Alexey Kartsev

Alexey Kartsev


How to create a simple REST API in Rust


Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language focused on performance and safety, especially safe concurrency. Rust is syntactically similar to C++, but provides memory safety without using garbage collection.

The Rust programming language helps you write faster, more reliable software. High-level ergonomics and low-level control are often at odds in programming language design; Rust challenges that conflict. Through balancing powerful technical capacity and a great developer experience, Rust gives you the option to control low-level details (such as memory usage) without all the hassle traditionally associated with such control.

Learn how to build a REST API in Rust — A Step-by-Step guide

For that, we are going to use the Rocket framework for the API and Diesel ORM framework for persisting features. This framework will cover all the things mentioned below. So, it will be much easier than implementing it from scratch.

  • Start a web server and open a PORT.
  • Listen to requests on this PORT.
  • If a request comes in, look at the Path in the HTTP header.
  • Route the request to the handler according to the Path.
  • Help you extract the information from the request.
  • Pack the generated data (created by you) and form a response.
  • Send the response back to the sender.

Installing Rust Nightly

Because Rocket makes abundant use of Rust’s syntax extensions and other advanced, unstable features, we have to install nightly.

rustup default nightly

If you prefer to install nightly only in your project directory, you can use the following:

rustup override set nightly


rocket = "0.4.4"
rocket_codegen = "0.4.4"
diesel = { version = "1.4.0", features = ["postgres"] }
dotenv = "0.9.0"
r2d2-diesel = "1.0"
r2d2 = "0.8"
serde = "1.0"
serde_derive = "1.0"
serde_json = "1.0"
custom_derive ="0.1.7"

version = "*"
default-features = false
features = ["json"]

I will explain these crates once we use them.

Setting Up Diesel

So, the next thing I am going to do is setup Diesel. Diesel provides its own CLI, so we have to install it first. (Assuming you are using PostgreSQL.)

cargo install diesel_cli — no-default-features — features postgre

Then, you need to tell Diesel what your DB credentials are. This command will generate a .env file.

echo DATABASE_URL=postgres://username:password@localhost:port/diesel_demo > .env

After that, run this command:

diesel setup

This will create our database (if it didn’t already exist), and create an empty migrations directory that we can use to manage our schema (more on that later).

There might be several errors when running the above code.

= note: LINK : fatal error LNK1181: cannot open input file ‘libpq.lib’

You can fix that easily by adding the PG lib folder path to the environment variables.

setx PQ_LIB_DIR “[path to pg lib folder]”

I’m surprised that those errors are not mentioned in the Diesel docs.

I highly recommend running these commands in CMD or Powershell. If you are using IDE’s terminal, you won’t get any errors like this and you will end up wasting two hours trying to figure out what the heck is going on.

To fix that, you can add PG’s bin folder path to the Path variables. Problem solved? Good!

Let’s create a user table and create a migration for that:

diesel migration generate users

After running that command, you will see that there are two files generated inside the migration folder.

Next, we’ll write the SQL for migrations:


    id         SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
    username   VARCHAR NOT NULL,
    password   VARCHAR NOT NULL,
    first_name VARCHAR NOT NULL



To apply our migration you can use:

diesel migration run

It’s good to make sure that down.sql is correct. You can quickly confirm that your down.sql rolls back your migration correctly by redoing the migration:

diesel migration redo

You can see that there’s a user table in your DB. Right!

I forgot to mention, if you’ve noticed, there’s a file that is generated after you run the Diesel setup named It should look like this.

table! {
    users (id) {
        id -> Int4,
        username -> Varchar,
        password -> Varchar,
        first_name -> Varchar,

Cool, Here Comes the Rust Part

Since we are going to use the ORM, obviously we have to map the user table to something in Rust. In Java, we use Class to map tables. InJava**,** we usually call them Beans. In Rust, we use structs. Let’s create a struct.

use diesel;
use diesel::pg::PgConnection;
use diesel::prelude::*;
use super::schema::users;
use super::schema::users::dsl::users as all_users;
// this is to get users from the database
#[derive(Serialize, Queryable)] 
pub struct User {
    pub id: i32,
    pub username: String,
    pub password: String,
    pub first_name: String,

Now, you may wonder what these annotations are, like this above struct definition.

They are called derives. So, that line will derive serialize and queryable traits. #[derive(Serialize)] and #[derive(Deserialize)] are used to map data to response and request.

Now I’m going to create two more structs. You will get them later.

// decode request data
pub struct UserData {
    pub username: String,
// this is to insert users to database
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Insertable)]
#[table_name = "users"]
pub struct NewUser {
    pub username: String,
    pub password: String,
    pub first_name: String,

The next thing we are going to do is implement User. So it will have some methods to do database operations.

