Zakary  Goyette

Zakary Goyette


The Importance of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis tests are significant for evaluating answers to questions concerning samples of data.

statistical Hypothesis is a belief made about a population parameter. This belief may or might not be right. In other words, hypothesis testing is a proper technique utilized by scientist to support or reject statistical hypotheses. The foremost ideal approach to decide if a statistical hypothesis is correct is to examine the whole population.

Since that’s frequently impractical, we normally take a random sample from the population and inspect the equivalent. Within the event sample data set isn’t steady with the statistical hypothesis, the hypothesis is refused.

Types of hypothesis

There are two sorts of hypothesis and both the **Null Hypothesis **(Ho) and Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) must be totally mutually exclusive events.

  • Null hypothesis is usually the hypothesis that the event won’t happen.
  • Alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis that the event will happen.

Why we need Hypothesis Testing?

Suppose a company needs to launch a new bicycle in the market. For this situation, they will follow Hypothesis Testing all together decide the success of the new product in the market.

Where the likelihood of the product being ineffective in the market is undertaken as the Null Hypothesis and the likelihood of the product being profitable is undertaken as an Alternative Hypothesis. By following the process of Hypothesis testing they will foresee the accomplishment.

#statistics #simulation-hypothesis #hypothesis #testing #data-science #data #statistical-fallacy #big-data

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

The Importance of Hypothesis Testing

React Native Bridge for AppAuth

React Native App Auth

React native bridge for AppAuth - an SDK for communicating with OAuth2 providers 

This versions supports react-native@0.63+. The last pre-0.63 compatible version is v5.1.3.

React Native bridge for AppAuth-iOS and AppAuth-Android SDKS for communicating with OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect providers.

This library should support any OAuth provider that implements the OAuth2 spec.

We only support the Authorization Code Flow.

Why you may want to use this library

AppAuth is a mature OAuth client implementation that follows the best practices set out in RFC 8252 - OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps including using SFAuthenticationSession and SFSafariViewController on iOS, and Custom Tabs on Android. WebViews are explicitly not supported due to the security and usability reasons explained in Section 8.12 of RFC 8252.

AppAuth also supports the PKCE ("Pixy") extension to OAuth which was created to secure authorization codes in public clients when custom URI scheme redirects are used.

To learn more, read this short introduction to OAuth and PKCE on the Formidable blog.

Supported methods

See Usage for example configurations, and the included Example application for a working sample.


This is the main function to use for authentication. Invoking this function will do the whole login flow and returns the access token, refresh token and access token expiry date when successful, or it throws an error when not successful.

import { authorize } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],

const result = await authorize(config);


ANDROID This will prefetch the authorization service configuration. Invoking this function is optional and will speed up calls to authorize. This is only supported on Android.

import { prefetchConfiguration } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  warmAndPrefetchChrome: true,
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],



This is your configuration object for the client. The config is passed into each of the methods with optional overrides.

