks and an implicit API program for testing API endpoints.

GraphQL structure for building APIs

Huge REST APIs regularly require a lot of solicitations to various endpoints to recover every single required datum. GraphQL it’s a question language that permits us to share related information in a lot simpler design. For a prologue to GraphQL and an outline of its ideas, if it’s not too much trouble allude to the authority GraphQL documentation.

Graphene-Django gives reflections that make it simple to add GraphQL usefulness to your Django venture. Ordinary Django models, structures, validation, consent arrangements, and different functionalities can be reused to manufacture GraphQL blueprint. It additionally gives an implicit API program for testing API endpoints.

Cons of Django

Django ORM

Django ORM, made before SQLAlchemy existed, is currently much sub-par compared to SQLAlchemy. It depends on the Active Record design which is more regrettable than the Unit of Work design embraced by SQLAlchemy. This implies, in Django, models can “spare” themselves and exchanges are off as a matter of course, they are a bit of hindsight. Peruse more in Why I kind of aversion Django.

Django advances course popularity increses day by day:

Django is huge and is viewed as strong bit of programming. This permits the network to create several reusable modules and applications yet has additionally restricted the speed of advancement of the Django. On head of that Django needs to keep up in reverse similarity, so it advances gradually.

Rundown - Should I use Django as a Python designer?

While Django ORM isn’t as adaptable as SQLAlchemy and the enormous environment of reusable modules and applications hinders structure advancement - plainly Django ought to be the best option web system for Python engineers.

Elective, light systems, similar to Flask, while offering a retreat from Django huge biological system and designs, in the long haul can require substantially more additional libraries and usefulness, in the end making many experienced Python engineers winding up wishing they’d began with Django.

Django undertaking’s security and network have become enormously over the previous decade since the system’s creation. Official documentation and instructional exercises are probably the best anyplace in programming advancement. With each delivery, Django keeps on including huge new usefulness.

#django online training #django online course #online django course #django course #django training #django certification course