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Design Your Web UI Using ReactJS JavaScript Library

ReactJS Tutorial – Design Your Web UI Using ReactJS JavaScript Library

Most of you would have heard about ‘ReactJS’ also known as React. For those of you curious to know more, I’ll be covering all the core concepts of React you need to know. By the end of this ReactJS tutorial, I’m confident that you will be clear with all the fundamentals of React. Let me start by giving you an overview of what I’ll be covering in this ReactJS tutorial.

  • Evolution Of React
  • Why Learn React?
  • React Features Overview
  • How does It work?
  • Building Blocks
  • React Installation

You may go through this recording of ReactJS Tutorial where our React training expert has explained the topics in a detailed manner with examples that will help you to understand the concept better.

Evolution Of React

React is a JavaScript library used to build the user interface for web applications. React was initially developed and maintained by the folks at Facebook, which was later used in their products (WhatsApp & Instagram). Now it is an open source project with an active developer community. Popular websites like Netflix, Airbnb, Yahoo!Mail, KhanAcademy, Dropbox and many more use React to build their UI. Modern websites are built using MVC (model view controller) architecture. React is the ‘V’ in the MVC which stands for view, whereas the architecture is provided by Redux or Flux. React native is used to develop mobile apps, the Facebook mobile app is built using React native.

Facebook’s annual F8 Developer conference 2017, saw two promising announcements: React Fiber and ReactVR. React Fiber is a complete rewrite of the previous release focusing on incremental rendering and quick responsiveness, React Fiber is backward compatible with all previous versions. ReactVR is built on top of React Native frameworks, it enables developing UI with the addition of 3D models to replicate 360-degree environment resulting in fully immersive VR content.

Why Learn React?

“Let’s just write less and do more!!”

React is among the easiest JS libraries you can start with. Conventional Vanilla JavaScript is more time-consuming, why waste time writing lengthy code when u can get things done smoothly with React. React has over 71,200 stars on GitHub, making it the 4th most starred project of all time. After looking at the below example, I am sure you would understand why front-end developers across the world are switching to React. Now let’s try coding a set of nested lists in React and compare it with conventional JavaScript syntax. To learn more about react, check out this Web developer course today.

Example: 30 lines of code in Vanilla JavaScript can be replaced by just 10 lines of React code, isn’t that awesome!!


<li>List item 1 </li>
<li>List item 2 (child list)
<li>Subitem 1</li>
<li>Subitem 2</li>
<li>Final list item</li>

Equivalent Vanilla JavaScript

 "List item 1 "
 "List item 2 (child list)",
 "Subitem 1"
 "Subitem 2"
 "Final list item"

As you have already figured it out when the complexity increases, the JavaScript code generated becomes unmanageable. This is where JSX comes to the rescue ensuring the code is short and easily readable.

ReactJS Tutorial- Key Terminology

ReactJS Pre-requisites - ReactJS Tutorial - Edureka

 Figure: ReactJS Tutorial – Dependencies

Before we dive deeper into this ReactJS tutorial, let me first introduce you to some key terms you need to be familiar with.

JSX (JavaScript Extension)

JSX Allows us to include ‘HTML’ in the same file along with ‘JavaScript’ (HTML+JS=JSX). Each component in React generates some HTML which is rendered by the DOM.

ES6 (ES2015)

The sixth version of JavaScript is standardized by ECMA International in 2015. Hence the language is referred to as ECMAScript. ES6 is not completely supported by all modern browsers.


This is the fifth JavaScript version and is widely accepted by all modern browsers, it is based on the 2009 ECMA specification standard. Tools are used to convert ES6 to ES5 during runtime.


A module bundler which generates a build file joining all the dependencies.


This is the tool used to convert ES6 to ES5. This is done because not all web browsers can render React (ES6+JSX) directly.

React Features Overview

React-Features - ReactJS Tutorial - EdurekaFigure: ReactJS Tutorial – React Features

Learning Curve

React has a shallow learning curve and it is suitable for beginners. ES6 syntax is easier to manage especially for smaller to-do apps. In React, you code in the ‘JavaScript’ way, giving you the freedom to choose your tool depending upon your need. Angular expects you to learn one additional tool ‘typescript’ which can be viewed as the ‘Angular’ way of doing things. In ‘Angular’ you need to learn the entire framework even if you’re just building a simple UI application.