In here, as you can see, we have passed the connection to the method and returned a Vector of Users. We are getting all the rows in the user table and map them to the User struct.

Of course, we are expecting errors. The message “error” will be printed out if panicked.

impl User {

    pub fn get_all_users(conn: &PgConnection) -> Vec<User> {

    pub fn insert_user(user: NewUser, conn: &PgConnection) -> bool {

    pub fn get_user_by_username(user: UserData, conn: &PgConnection) -> Vec<User> {

Now we have created a table and structs to map that table. The next thing we are going to do is create methods to use it. So, we are going to create a routes file. We usually call it a handler.

use super::db::Conn as DbConn;
use rocket_contrib::json::Json;
use super::models::{User, NewUser};
use serde_json::Value;
use crate::models::UserData;

#[post("/users", format = "application/json")]
pub fn get_all(conn: DbConn) -> Json<Value> {
    let users = User::get_all_users(&conn);
        "status": 200,
        "result": users,

#[post("/newUser", format = "application/json", data = "<new_user>")]
pub fn new_user(conn: DbConn, new_user: Json<NewUser>) -> Json<Value> {
        "status": User::insert_user(new_user.into_inner(), &conn),
        "result": User::get_all_users(&conn).first(),

#[post("/getUser", format = "application/json", data = "<user_data>")]
pub fn find_user(conn: DbConn, user_data: Json<UserData>) -> Json<Value> {
        "status": 200,
        "result": User::get_user_by_username(user_data.into_inner(), &conn),

Now, all we have to do is set up the connection pool. Here’s a brief explanation about the connection pool from the Rocket documentation.

“Rocket includes built-in, ORM-agnostic support for databases. In particular, Rocket provides a procedural macro that allows you to easily connect your Rocket application to databases through connection pools.

A database connection pool is a data structure that maintains active database connections for later use in the application.”

use diesel::pg::PgConnection;
use r2d2;
use r2d2_diesel::ConnectionManager;
use rocket::http::Status;
use rocket::request::{self, FromRequest};
use rocket::{Outcome, Request, State};
use std::ops::Deref;

pub type Pool = r2d2::Pool<ConnectionManager<PgConnection>>;

pub fn init_pool(db_url: String) -> Pool {
    let manager = ConnectionManager::<PgConnection>::new(db_url);
    r2d2::Pool::new(manager).expect("db pool failure")

pub struct Conn(pub r2d2::PooledConnection<ConnectionManager<PgConnection>>);

impl<'a, 'r> FromRequest<'a, 'r> for Conn {
    type Error = ();

    fn from_request(request: &'a Request<'r>) -> request::Outcome<Conn, ()> {
        let pool = request.guard::<State<Pool>>()?;
        match pool.get() {
            Ok(conn) => Outcome::Success(Conn(conn)),
            Err(_) => Outcome::Failure((Status::ServiceUnavailable, ())),

impl Deref for Conn {
    type Target = PgConnection;

    fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {

Finally, we need to start our server in the main file.

#![feature(plugin, const_fn, decl_macro, proc_macro_hygiene)]
#![allow(proc_macro_derive_resolution_fallback, unused_attributes)]

extern crate diesel;
extern crate dotenv;
extern crate r2d2;
extern crate r2d2_diesel;
extern crate rocket;
extern crate rocket_contrib;
extern crate serde_derive;
extern crate serde_json;

use dotenv::dotenv;
use std::env;
use routes::*;
use std::process::Command;

mod db;
mod models;
mod routes;
mod schema;

fn rocket() -> rocket::Rocket {

    let database_url = env::var("DATABASE_URL").expect("set DATABASE_URL");

    let pool = db::init_pool(database_url);
            routes![get_all, new_user, find_user],

fn main() {
    let _output = if cfg!(target_os = "windows") {
            .args(&["/C", "cd ui && npm start"])
            .expect("Failed to start UI Application")
    } else {
            .arg("cd ui && npm start")
            .expect("Failed to start UI Application")

Inside my project, I have added the Angular front end too. I’ll be using our Rust back end to serve it too.

To run the application → cargo run.

Let’s test our server with Insomnia.

I hope this helps. Cheers!