  • issuer - (string) base URI of the authentication server. If no serviceConfiguration (below) is provided, issuer is a mandatory field, so that the configuration can be fetched from the issuer's OIDC discovery endpoint.
  • serviceConfiguration - (object) you may manually configure token exchange endpoints in cases where the issuer does not support the OIDC discovery protocol, or simply to avoid an additional round trip to fetch the configuration. If no issuer (above) is provided, the service configuration is mandatory.
    • authorizationEndpoint - (string) REQUIRED fully formed url to the OAuth authorization endpoint
    • tokenEndpoint - (string) REQUIRED fully formed url to the OAuth token exchange endpoint
    • revocationEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to the OAuth token revocation endpoint. If you want to be able to revoke a token and no issuer is specified, this field is mandatory.
    • registrationEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to your OAuth/OpenID Connect registration endpoint. Only necessary for servers that require client registration.
    • endSessionEndpoint - (string) fully formed url to your OpenID Connect end session endpoint. If you want to be able to end a user's session and no issuer is specified, this field is mandatory.
  • clientId - (string) REQUIRED your client id on the auth server
  • clientSecret - (string) client secret to pass to token exchange requests. :warning: Read more about client secrets
  • redirectUrl - (string) REQUIRED the url that links back to your app with the auth code
  • scopes - (array<string>) the scopes for your token, e.g. ['email', 'offline_access'].
  • additionalParameters - (object) additional parameters that will be passed in the authorization request. Must be string values! E.g. setting additionalParameters: { hello: 'world', foo: 'bar' } would add hello=world&foo=bar to the authorization request.
  • clientAuthMethod - (string) ANDROID Client Authentication Method. Can be either basic (default) for Basic Authentication or post for HTTP POST body Authentication
  • dangerouslyAllowInsecureHttpRequests - (boolean) ANDROID whether to allow requests over plain HTTP or with self-signed SSL certificates. :warning: Can be useful for testing against local server, should not be used in production. This setting has no effect on iOS; to enable insecure HTTP requests, add a NSExceptionAllowsInsecureHTTPLoads exception to your App Transport Security settings.
  • customHeaders - (object) ANDROID you can specify custom headers to pass during authorize request and/or token request.
    • authorize - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during authorization request.
    • token - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during token retrieval request.
    • register - ({ [key: string]: value }) headers to be passed during registration request.
  • additionalHeaders - ({ [key: string]: value }) IOS you can specify additional headers to be passed for all authorize, refresh, and register requests.
  • useNonce - (boolean) (default: true) optionally allows not sending the nonce parameter, to support non-compliant providers
  • usePKCE - (boolean) (default: true) optionally allows not sending the code_challenge parameter and skipping PKCE code verification, to support non-compliant providers.
  • skipCodeExchange - (boolean) (default: false) just return the authorization response, instead of automatically exchanging the authorization code. This is useful if this exchange needs to be done manually (not client-side)
  • connectionTimeoutSeconds - (number) configure the request timeout interval in seconds. This must be a positive number. The default values are 60 seconds on iOS and 15 seconds on Android.


This is the result from the auth server:

  • accessToken - (string) the access token
  • accessTokenExpirationDate - (string) the token expiration date
  • authorizeAdditionalParameters - (Object) additional url parameters from the authorizationEndpoint response.
  • tokenAdditionalParameters - (Object) additional url parameters from the tokenEndpoint response.
  • idToken - (string) the id token
  • refreshToken - (string) the refresh token
  • tokenType - (string) the token type, e.g. Bearer
  • scopes - ([string]) the scopes the user has agreed to be granted
  • authorizationCode - (string) the authorization code (only if skipCodeExchange=true)
  • codeVerifier - (string) the codeVerifier value used for the PKCE exchange (only if both skipCodeExchange=true and usePKCE=true)


This method will refresh the accessToken using the refreshToken. Some auth providers will also give you a new refreshToken

import { refresh } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],

const result = await refresh(config, {
  refreshToken: `<REFRESH_TOKEN>`,


This method will revoke a token. The tokenToRevoke can be either an accessToken or a refreshToken

import { revoke } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPES_ARRAY>'],

const result = await revoke(config, {
  tokenToRevoke: `<TOKEN_TO_REVOKE>`,
  includeBasicAuth: true,
  sendClientId: true,


This method will logout a user, as per the OpenID Connect RP Initiated Logout specification. It requires an idToken, obtained after successfully authenticating with OpenID Connect, and a URL to redirect back after the logout has been performed.

import { logout } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',

const result = await logout(config, {
  idToken: '<ID_TOKEN>',
  postLogoutRedirectUrl: '<POST_LOGOUT_URL>',


This will perform dynamic client registration on the given provider. If the provider supports dynamic client registration, it will generate a clientId for you to use in subsequent calls to this library.

import { register } from 'react-native-app-auth';

const registerConfig = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',

const registerResult = await register(registerConfig);


  • issuer - (string) same as in authorization config
  • serviceConfiguration - (object) same as in authorization config
  • redirectUrls - (array<string>) REQUIRED specifies all of the redirect urls that your client will use for authentication
  • responseTypes - (array<string>) an array that specifies which OAuth 2.0 response types your client will use. The default value is ['code']
  • grantTypes - (array<string>) an array that specifies which OAuth 2.0 grant types your client will use. The default value is ['authorization_code']
  • subjectType - (string) requests a specific subject type for your client
  • tokenEndpointAuthMethod (string) specifies which clientAuthMethod your client will use for authentication. The default value is 'client_secret_basic'
  • additionalParameters - (object) additional parameters that will be passed in the registration request. Must be string values! E.g. setting additionalParameters: { hello: 'world', foo: 'bar' } would add hello=world&foo=bar to the authorization request.
  • dangerouslyAllowInsecureHttpRequests - (boolean) ANDROID same as in authorization config
  • customHeaders - (object) ANDROID same as in authorization config
  • connectionTimeoutSeconds - (number) configure the request timeout interval in seconds. This must be a positive number. The default values are 60 seconds on iOS and 15 seconds on Android.


