Bitcoin’s Halving Is A Meaningless Milestone

Bitcoin’s long-awaited halving took place earlier today, against a backdrop of genuine ecstasy among the cryptocurrency’s dedicated acolytes. There were countdownslive-streamed video events and chants of “when moon?” It cracked the mainstream news and is regarded as the biggest event in crypto. The halving has driven seemingly every bitcoin owner on the face of the Earth into making enthused price predictions and posting them online.

All of this is categorically insane. Worse, it is built on a lie, or at least a piece of purposeful misdirection on the part of Bitcoin’s major boosters, who should know better.

There are just as many bitcoins today (18,375,000) as there were yesterday, before the halving

Let’s recall what the halving actually does. It’s very simple: it halves the block reward for bitcoin miners, from 12.5 new BTC to 6.25. This changes the economics of mining significantly, by making mining much less lucrative. Some miners might stop altogether, hurting Bitcoin’s hash rate.

And that’s it. That’s all the halving does. It slows the rate that new BTC are produced. It does absolutely nothing to change the cryptocurrency’s supply in real terms. Unfortunately, most pundits and Bitcoin boosters are promoting the opposite. Let’s deconstruct this misdirection bit by bit.

The halving does NOT reduce the supply of BTC

The typical narrative for the Bitcoin halving goes something like this:

  • Every four years, Bitcoin’s supply is cut in half through the halving
  • With the reduced supply, but the same demand, Bitcoin’s price can only shoot up; as the same number of buyers are buying a smaller number of coins
  • How can the price not boom? It has following every other halving in Bitcoin history, after all!

Hopefully the misdirection apparent in this narrative is clear by now. There are multiple meanings of the word ‘supply’, and too many in the Bitcoin community are implying that the absolute supply — that is, the number of bitcoins in circulation — is dropping. This is just not true. There are just as many bitcoins today (18,375,000) as there were yesterday, before the halving. Actually — there are slightly more — that number continues to increase! It is just doing so at a slower rate.

The popular misinterpretation of ‘supply’ has huge consequences for the way the cryptocurrency community thinks about the halving. The real consequences are those I laid out above: miner economics, hash rate — comparatively technical and hardly bullish for the price of Bitcoin. This makes for an oh-so-boring narrative.

#cryptocurrency #bitcoin #money #investing #data-science #data analysis

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Bitcoin’s Halving Is A Meaningless Milestone
Mike  Kozey

Mike Kozey

1656151740

Test_cov_console: Flutter Console Coverage Test

Flutter Console Coverage Test

This small dart tools is used to generate Flutter Coverage Test report to console

How to install

Add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

dev_dependencies:
  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

How to run

run the following command to make sure all flutter library is up-to-date

flutter pub get
Running "flutter pub get" in coverage...                            0.5s

run the following command to generate lcov.info on coverage directory

flutter test --coverage
00:02 +1: All tests passed!

run the tool to generate report from lcov.info

flutter pub run test_cov_console
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
 print_cov_constants.dart                    |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

Optional parameter

If not given a FILE, "coverage/lcov.info" will be used.
-f, --file=<FILE>                      The target lcov.info file to be reported
-e, --exclude=<STRING1,STRING2,...>    A list of contains string for files without unit testing
                                       to be excluded from report
-l, --line                             It will print Lines & Uncovered Lines only
                                       Branch & Functions coverage percentage will not be printed
-i, --ignore                           It will not print any file without unit testing
-m, --multi                            Report from multiple lcov.info files
-c, --csv                              Output to CSV file
-o, --output=<CSV-FILE>                Full path of output CSV file
                                       If not given, "coverage/test_cov_console.csv" will be used
-t, --total                            Print only the total coverage
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-p, --pass=<MINIMUM>                   Print only the whether total coverage is passed MINIMUM value or not
                                       If the value >= MINIMUM, it will print PASSED, otherwise FAILED
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-h, --help                             Show this help

example run the tool with parameters

flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

report for multiple lcov.info files (-m, --multi)

It support to run for multiple lcov.info files with the followings directory structures:
1. No root module
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
2. With root module
<root>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/lib/src
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
You must run test_cov_console on <root> dir, and the report would be grouped by module, here is
the sample output for directory structure 'with root module':
flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock --multi
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_a -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_b -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