#rust #rest #api #web-development

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How to create a simple REST API in Rust
Easter  Deckow

Easter Deckow


PyTumblr: A Python Tumblr API v2 Client



Install via pip:

$ pip install pytumblr

Install from source:

$ git clone
$ cd pytumblr
$ python install


Create a client

A pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:

client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient(
) # Grabs the current user information

Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:

  1. The built-in tool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
  2. The Tumblr API console at
  3. Get sample login code at

Supported Methods

User Methods # get information about the authenticating user
client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user
client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user
client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user

client.follow('') # follow a blog
client.unfollow('') # unfollow a blog, reblogkey) # like a post
client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post

Blog Methods

client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog
client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog
client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog
client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog
client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog
client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows
client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog
client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog

Post Methods

Creating posts

PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.

The default supported types are described below.

  • state - a string, the state of the post. Supported types are published, draft, queue, private
  • tags - a list, a list of strings that you want tagged on the post. eg: ["testing", "magic", "1"]
  • tweet - a string, the string of the customized tweet you want. eg: "Man I love my mega awesome post!"
  • date - a string, the customized GMT that you want
  • format - a string, the format that your post is in. Support types are html or markdown
  • slug - a string, the slug for the url of the post you want

We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.

Creating a photo post

Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload

#Creates a photo post using a source URL
client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"],

#Creates a photo post using a local filepath
client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]",

#Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths
client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown",
                    data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"],
                    caption="## Mega sweet kittens")

Creating a text post

Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html

#Creating a text post
client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")

Creating a quote post

Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported

#Creating a quote post
client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")

Creating a link post

  • title - a string, the title of post that you want. Supports HTML entities.
  • url - a string, the url that you want to create a link post for.
  • description - a string, the desciption of the link that you have
#Create a link post
client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="",
                   description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")

Creating a chat post

Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)

#Create a chat post
chat = """John: Testing can be fun!
Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you.
John: Aw.
client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])

Creating an audio post

Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr

#Creating an audio file
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3")

#lets use soundcloud!
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="")

Creating a video post

Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload

#Creating an upload from YouTube
client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.",

#Creating a video post from local file
client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/")

Editing a post

Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.

client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated")
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")

Reblogging a Post

Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.

client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")

Deleting a post

Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id

client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(

A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):

client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)

Getting notes for a post

In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')

The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])

Tagged Methods

# get posts with a given tag
client.tagged(tag, **params)

Using the interactive console

This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).

You'll need pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:

$ python

and away you go! Tokens are stored in ~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.

Running tests

The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:

python test

Author: tumblr
Source Code:
License: Apache-2.0 license

#python #api 

Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac


What is REST API? An Overview | Liquid Web

What is REST?

The REST acronym is defined as a “REpresentational State Transfer” and is designed to take advantage of existing HTTP protocols when used for Web APIs. It is very flexible in that it is not tied to resources or methods and has the ability to handle different calls and data formats. Because REST API is not constrained to an XML format like SOAP, it can return multiple other formats depending on what is needed. If a service adheres to this style, it is considered a “RESTful” application. REST allows components to access and manage functions within another application.

REST was initially defined in a dissertation by Roy Fielding’s twenty years ago. He proposed these standards as an alternative to SOAP (The Simple Object Access Protocol is a simple standard for accessing objects and exchanging structured messages within a distributed computing environment). REST (or RESTful) defines the general rules used to regulate the interactions between web apps utilizing the HTTP protocol for CRUD (create, retrieve, update, delete) operations.

What is an API?

An API (or Application Programming Interface) provides a method of interaction between two systems.

What is a RESTful API?

A RESTful API (or application program interface) uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE data following the REST standards. This allows two pieces of software to communicate with each other. In essence, REST API is a set of remote calls using standard methods to return data in a specific format.

The systems that interact in this manner can be very different. Each app may use a unique programming language, operating system, database, etc. So, how do we create a system that can easily communicate and understand other apps?? This is where the Rest API is used as an interaction system.

When using a RESTful API, we should determine in advance what resources we want to expose to the outside world. Typically, the RESTful API service is implemented, keeping the following ideas in mind:

  • Format: There should be no restrictions on the data exchange format
  • Implementation: REST is based entirely on HTTP
  • Service Definition: Because REST is very flexible, API can be modified to ensure the application understands the request/response format.
  • The RESTful API focuses on resources and how efficiently you perform operations with it using HTTP.

The features of the REST API design style state:

  • Each entity must have a unique identifier.
  • Standard methods should be used to read and modify data.
  • It should provide support for different types of resources.
  • The interactions should be stateless.

For REST to fit this model, we must adhere to the following rules:

  • Client-Server Architecture: The interface is separate from the server-side data repository. This affords flexibility and the development of components independently of each other.
  • Detachment: The client connections are not stored on the server between requests.
  • Cacheability: It must be explicitly stated whether the client can store responses.
  • Multi-level: The API should work whether it interacts directly with a server or through an additional layer, like a load balancer.