This is the result from the auth server

  • clientId - (string) the assigned client id
  • clientIdIssuedAt - (string) OPTIONAL date string of when the client id was issued
  • clientSecret - (string) OPTIONAL the assigned client secret
  • clientSecretExpiresAt - (string) date string of when the client secret expires, which will be provided if clientSecret is provided. If new Date(clientSecretExpiresAt).getTime() === 0, then the secret never expires
  • registrationClientUri - (string) OPTIONAL uri that can be used to perform subsequent operations on the registration
  • registrationAccessToken - (string) token that can be used at the endpoint given by registrationClientUri to perform subsequent operations on the registration. Will be provided if registrationClientUri is provided

Getting started

npm install react-native-app-auth --save


iOS Setup

To setup the iOS project, you need to perform three steps:

  1. Install native dependencies
  2. Register redirect URL scheme
  3. Define openURL callback in AppDelegate

Install native dependencies

This library depends on the native AppAuth-ios project. To keep the React Native library agnostic of your dependency management method, the native libraries are not distributed as part of the bridge.

AppAuth supports three options for dependency management.

  1. CocoaPods
cd ios
pod install

2.   Carthage

With Carthage, add the following line to your Cartfile:

github "openid/AppAuth-iOS" "master"

Then run carthage update --platform iOS.

Drag and drop AppAuth.framework from ios/Carthage/Build/iOS under Frameworks in Xcode.

Add a copy files build step for AppAuth.framework: open Build Phases on Xcode, add a new "Copy Files" phase, choose "Frameworks" as destination, add AppAuth.framework and ensure "Code Sign on Copy" is checked.

3.   Static Library

You can also use AppAuth-iOS as a static library. This requires linking the library and your project and including the headers. Suggested configuration:

  1. Create an XCode Workspace.
  2. Add AppAuth.xcodeproj to your Workspace.
  3. Include libAppAuth as a linked library for your target (in the "General -> Linked Framework and Libraries" section of your target).
  4. Add AppAuth-iOS/Source to your search paths of your target ("Build Settings -> "Header Search Paths").

Register redirect URL scheme

If you intend to support iOS 10 and older, you need to define the supported redirect URL schemes in your Info.plist as follows:

  • CFBundleURLName is any globally unique string. A common practice is to use your app identifier.
  • CFBundleURLSchemes is an array of URL schemes your app needs to handle. The scheme is the beginning of your OAuth Redirect URL, up to the scheme separator (:) character. E.g. if your redirect uri is com.myapp://oauth, then the url scheme will is com.myapp.

Define openURL callback in AppDelegate

You need to retain the auth session, in order to continue the authorization flow from the redirect. Follow these steps:

RNAppAuth will call on the given app's delegate via [UIApplication sharedApplication].delegate. Furthermore, RNAppAuth expects the delegate instance to conform to the protocol RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager. Make AppDelegate conform to RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager with the following changes to AppDelegate.h:

+ #import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h"

- @interface AppDelegate : UIResponder <UIApplicationDelegate, RCTBridgeDelegate>
+ @interface AppDelegate : UIResponder <UIApplicationDelegate, RCTBridgeDelegate, RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager>

+ @property(nonatomic, weak)id<RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManagerDelegate>authorizationFlowManagerDelegate;

Add the following code to AppDelegate.m (to support iOS <= 10 and React Navigation deep linking)

+ - (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)app openURL:(NSURL *)url options:(NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *) options {
+  if ([self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL:url]) {
+    return YES;
+  }
+  return [RCTLinkingManager application:app openURL:url options:options];
+ }

If you want to support universal links, add the following to AppDelegate.m under continueUserActivity

+ if ([userActivity.activityType isEqualToString:NSUserActivityTypeBrowsingWeb]) {
+   if (self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate) {
+     BOOL resumableAuth = [self.authorizationFlowManagerDelegate resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL:userActivity.webpageURL];
+     if (resumableAuth) {
+       return YES;
+     }
+   }
+ }

Integration of the library with a Swift iOS project

The approach mentioned should work with Swift. In this case one should make AppDelegate conform to RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager. Note that this is not tested/guaranteed by the maintainers.