Output to CSV file (-c, --csv, -o, --output)

flutter pub run test_cov_console -c --output=coverage/test_coverage.csv

#### sample CSV output file:
File,% Branch,% Funcs,% Lines,Uncovered Line #s
lib/,,,,
test_cov_console.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
lib/src/,,,,
parser.dart,100.00,100.00,97.22,"97"
parser_constants.dart,100.00,100.00,100.00,""
print_cov.dart,100.00,100.00,82.91,"29,49,51,52,171,174,177,180,183,184,185,186,187,188,279,324,325,387,388,389,390,391,392,393,394,395,398"
print_cov_constants.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
All files with unit testing,100.00,100.00,86.07,""

Installing

Use this package as an executable

Install it

You can install the package from the command line:

dart pub global activate test_cov_console

Use it

The package has the following executables:

$ test_cov_console

Use this package as a library

Depend on it

Run this command:

With Dart:

 $ dart pub add test_cov_console

With Flutter:

 $ flutter pub add test_cov_console

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit dart pub get):

dependencies:
  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

Alternatively, your editor might support dart pub get or flutter pub get. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:test_cov_console/test_cov_console.dart';

example/lib/main.dart

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  // This widget is the root of your application.
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      theme: ThemeData(
        // This is the theme of your application.
        //
        // Try running your application with "flutter run". You'll see the
        // application has a blue toolbar. Then, without quitting the app, try
        // changing the primarySwatch below to Colors.green and then invoke
        // "hot reload" (press "r" in the console where you ran "flutter run",
        // or simply save your changes to "hot reload" in a Flutter IDE).
        // Notice that the counter didn't reset back to zero; the application
        // is not restarted.
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
        // This makes the visual density adapt to the platform that you run
        // the app on. For desktop platforms, the controls will be smaller and
        // closer together (more dense) than on mobile platforms.
        visualDensity: VisualDensity.adaptivePlatformDensity,
      ),
      home: MyHomePage(title: 'Flutter Demo Home Page'),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  MyHomePage({Key? key, required this.title}) : super(key: key);

  // This widget is the home page of your application. It is stateful, meaning
  // that it has a State object (defined below) that contains fields that affect
  // how it looks.

  // This class is the configuration for the state. It holds the values (in this
  // case the title) provided by the parent (in this case the App widget) and
  // used by the build method of the State. Fields in a Widget subclass are
  // always marked "final".

  final String title;

  @override
  _MyHomePageState createState() => _MyHomePageState();
}

class _MyHomePageState extends State<MyHomePage> {
  int _counter = 0;

  void _incrementCounter() {
    setState(() {
      // This call to setState tells the Flutter framework that something has
      // changed in this State, which causes it to rerun the build method below
      // so that the display can reflect the updated values. If we changed
      // _counter without calling setState(), then the build method would not be
      // called again, and so nothing would appear to happen.
      _counter++;
    });
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // This method is rerun every time setState is called, for instance as done
    // by the _incrementCounter method above.
    //
    // The Flutter framework has been optimized to make rerunning build methods
    // fast, so that you can just rebuild anything that needs updating rather
    // than having to individually change instances of widgets.
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        // Here we take the value from the MyHomePage object that was created by
        // the App.build method, and use it to set our appbar title.
        title: Text(widget.title),
      ),
      body: Center(
        // Center is a layout widget. It takes a single child and positions it
        // in the middle of the parent.
        child: Column(
          // Column is also a layout widget. It takes a list of children and
          // arranges them vertically. By default, it sizes itself to fit its
          // children horizontally, and tries to be as tall as its parent.
          //
          // Invoke "debug painting" (press "p" in the console, choose the
          // "Toggle Debug Paint" action from the Flutter Inspector in Android
          // Studio, or the "Toggle Debug Paint" command in Visual Studio Code)
          // to see the wireframe for each widget.
          //
          // Column has various properties to control how it sizes itself and
          // how it positions its children. Here we use mainAxisAlignment to
          // center the children vertically; the main axis here is the vertical
          // axis because Columns are vertical (the cross axis would be
          // horizontal).
          mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
          children: <Widget>[
            Text(
              'You have pushed the button this many times:',
            ),
            Text(
              '$_counter',
              style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline4,
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
      floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
        onPressed: _incrementCounter,
        tooltip: 'Increment',
        child: Icon(Icons.add),
      ), // This trailing comma makes auto-formatting nicer for build methods.
    );
  }
}

Author: DigitalKatalis
Source Code: https://github.com/DigitalKatalis/test_cov_console 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#flutter #dart #test 

Abigail betty

Abigail betty

1624226400

What is Bitcoin Cash? - A Beginner’s Guide

Bitcoin Cash was created as a result of a hard fork in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Cash network supports a larger block size than Bitcoin (currently 32mb as opposed to Bitcoin’s 1mb).

