1596761520

A soon-to-be lawyer asked me recently: what should I know about the latest technological advancements to be a well-rounded professional going forward?

We talked a bit about everything — AI, Blockchain, and all the other buzzwords. And naturally, we touched upon the concept of hashing — where people usually get stuck on.

At a high level, encryption, for example, is quite intuitive. You “lock” something with a key and then unlock it by using the appropriate key.

Hashing, however, is hard to grasp even at a high level. Hashes are one-way functions that generate a deterministic output from a given input, such that the output (hash) can be used to identify and validate the input, without revealing anything about it.

What’s difficult about the concept is that the function is one-way only. You run an input through a mathematical function and get an output that **cannot be reversed**. But how could that be? If I know the function and I know the output, I can surely derive the input, no?

For the majority of us, when we think about mathematical operators, we think of operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Hence, the concept of hashing seems unreasonable.

Let’s say we have a function f(x) = x + 2.

If I give you the output, say y = 4, you can easily work back the function and find that x = 2.

But while that is true for the four operators mentioned above, it is not true for all operators in existence.

Don’t worry — it’s not gonna get too complicated

The modulo operator, usually defined by the symbol % (yup, that’s right), gives us the remainder of a division of two whole numbers.

Here are a few examples:

4 % 2 = 0 (pronounced ‘four modulo two equals zero’)

5 % 2 = 1

6 % 4 = 2

Did you get the hang of it? First, we figure out the maximum amount of times the second number fits into the first. Then, the modulo operator will give a result of whatever is leftover.

2, for instance, fits twice into 5, and the remainder is 1. Hence, 5 % 2 = 1.

Remember our function f(x) from the beginning?

Now let’s say f(x) = x % 2.

I tell you y = 0. Can you find x?

While your brain might intuitively think x = 2, the truth is: **x can be 2, or an infinite amount of other numbers.**

Think about it: 4 % 2 is also 0, so is 10 % 2 and so is 935628038264 % 2.

Hence, in practice, you could never figure out what x is because the different values it can take are infinite. Any even number between 2 and infinity modulo 2 will equal 0.

#software-engineering #technology #blockchain #cybersecurity #programming

1599329700

Hashing In Java is a technique that is used for mapping values to the key, which in turn makes it easy to retrieve values by just entering the key. The main advantage of using HASHING in java is that it reduces the time complexity of any program and allows the execution time of essential operation to remain constant even for the more significant side given. But the main problem of the hashing function is that it leads to the collision as two or more keys can point to the same values.

If we want to avoid this chain, hashing is mainly used. So, to insert a value in a hash table, the main requirement is a hash index which is calculated using the formula.

In hashing, there is the hash function that maps keys to some values.

But these hashing functions may lead to a collision that is two or more keys are mapped to the same value.

#java #java hashing #hashing

1596761520

A soon-to-be lawyer asked me recently: what should I know about the latest technological advancements to be a well-rounded professional going forward?

We talked a bit about everything — AI, Blockchain, and all the other buzzwords. And naturally, we touched upon the concept of hashing — where people usually get stuck on.

At a high level, encryption, for example, is quite intuitive. You “lock” something with a key and then unlock it by using the appropriate key.

Hashing, however, is hard to grasp even at a high level. Hashes are one-way functions that generate a deterministic output from a given input, such that the output (hash) can be used to identify and validate the input, without revealing anything about it.

What’s difficult about the concept is that the function is one-way only. You run an input through a mathematical function and get an output that **cannot be reversed**. But how could that be? If I know the function and I know the output, I can surely derive the input, no?

For the majority of us, when we think about mathematical operators, we think of operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Hence, the concept of hashing seems unreasonable.

Let’s say we have a function f(x) = x + 2.

If I give you the output, say y = 4, you can easily work back the function and find that x = 2.

But while that is true for the four operators mentioned above, it is not true for all operators in existence.

Don’t worry — it’s not gonna get too complicated

The modulo operator, usually defined by the symbol % (yup, that’s right), gives us the remainder of a division of two whole numbers.

Here are a few examples:

4 % 2 = 0 (pronounced ‘four modulo two equals zero’)

5 % 2 = 1

6 % 4 = 2

Did you get the hang of it? First, we figure out the maximum amount of times the second number fits into the first. Then, the modulo operator will give a result of whatever is leftover.

2, for instance, fits twice into 5, and the remainder is 1. Hence, 5 % 2 = 1.

Remember our function f(x) from the beginning?