  1. swift-Bridging-Header.h should include a reference to #import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h, like so:
#import <React/RCTBundleURLProvider.h>
#import <React/RCTRootView.h>
#import <React/RCTBridgeDelegate.h>
#import <React/RCTBridge.h>
#import "RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager.h" // <-- Add this header
#import <FlipperKit/FlipperClient.h>
// etc...

2.   AppDelegate.swift should implement the RNAppAuthorizationFlowManager protocol and have a handler for url deep linking. The result should look something like this:

class AppDelegate: UIApplicationDelegate, RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager { //<-- note the additional RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManager protocol
  public weak var authorizationFlowManagerDelegate: RNAppAuthAuthorizationFlowManagerDelegate? // <-- this property is required by the protocol
  //"open url" delegate function for managing deep linking needs to call the resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL method
  func application(
      _ app: UIApplication,
      open url: URL,
      options: [UIApplicationOpenURLOptionsKey: Any] = [:]) -> Bool {
      return authorizationFlowManagerDelegate?.resumeExternalUserAgentFlowWithURL(with: url) ?? false

Android Setup

Note: for RN >= 0.57, you will get a warning about compile being obsolete. To get rid of this warning, use patch-package to replace compile with implementation as in this PR - we're not deploying this right now, because it would break the build for RN < 57.

To setup the Android project, you need to add redirect scheme manifest placeholder:

To capture the authorization redirect, add the following property to the defaultConfig in android/app/build.gradle:

android {
  defaultConfig {
    manifestPlaceholders = [
      appAuthRedirectScheme: 'io.identityserver.demo'

The scheme is the beginning of your OAuth Redirect URL, up to the scheme separator (:) character. E.g. if your redirect uri is com.myapp://oauth, then the url scheme will is com.myapp. The scheme must be in lowercase.

NOTE: When integrating with React Navigation deep linking, be sure to make this scheme (and the scheme in the config's redirectUrl) unique from the scheme defined in the deep linking intent-filter. E.g. if the scheme in your intent-filter is set to com.myapp, then update the above scheme/redirectUrl to be com.myapp.auth as seen here.


import { authorize } from 'react-native-app-auth';

// base config
const config = {
  issuer: '<YOUR_ISSUER_URL>',
  clientId: '<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>',
  redirectUrl: '<YOUR_REDIRECT_URL>',
  scopes: ['<YOUR_SCOPE_ARRAY>'],

// use the client to make the auth request and receive the authState
try {
  const result = await authorize(config);
  // result includes accessToken, accessTokenExpirationDate and refreshToken
} catch (error) {

Error messages

Values are in the code field of the rejected Error object.

  • OAuth Authorization error codes
  • OAuth Access Token error codes
  • OpendID Connect Registration error codes
  • service_configuration_fetch_error - could not fetch the service configuration
  • authentication_failed - user authentication failed
  • token_refresh_failed - could not exchange the refresh token for a new JWT
  • registration_failed - could not register
  • browser_not_found (Android only) - no suitable browser installed

Note about client secrets

Some authentication providers, including examples cited below, require you to provide a client secret. The authors of the AppAuth library

strongly recommend you avoid using static client secrets in your native applications whenever possible. Client secrets derived via a dynamic client registration are safe to use, but static client secrets can be easily extracted from your apps and allow others to impersonate your app and steal user data. If client secrets must be used by the OAuth2 provider you are integrating with, we strongly recommend performing the code exchange step on your backend, where the client secret can be kept hidden.

Having said this, in some cases using client secrets is unavoidable. In these cases, a clientSecret parameter can be provided to authorize/refresh calls when performing a token request.

Token Storage

Recommendations on secure token storage can be found here.