Moving ahead in this ReactJS tutorial, I will be discussing about React’s Virtual DOM.

Concept: The Simplicity Of Virtual DOM

Virtual DOM - ReactJS Tutorial - Edureka

Figure : ReactJS Tutorial – React Virtual DOM

In contrary to the actual DOM, react makes use of the Virtual DOM. Virtual DOM utilizes a differential algorithm for making calculations. This relieves the real DOM which can then process other tasks. Let me illustrate this with an example.

Now consider there are 10,000 nodes out of which we only need to work on 2 nodes. Now most of the processing is wasted in traversing those 10,000 nodes while we only operate on 2 nodes. The calculations are done by the Virtual DOM to find those 2 nodes and the real DOM quickly retrieves them.


When it comes to performance, React sits right at the top. React is known for its superior rendering speed. Thus the name “React”, an instant reaction to change with minimum delay. DOM manipulation is the heart of a responsive website, unfortunately it is slow in most JavaScript frameworks. However, Virtual DOM is implemented in React, hence it is the underlying principle behind React’s superior performance.


As we already know, React is not a framework, thus features may be added according to the user’s needs. This is the principle behind the light-weight applications built on React – pick only what is needed. Webpack offers several plugins which further minimize (minify) the size during production, The React + Redux bundle minified constitutes around 200 kb whereas its rival Angular is almost four times bigger (Angular + RxJS bundle).


There will be a point when a developer goes through a roadblock. It could be as simple as a ‘missing bracket’ or as tricky as a ‘segmentation fault’. In any case, the earlier the exception is caught the lesser is the cost overhead. React uses compile time debugging and detects errors at an early stage. This ensures that errors don’t silently turn up at run-time. Facebook’s unidirectional data flow allows clean and smooth debugging, fewer stack traces, lesser clutter and an organized Flux architecture for bigger applications.

How Does It Work?

While React is easier to learn for beginners with no prior JavaScript experience, the nitty gritty’s of transpiling JSX code can often be overwhelming. This sets the tone for tools such as Babel and Webpack. Webpack and Babel bundle together all the JavaScript files into a single file. Just like how we use to include a link to the CSS and JS files in our HTML code, Webpack performs a similar function eliminating the need for explicitly linking files.

I’m sure all of you use Facebook. Now, imagine Facebook being split into components, each functionality is assigned to a specific component and each component produces some HTML which is rendered as output by the DOM. 

Facebook Components

  • Search Bar
  • Add Post 
  • Notifications Bar 
  • Feed Updates
  • Profile Info
  • Chat Window

To make things clear, refer to the image below.

Facebook Components - ReactJS Tutorial - Edureka

Figure: ReactJS Tutorial – Facebook Components

Building Blocks:-

  • Components
  • Props
  • State
  • State Lifecycle
  • Event handling 
  • Keys

Moving on to the core aspect of our ReactJS tutorial, let us discuss the building blocks of React.


The entire application can be modeled as a set of independent components. Different components are used to serve different purposes. This enables us to keep logic and views separate. React renders multiple components simultaneously. Components can be either stateful or stateless.

Before we start creating components, we need to include a few ‘import’ statements.

In the first line, we have to instruct JavaScript to import the ‘react’ library from the installed ‘npm’ module. This takes care of all the dependencies needed by React.

import React from 'react';

The HTML generated by the component needs to be displayed on to the DOM, we achieve this by specifying a render function which tells React where exactly it needs to be rendered (displayed) on the screen. For this, we make a reference to an existing DOM node by passing a container element.

In React, the DOM is part of the ‘react-dom’ library. So in the next line, we have to instruct JavaScript to import ‘react-dom’ library from the installed npm module.

import ReactDOM from 'react-dom';

In our example, we create a component named ‘MyComponent’ which displays a welcome message. We pass the component instance ‘<MyComponent>’ to React along with its container  ‘<div >’ tag.

const MyComponent =()=> {
      {     return
<h2>Way to go you just created a component!!</h2>
ReactDOM.render(<MyComponent/>, document.getElementById('root'));


“All the user needs to do is, change the parent component’s state, while the changes are passed down to the child component through props.”