Now let’s say f(x) = x % 2.

I tell you y = 0. Can you find x?

While your brain might intuitively think x = 2, the truth is: **x can be 2, or an infinite amount of other numbers.**

Think about it: 4 % 2 is also 0, so is 10 % 2 and so is 935628038264 % 2.

Hence, in practice, you could never figure out what x is because the different values it can take are infinite. Any even number between 2 and infinity modulo 2 will equal 0.

#software-engineering #technology #blockchain #cybersecurity #programming

1600158300

Python hash() is an inbuilt method that returns a hash value of the object if it has one. Hash values are just integers, which are used to compare the dictionary keys during a dictionary lookup quickly. In simple terms, the hash is a fixed size integer that identifies the particular value. Please note that the above definition is the simplest explanation.

Let us point out what is a fixed hash can mean? See the following points.

- The same data will have the same hash value.
- Even a slight change in the original data can result in a completely different hash value.
- The hash is obtained from a hash function, whose responsibility is to convert a piece of given information to the encoded hash.
- A number of objects can be much more than a number of hash values, and so, two objects may hash to the same hash value. It is called
**Hash collision**. What this means is that if two objects have the same hash code, they do not necessarily have the same value. - Objects hashed using
**hash()**are irreversible, leading to loss of information. - The
**hash()**method returns hashed value only for immutable objects, hence can be used as an indicator to check for mutable/immutable objects.

#python #hash collision #python hash

1625657209

Technical report writing is one of the most creative report writing subjects for scholars and students. Technical writing needs basic technological knowledge and information to prepare reports. One can take an **online report writing service** from a company providing such services at an affordable rate.

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• The Genetic Engineering.

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• Future of Robotics on Industrial Development and Unemployment.

• Effects of Mass Transportation Facilities on Global Warming.

• Relevancy of Artificial Human Organs?

• Scientific reasons for Heart Attacks.

• A Study on Space Science; the Moon, the Galaxy, and a Local Group.

These are some of the Trending Topics in Technical Report writing that might help you prepare your Research Report.

**Components of Technical Report Writing**

• Title Page of a Report

• Table of Contents (Containing every Topic in the Research Project).

• Executive Summary of Report.

• Introduction

• Body

• Recommendation and Conclusions of the Report.

• Appendices and References.

Every report writer needs to be accurate and professional while preparing a research report otherwise;, they may fail to get good grades and marks, which can directly impact their degree’s and career. The components mentioned earlier apply to the Technical report writing and are also strictly followed while making any research report.

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These are some reasons why scholars and students should choose Online Technical Report Writing Service for their assignments and research reports to get better academic results. They are generally very competitive, which always increases the chances of continuous growth and development.

If you need technical report writing help, you can connect with academic assignment service provider agencies working day and night to prepare a better project in exchange for a reasonable amount you pay to them. Your **assignment writer** will make sure that the report is informative, organized, and free from plagiarism. They provide some great exclusive deals and offers to their new customers and clients and seek to make a healthy relationship with them.

#technical report writing #online report writing service #online technical report writing service #technical report writing help #assignment writer

1598712900

Let’s start by understanding about few terminologies and some facts related to this article and come on common ground.

`Hashing`

is the practice of taking a string or input key, a variable created for storing narrative data, and representing it with a hash value, which is typically determined by an algorithm and constitutes a much shorter string than the original.`Web caching`

is the activity of storing data for reuse, such as a copy of a web page served by a web server. It is cached or stored the first time a user visits the page and the next time a user requests the same page, a cache will serve the copy, which helps keep the origin server from getting overloaded. Imagine visiting e-commerce, where the page is being requested over and over again, it’s wasteful to repeatedly download it from the server. An obvious idea is to use a Web cache, which stores a local copy of recently visited pages. If there is a local copy already present there is no need to hit the server and the response will be faster from a local copy creating a win-win situation for all.`Distributed System`

as said by`Andrew Tanenbaum`

is:

A collection of independent computers that appear to its users as one computer.

- Distributed systems consist of multiple computers that operate concurrently, fail independently, and do not share a common clock. They must be synchronized to be consistent.

The original motivation for consistent hashing (in 1997) was Web caching. The idea has real applications. Consistent hashing gave birth to Akamai, which to this day is a major player in the Internet, managing the Web presence of tons of major companies. (Quantitatively, Akamai serves 10–30% of all internet traffic).

#consistent-hashing #computer-science #hashing #system-design-project #tech #data science