#tutorials #api #application #application programming interface #crud #http #json #programming #protocols #representational state transfer #rest #rest api #rest api graphql #rest api json #rest api xml #restful #soap #xml #yaml

An API-First Approach For Designing Restful APIs | Hacker Noon

I’ve been working with Restful APIs for some time now and one thing that I love to do is to talk about APIs.

So, today I will show you how to build an API using the API-First approach and Design First with OpenAPI Specification.

First thing first, if you don’t know what’s an API-First approach means, it would be nice you stop reading this and check the blog post that I wrote to the Farfetchs blog where I explain everything that you need to know to start an API using API-First.

Preparing the ground

Before you get your hands dirty, let’s prepare the ground and understand the use case that will be developed.


If you desire to reproduce the examples that will be shown here, you will need some of those items below.

  • NodeJS
  • OpenAPI Specification
  • Text Editor (I’ll use VSCode)
  • Command Line

Use Case

To keep easy to understand, let’s use the Todo List App, it is a very common concept beyond the software development community.

#api #rest-api #openai #api-first-development #api-design #apis #restful-apis #restful-api

Lets Cms

Lets Cms


Opencart REST API extensions - V3.x | Rest API Integration, Affiliate

Opencart REST API extensions - V3.x | Rest API Integration : OpenCart APIs is fully integrated with the OpenCart REST API. This is interact with your OpenCart site by sending and receiving data as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects. Using the OpenCart REST API you can register the customers and purchasing the products and it provides data access to the content of OpenCart users like which is publicly accessible via the REST API. This APIs also provide the E-commerce Mobile Apps.

Opencart REST API 
OCRESTAPI Module allows the customer purchasing product from the website it just like E-commerce APIs its also available mobile version APIs.

Opencart Rest APIs List 
Customer Registration GET APIs.
Customer Registration POST APIs.
Customer Login GET APIs.
Customer Login POST APIs.
Checkout Confirm GET APIs.
Checkout Confirm POST APIs.

If you want to know Opencart REST API Any information, you can contact us at -
Skype: jks0586,
Call/WhatsApp/WeChat: +91–9717478599.

Download :
View Documentation :
More Information :

#opencart_api_for_android #Opencart_rest_admin_api #opencart_rest_api #Rest_API_Integration #oc_rest_api #rest_api_ecommerce #rest_api_mobile #rest_api_opencart #rest_api_github #rest_api_documentation #opencart_rest_admin_api #rest_api_for_opencart_mobile_app #opencart_shopping_cart_rest_api #opencart_json_api

Lets Cms

Lets Cms


Unilevel MLM Wordpress Rest API FrontEnd | UMW Rest API Woocommerce

Unilevel MLM Wordpress Rest API FrontEnd | UMW Rest API Woocommerce Price USA, Philippines : Our API’s handle the Unilevel MLM woo-commerce end user all functionalities like customer login/register. You can request any type of information which is listed below, our API will provide you managed results for your all frontend needs, which will be useful for your applications like Mobile App etc.
Business to Customer REST API for Unilevel MLM Woo-Commerce will empower your Woo-commerce site with the most powerful Unilevel MLM Woo-Commerce REST API, you will be able to get and send data to your marketplace from other mobile apps or websites using HTTP Rest API request.
Our plugin is used JWT authentication for the authorization process.

REST API Unilevel MLM Woo-commerce plugin contains following APIs.
User Login Rest API
User Register Rest API
User Join Rest API
Get User info Rest API
Get Affiliate URL Rest API 
Get Downlines list Rest API
Get Bank Details Rest API
Save Bank Details Rest API
Get Genealogy JSON Rest API
Get Total Earning Rest API
Get Current Balance Rest API
Get Payout Details Rest API
Get Payout List Rest API
Get Commissions List Rest API
Withdrawal Request Rest API
Get Withdrawal List Rest API

If you want to know more information and any queries regarding Unilevel MLM Rest API Woocommerce WordPress Plugin, you can contact our experts through 
Skype: jks0586, 
Call/WhatsApp/WeChat: +91-9717478599.  

more information :

Visit Documentation :

#Unilevel_MLM_WooCommerce_Rest_API's_Addon #umw_mlm_rest_api #rest_api_woocommerce_unilevel #rest_api_in_woocommerce #rest_api_woocommerce #rest_api_woocommerce_documentation #rest_api_woocommerce_php #api_rest_de_woocommerce #woocommerce_rest_api_in_android #woocommerce_rest_api_in_wordpress #Rest_API_Woocommerce_unilevel_mlm #wp_rest_api_woocommerce