Props is a shorthand for properties (You guessed it right!). React uses ‘props’ to pass attributes from ‘parent’ component to ‘child’ component.

Props are the argument passed to the function or component which is ultimately processed by React. Let me illustrate this with an example.

function Message(props) {
<h1>Good to have you back, {props.username}</h1>
function App() {
    return (
            <Message username="jim" />
            <Message username="duke" />
            <Message username="mike" />

Here the ‘App’ component has passed three ‘Message’ component instances with the prop ‘username’. All the three usernames are passed as an argument to the Message component.

The output screen is as shown below:

React Props - ReactJS Tutorial - EdurekaFigure: ReactJS Tutorial – Props Output


“And I believe state adds the greatest value to React.”

State allows us to create components that are dynamic and interactive. State is private, it must not be manipulated from the outside. Also, it is important to know when to use ‘state’, it is generally used with data that is bound to change. For example, when we click a toggle button it changes from ‘inactive’ to ‘active’ state. State is used only when needed, make sure it is used in render() otherwise don’t include it in the state. We do not use ‘state’ with static components. The state can only be set inside the constructor. Let’s include some code snippets to explain the same.

class Toggle extends React.Component {
this.state = {isToggleOn: true};
this.handleClick = this.handleClick.bind(this);

Binding is needed explicitly, as by default the event is not bound to the component.

Event Handling And Manipulation Of State 

Whenever an event such as a button click or a mouse hover occurs, we need to handle these events and perform the appropriate actions. This is done using event handlers.

While State is set only once inside the constructor it can however, be manipulated through “setState” command. Whenever we call “handleclick” function based on the previous state, “isToggleOn” function is switched between “active” and “inactive” state.

this.setState(prevState =>({
isToggleOn: !prevState.isToggleOn

The OnClick attribute specifies the function to be executed when the target element is clicked. In our example, whenever “onclick” is heard, we are telling React to transfer control to handleClick() which switches between the two states.

<button onClick={this.handleClick}>
{this.state.isToggleOn ? 'ON': 'OFF'}
}// end class

State Lifecycle

We need to initialize resources to components according to their requirements. This is called “mounting” in React. It is critical to clear these resources taken by the components when they are destroyed. This is because performance can be managed and unused resources can be destroyed. This is called “unmounting” in React. It is not essential to use state lifecycle methods, but use them if you wish to take control of the complete resource allocations and retrieval process. State lifecycle methods component DidMount() and componentWillUnmount() are used to allocate and release resources respectively.

Class Time extends React.component
constructor(value) {
this.state = {date: new Date()};

We create an object called Timer ID and set an interval of 2 seconds. Now, this is the time interval based on which the page is refreshed.

componentDidMount() {
this.timerID = setInterval( () => this.tick(),2000);

Here the interval is the timeframe after which the resources are cleared and the component should be destroyed. Performing such manipulations on the dataset using ‘state’ can be viewed as an optimal approach.

componentWillUnmount() {clear interval(this.timerID);}

A timer is set to call tick() method once every two seconds. An object with current Date is passed to set state. Each time React calls the render() method, this.state.date value is different. React then displays the updated time on the screen.

tick(){this.setState({date:new Date()});} 
return ( 
<h2>The Time is {this.state.date.toLocaleTimeString()}.</h2>
ReactDOM.render( <Time />, document.getElementById('root') );
}// end class


Keys in React provide identity to components. Keys are the means by which React identifies components uniquely. While working with individual components we don’t need keys as react takes care of key assignments according to their rendering order. However, we need a strategy to differentiate between thousands of elements in a list. We assign them ‘keys’. If we need to access the last component in a list using keys, it saves us from traversing the entire list sequentially. Keys serve to keep track of which items have been manipulated. Keys should be given to the elements inside the array to give the elements a stable identity.