Maintenance Status

Active: Formidable is actively working on this project, and we expect to continue for work for the foreseeable future. Bug reports, feature requests and pull requests are welcome.

Tested OpenID providers

These providers are OpenID compliant, which means you can use autodiscovery.

Tested OAuth2 providers

These providers implement the OAuth2 spec, but are not OpenID providers, which means you must configure the authorization and token endpoints yourself.

Download Details:
Author: FormidableLabs
Source Code:
License: MIT License

#react  #reactnative  #mobileapp #javascript #java 

Umeng Analytics & Push Flutter Plugins

Umeng Analytics&Push Flutter Plugins(umeng_analytics_push) 

  • Language: English | 中文简体
  • Umeng API: umeng:analytics & umeng:push
  • Tip: From v2.1.0 supported Umeng "Compliance Guide" Android IOS, and made appropriate adjustments to facilitate integration.
  • Note: The following document description shall prevail, do not refer to the settings in the example



  umeng_analytics_push: ^x.x.x #The latest version is shown above, plugin1.x supports flutter1.x, plugin2.x supports flutter2.x

# Or import through Git (choose one, Git version may be updated more timely)


Android pretreatment settings (with Kotlin example)

Create a custom FlutterApplication class as the startup class, if the push function is not needed, uemng_message_secret is set to null or ""


import io.github.zileyuan.umeng_analytics_push.UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid

class MyFlutterApplication: FlutterApplication() {
    override fun onCreate() {
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid.androidPreInit(this, "uemng_app_key", "channel", "uemng_message_secret")

Modify MainActivity, add Umeng settings


import android.os.Handler
import android.os.Looper
import android.content.Intent
import androidx.annotation.NonNull;
import io.flutter.embedding.engine.FlutterEngine
import io.flutter.plugins.GeneratedPluginRegistrant
import io.github.zileyuan.umeng_analytics_push.UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid
import io.github.zileyuan.umeng_analytics_push.UmengAnalyticsPushPlugin

class MainActivity: FlutterActivity() {
    var handler: Handler = Handler(Looper.myLooper())

    override fun configureFlutterEngine(@NonNull flutterEngine: FlutterEngine) {

    override fun onNewIntent(intent: Intent) {
        // Actively update and save the intent every time you go back to the front desk, and then you can get the latest intent

    override fun onResume() {
        if (getIntent().getExtras() != null) {
            var message = getIntent().getExtras().getString("message")
            if (message != null && message != "") {
                // To start the interface, wait for the engine to load, and send it to the interface with a delay of 5 seconds
                handler.postDelayed(object : Runnable {
                    override fun run() {
                }, 5000)

    override fun onPause() {

Modify the AndroidManifest.xml file


Add the vendor push channel, see the official documentation for details umeng:push:vendor

Modify MyFlutterApplication


import io.github.zileyuan.umeng_analytics_push.UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid

class MyFlutterApplication: FlutterApplication() {
    override fun onCreate() {
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid.androidInit(this, "uemng_app_key", "channel", "uemng_message_secret")
        // Register Xiaomi Push (optional)
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid.registerXiaomi(this, "xiaomi_app_id", "xiaomi_app_key")
        // Register Huawei Push (optional, need add other infomation in AndroidManifest.xml)
        // Register Oppo Push (optional)
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid.registerOppo(this, "oppo_app_key", "oppo_app_secret")
        // Register Vivo Push (optional, need add other infomation in AndroidManifest.xml)
        // Register Meizu Push (optional)
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterAndroid.registerMeizu(this, "meizu_app_id", "meizu_app_key")

Modify the AndroidManifest.xml, fill in the real id or key

    <!-- Vivo push channel start (optional) -->
        android:value="vivo_api_key" />
        android:value="vivo_app_id" />
    <!-- Vivo push channel end-->

    <!-- Huawei push channel start (optional) -->
        android:value="appid=huawei_app_id" />
    <!-- Huawei push channel end-->

Use the following parameters to send, accept offline messages

"mipush": true
"mi_activity": "io.github.zileyuan.umeng_analytics_push.OfflineNotifyClickActivity"  

If the App needs to use proguard for obfuscated packaging, please add the following obfuscated code