Later on, Bitcoin Cash forked into Bitcoin SV due to differences in how to carry on its developments.

That’s Bitcoin Cash in a nutshell. If you want a more detailed review watch the complete video. Here’s what I’ll cover:

0:50 - Bitcoin forks
2:06 - Bitcoin’s block size debate
3:35 - Big blocks camp
4:26 - Small blocks camp
5:16 - Small blocks vs. big blocks arguments
7:05 - How decisions are made in the Bitcoin network
10:14 - Block size debate resolution
11:06 - Bitcoin cash intro
11:28 - BTC vs. BCH
12:13 - Bitcoin Cash (ABC) vs. Bitcoin SV
13:09 - Conclusion
📺 The video in this post was made by 99Bitcoins
The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ONhbb4YVRLM
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
☞ **-----CLICK HERE-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #bitcoin cash #what is bitcoin cash? - a beginner’s guide #what is bitcoin cash #a beginner’s guide

Most EXPLOSIVE Bitcoin Opportunity 2021 (In Depth Bitcoin Mining Analysis). (HOT NEWS!!)

Volcanoes! No, this isn’t a flashback to your eighth-grade science project. President of El Salvador, Nayib Bukele, is proposing harnessing the geothermal power of volcanoes to mine Bitcoin in his country.

Believe it or not, this idea isn’t just to make the news of El Salvador using Bitcoin as legal tender even more explosive than it already has been. It’s a truly sustainable energy source that El Salvador already uses, and it may be the key to unlocking a green future for mining Bitcoin.

0:00 Intro
0:52 El Salvador, Crypto, Geothermal Energy
3:07 Why Geothermal?
4:52 How much energy mining needs
6:35 Closing thoughts
📺 The video in this post was made by BitBoy Crypto
The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXEGZB5RbDc
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
☞ **-----CLICK HERE-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #most explosive bitcoin opportunity 2021 #depth bitcoin mining analysis #most explosive bitcoin opportunity 2021 (in depth bitcoin mining analysis) #bitcoin opportunity 2021

Fannie  Zemlak

Fannie Zemlak

1596816000

Savage Bitcoiners Volume 1: Interview with Psychedelic Bart

Twitter social icon

Originally published on Citadel21.com April, 21 2020

NamePsychedelic Bart a.k.a. Psycho Bart

Country: United States

**How long have you been into Bitcoin and what got you interested? **

I’ve been into Bitcoin since 2013. I was initially drawn to BTC because I was a volatility junkie and I saw an opportunity to make more fiat. Over the years, I started to look into it more, take it seriously, and accumulate. Once you’ve figured out that Bitcoin is unstoppable, you’re deep in the rabbit hole.

How did you come up with your alias and why don’t you use your real name?

I came up with “Psychedelic Bart” because I grew up loving The Simpsons, Bart’s alter-ego El Barto, and Rob “Killer Acid” Corradetti’s artwork. I don’t use my real name because I value privacy.

Best Bitcoin experience and worst Bitcoin experience?

Best Bitcoin experience – befriending intelligent Bitcoiners over the years. It’s the best when you find people that are on the same wavelength as you. Worst Bitcoin experience – losing Bitcoin to trading shitcoins and leverage. I’ve learned my lesson.

What is the biggest fail you have ever seen in the Bitcoin world?

Mt. Gox. I didn’t get Goxxed but too many Bitcoiners got rekt from the shitty exchange. Learn from this and HODL YOUR OWN BTC.

What do you think about the Bitcoin markets volatility this last year?

Meh. You have to get used to the volatility because Bitcoin is still a new asset or else you’ll never make it out alive.

What are your thoughts on the upcoming halving and how will it affect price?

Not priced in! Most people still have no clue what Bitcoin is and the power it has. Bitcoin will moon again – it was designed to.

What is the biggest threat of COVID to the economy?

Government overreach destroyed Main St. and many small businesses.

What are your thoughts about the US Federal Reserve injecting so much money into the economy because of COVID?