In our example below, we create an array ‘Data’ with four items, we assign each item the index ‘i’ as the key. We achieve this by defining the key as a property(‘Prop’) and use the JavaScript ‘map’ function to pass the key on each element of the array and return the result to the ‘content’ component.

class App extends React.Component {
constructor() {
this.state = {
item: 'Java',
id: '1'
item: 'React',
id: '2'
item: 'Python',
id: '3'
item: 'C#',
id: '4'
render() {
        return (
                    {this.state.data.map((dynamicComponent, i) => <Content key = {i} componentData = {dynamicComponent}/>)}
class Content extends React.Component {
    render() {
        return (

React Installation

There are several ways to install React. In short, we can either configure the dependencies manually or use the open source starter packs available on GitHub. The ‘create-react-app’ (CRA) tool maintained by Facebook itself is one such example. This is suitable for beginners who can focus on code, without manually having to deal with transpiling tools like webpack and Babel. In this ReactJS tutorial I will be showing you how to install React using CRA tool.

Npm: Node Package Manager manages the different dependencies needed to run ReactJs applications. Npm is bundled together with node.js.

Step 1: Download NodeJS

First go to the node.js website and download the .exe file according to your system configuration and install it.

Link: https://nodejs.org/en/download/

Step 2: Download the ‘create-react-app’ Tool from GitHub 

Link: https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app

Step 3: Open cmd prompt and navigate to the project directory.

Now, enter the following commands

->  npm install -g create-react-app
->  cd my-app 
->  create-react-app my-app

Step 4:-> npm start 

Once we type “npm start” the application will start execution on port 3000. Open http://localhost:3000/, you will be greeted by this page.

Welcome Page - ReactJS Tutorial - Edureka

Figure: ReactJS Tutorial – Welcome Page

This is how the file structure should look once you have successfully installed React.

├── README.md
├── node_modules
├── package.json
├── .gitignore
├── public
│   └── favicon.ico
│   └── index.html
│   └── manifest.json
└── src
    └── App.css
    └── App.js
    └── App.test.js
    └── index.css
    └── index.js
    └── logo.svg
    └── registerServiceWorker.js

When you are creating new apps, all you need to do is update the file ‘App.js’ and the changes will be reflected automatically, other files can be added or removed. Make sure you put all CSS and JS files inside the ‘/src’ directory.

This brings us to the end of this ReactJS tutorial blog. Hope each and every aspect I discussed above is clear to you all. To learn more check out our courses on React.

If you found this blog on “ReactJS tutorial” relevant, check out the Web Development Course Training by Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 250,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe. This Edureka course helps learners gain expertise in both fundamental and advanced topics in React enabling you to develop full-fledged, dynamic web applications on the go.

Got a question for us? Please mention it in the comments section and we will get back to you.

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Original article source at: https://www.edureka.co/

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Chloe  Butler

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Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license


Hire Dedicated Responsive Web Designers - Hire Web Designer

With the different sizes of smartphones and tablets used today, it has become necessary that a business website or app should be able to adjust its size accordingly.

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Ananya Gupta

Ananya Gupta


Key Points For Joining The Best Web Designing For Better Career Option

The scope of the web designer is increasing day by day, because of high demanding job forms an important part of our society. Web Designing is that the creation and planning of internet sites. it’s a process of developing different sites.

To be an honest web designer you ought to have an entire knowledge of CSS and HTML. These are the important prerequisite for designing an internet site. In today’s world of competition to be amongst at the highest one needs media. Websites are playing a key role in today’s life. Whether in online web desiging course mention shopping or engineering everything is formed online.

These are some of the main benefits which a standard person has made with the utilization of internet sites. many roles are available for web designers than before. Many big companies demand experienced and quality web designers.

Web designing is the creative and innovative part of web development during which the designer is especially concerned with how our website looks. CSS is the heart of the web designing part.

The scope of web designing is increasing day by day. In today’s web and internet world, people want a creative website once they want to access it. Top company web development of India hands over 8-10 lac per annum for an experienced web designer. So it’s a really good field for creating websites.

Web designers have the work of designing whole websites which forms the primary step of web development. After web designing remaining work will start. In today’s growing scenario there are many job opportunities for fresher and experienced candidates.

Web designing is a crucial course that features a lot of scope within the present and also in the future scenario. There are two ways to travel through this course. If you’re curious about taking over a full-time web designer course then we will make a career in media or as advertising agents.

If one is curious about Engineering or in Commerce course but getting to develop the skill in web designing, then you’ll prefer the part-time short course in web designing.

When it comes to selecting a training institute, you will find them in every corner. CETPA Infotech is a reputed training institution and provides training that is industry oriented, updated, innovative and summer training has become a pioneer during this online designing field.