-dontwarn com.umeng.**
-dontwarn org.apache.thrift.**
-dontwarn com.xiaomi.**
-dontwarn com.huawei.**
-dontwarn com.meizu.**

-keepattributes *Annotation*

-keep class** {*;}
-keep class** {*;}
-keep class** {*;}
-keep class com.umeng.** {*;}
-keep class com.xiaomi.** {*;}
-keep class com.huawei.** {*;}
-keep class com.meizu.** {*;}
-keep class org.apache.thrift.** {*;}

-keep class** {*;}
-keep class com.ut.** {*;}
-keep class com.ta.** {*;}

-keep public class **.R$* {
    public static final int *;

IOS pretreatment settings (with Swift example)

Modify AppDelegate.swift file

import UIKit
import Flutter

@objc class AppDelegate: FlutterAppDelegate {
    override func application(_ application: UIApplication, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions launchOptions: [UIApplication.LaunchOptionsKey: Any]?) -> Bool {
        GeneratedPluginRegistrant.register(with: self)
        UmengAnalyticsPushFlutterIos.iosPreInit(launchOptions, appkey:"uemng_app_key", channel:"appstore");
        return super.application(application, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions: launchOptions)

    // If you need to handle Push clicks, use the following code
    @available(iOS 10.0, *)
    override func userNotificationCenter(_ center: UNUserNotificationCenter, didReceive response: UNNotificationResponse, withCompletionHandler completionHandler: @escaping () -> Void) {
        let userInfo = response.notification.request.content.userInfo

Modify Runner-Bridging-Header.h file

#import "GeneratedPluginRegistrant.h"
#import <UMCommon/UMCommon.h>
#import <UMCommon/MobClick.h>
#import <UMPush/UMessage.h>
#import <UserNotifications/UserNotifications.h>
#import <umeng_analytics_push/UmengAnalyticsPushIos.h>

Use in Flutter

Initialize Umeng, call it after agreeing to the "Privacy Policy" according to the "Compliance Guide", two parameter switches, one is log, the other is push

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';

UmengAnalyticsPush.initUmeng(false, true);

Click Push response

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';
import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/message_model.dart';

UmengAnalyticsPush.addPushMessageCallback((MessageModel message) {
  print("UmengAnalyticsPush Message ======> $message");

Operation Alias

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';

UmengAnalyticsPush.addAlias('1001', 'jobcode');
UmengAnalyticsPush.setAlias('1002', 'jobcode');
UmengAnalyticsPush.deleteAlias('1002', 'jobcode');

Operation Tags

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';


Page buried point operation

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';


Custom event

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';

UmengAnalyticsPush.event('customEvent', '1000');

Use this package as a library

Depend on it

Run this command:

With Flutter:

 $ flutter pub add umeng_analytics_push

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

  umeng_analytics_push: ^2.1.3

Alternatively, your editor might support or flutter pub get. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:umeng_analytics_push/umeng_analytics_push.dart';


import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatefulWidget {
  _MyAppState createState() => _MyAppState();

class _MyAppState extends State<MyApp> {

  void initState() {

  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: const Text('Plugin example app'),
        body: Center(

Download Details:

Author: zileyuan

Source Code:

#flutter #analytics 

Tamia  Walter

Tamia Walter


Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

Ways to Test Microservices

It is easy to fall into the trap of making testing microservices complicated, but there are ways to avoid this problem. Testing microservices doesn’t have to be complicated at all when you have the right strategy in place.

There are several ways to test microservices too, including:

  • Unit testing: Which allows developers to test microservices in a granular way. It doesn’t limit testing to individual microservices, but rather allows developers to take a more granular approach such as testing individual features or runtimes.
  • Integration testing: Which handles the testing of microservices in an interactive way. Microservices still need to work with each other when they are deployed, and integration testing is a key process in making sure that they do.
  • End-to-end testing: Which⁠—as the name suggests⁠—tests microservices as a complete app. This type of testing enables the testing of features, UI, communications, and other components that construct the app.

What’s important to note is the fact that these testing approaches allow for asynchronous testing. After all, asynchronous development is what makes developing microservices very appealing in the first place. By allowing for asynchronous testing, you can also make sure that components or microservices can be updated independently to one another.

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Troy  Marvin

Troy Marvin


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