Bbrrrrrrrrrrr.

How do you think this affects Bitcoin?

Anyone with a clue knows that the Fed is addicted to printing money and they’re not going to stop. More people are beginning to learn that Bitcoin is the best hedge.

Why do you think some people, especially noobs gravitate to shitcoins?

False advertising and unit bias. Shitcoiners lie and most people (even the really smart ones) are turned off from Bitcoin’s price.

What do you think most shitcoiners miss about Bitcoin?

That Bitcoin is light years ahead of everything else. Most people fall for the shitcoins’ marketing gimmicks, but when you take the time and figure out what the truth is, you’ll go all into BTC.

What do you have to say to shitcoiners who claim Bitcoin will fail?

Shitcoiners talk out of their asses all the time. I love this legendary quote: “If you don’t believe me or don’t get it, I don’t have time to try to convince you, sorry” - Satoshi Nakamoto.

**Who is the biggest Bitcoin sell out that deserves to be put on blast? **

Trace Mayer. Imagine building your reputation for years, then ruining it in a span of weeks with Mimblewimble Coin and other nonsense.

**Who are some of the most hardcore Bitcoiners you know and why? **

The most hardcore Bitcoiners are the ones that build, code, and HODL. Nothing beats skin in the game. Big shoutout to the contributors who write and review code.

**What Bitcoin startups or companies are you most excited about? **

Too many LOL. Coinkite, BTCPay, Samourai, Wasabi, River Financial, Unchained Capital, Cash App, Swan Bitcoin, LN Strike, Lolli, Fold App, Blue Wallet, myNode, Casa, and much more.

**What are your goto Bitcoin storage options? **

Coldcard Wallet. I recommend using it with a long passphrase for most people, multisig for the advanced crowd.

Any tips you want to give to people new to Bitcoin?

HODL your own keys, get used to the volatility, and dollar cost average.

Name some of your favorite information sources and/or podcasts in the space.

Stephan Livera, Tales from the Crypt, John Vallis’s Rapid-Fire podcast, Fun with Bitcoin podcast, Bitcoin Pleb Talk podcast, bitcoin-only.com, and of course Bitcoin Twitter.

Any last words of wisdom?

Think for yourself and never give up your freedom.

For more Bitcoin Articles check out www.citadel21.com!

Pirate Beachbum_ has been into Bitcoin since 2014 and doesn’t consider himself anyone special. Over the years he has written dozens of articles about Bitcoin, and interviewed many of the top minds in the space. Most people know him from co-founding a rogue group of Bitcoiners, who call themselves the Bitcoin Taco Carnivore Plebs, with his good friend Hodlonaut._

#bitcoin #savage-bitcoiners #citadel21 #hackernoon-top-story #bitcoin-spotlight #bitcoin-maximalism #bitcoin-price #btc

Abigail betty

Abigail betty

1624323600

How to Buy Bitcoins in 2021? (4 different methods reviewed). DO NOT MISS!!!

Here’s a quick guide for buying your first Bitcoin:
Step 1 – Get a Bitcoin wallet
Step 2 – Find your Bitcoin address
Step 3 – Go to Coinmama and choose the amount of Bitcoin to buy
Step 4 – Enter your Bitcoin address and payment information
That’s how to buy Bitcoins in a nutshell. For a detailed explanation watch the complete video, here’s what I’ll cover:

0:51 - Bitcoin wallets in a nutshell
1:47 - How many Bitcoins should you buy?
2:44 - Choosing a Bitcoin exchange
4:53 - Trading platforms vs. Brokers
6:20 - Registration + KYC
6:55 - Moving your Bitcoins from the exchange
7:44 - Bitcoin ATMs
8:31 - Buying from an individual
📺 The video in this post was made by 99Bitcoins
The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuUO-Q4_b5c
🔺 DISCLAIMER: The article is for information sharing. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Not investment advice or legal advice.
Cryptocurrency trading is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money
🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you ☞ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner
⭐ ⭐ ⭐The project is of interest to the community. Join to Get free ‘GEEK coin’ (GEEKCASH coin)!
☞ **-----CLICK HERE-----**⭐ ⭐ ⭐
Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

#bitcoin #blockchain #bitcoins #how to buy bitcoins in 2021 #buy bitcoins #how to buy bitcoins in 2021? (4 different methods reviewed)