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UI/UX Design & Development Company | UI/UX Design Services

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Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years - Prismetric

The term web design simply encompasses a design process related to the front-end design of website that includes writing mark-up. Creative web design has a considerable impact on your perceived business credibility and quality. It taps onto the broader scopes of web development services.

Web designing is identified as a critical factor for the success of websites and eCommerce. The internet has completely changed the way businesses and brands operate. Web design and web development go hand-in-hand and the need for a professional web design and development company, offering a blend of creative designs and user-centric elements at an affordable rate, is growing at a significant rate.

In this blog, we have focused on the different areas of designing a website that covers all the trends, tools, and techniques coming up with time.

Web design
In 2020 itself, the number of smartphone users across the globe stands at 6.95 billion, with experts suggesting a high rise of 17.75 billion by 2024. On the other hand, the percentage of Gen Z web and internet users worldwide is up to 98%. This is not just a huge market but a ginormous one to boost your business and grow your presence online.

Web Design History
At a huge particle physics laboratory, CERN in Switzerland, the son of computer scientist Barner Lee published the first-ever website on August 6, 1991. He is not only the first web designer but also the creator of HTML (HyperText Markup Language). The worldwide web persisted and after two years, the world’s first search engine was born. This was just the beginning.

Evolution of Web Design over the years
With the release of the Internet web browser and Windows 95 in 1995, most trading companies at that time saw innumerable possibilities of instant worldwide information and public sharing of websites to increase their sales. This led to the prospect of eCommerce and worldwide group communications.

The next few years saw a soaring launch of the now-so-famous websites such as Yahoo, Amazon, eBay, Google, and substantially more. In 2004, by the time Facebook was launched, there were more than 50 million websites online.

Then came the era of Google, the ruler of all search engines introducing us to search engine optimization (SEO) and businesses sought their ways to improve their ranks. The world turned more towards mobile web experiences and responsive mobile-friendly web designs became requisite.

Let’s take a deep look at the evolution of illustrious brands to have a profound understanding of web design.

Here is a retrospection of a few widely acclaimed brands over the years.

From a simple idea of renting DVDs online to a multi-billion-dollar business, saying that Netflix has come a long way is an understatement. A company that has sent shockwaves across Hollywood in the form of content delivery. Abundantly, Netflix (NFLX) is responsible for the rise in streaming services across 190 countries and meaningful changes in the entertainment industry.


The idea of Netflix was born when Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph decided to rent DVDs by mail. With 925 titles and a pay-per-rental model, Netflix.com debuts the first DVD rental and sales site with all novel features. It offered unlimited rentals without due dates or monthly rental limitations with a personalized movie recommendation system.

Netflix 1997-2000


Announcing its initial public offering (IPO) under the NASDAQ ticker NFLX, Netflix reached over 1 million subscribers in the United States by introducing a profile feature in their influential website design along with a free trial allowing members to create lists and rate their favorite movies. The user experience was quite engaging with the categorization of content, recommendations based on history, search engine, and a queue of movies to watch.

Netflix 2001-2005 -2003


They then unleashed streaming and partnering with electronic brands such as blu-ray, Xbox, and set-top boxes so that users can watch series and films straight away. Later in 2010, they also launched their sophisticated website on mobile devices with its iconic red and black themed background.

Netflix 2006-2010 -2007


In 2013, an eye-tracking test revealed that the users didn’t focus on the details of the movie or show in the existing interface and were perplexed with the flow of information. Hence, the professional web designers simply shifted the text from the right side to the top of the screen. With Daredevil, an audio description feature was also launched for the visually impaired ones.

Netflix 2011-2015


These years, Netflix came with a plethora of new features for their modern website design such as AutoPay, snippets of trailers, recommendations categorized by genre, percentage based on user experience, upcoming shows, top 10 lists, etc. These web application features yielded better results in visual hierarchy and flow of information across the website.

Netflix 2016-2020


With a sleek logo in their iconic red N, timeless black background with a ‘Watch anywhere, Cancel anytime’ the color, the combination, the statement, and the leading ott platform for top video streaming service Netflix has overgrown into a revolutionary lifestyle of Netflix and Chill.

Netflix 2021

Contunue to read: Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years

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