Introduction to Machine Learning with TensorFlow.js

Introduction to Machine Learning with TensorFlow.js

Learn how to build and train Neural Networks using the most popular Machine Learning framework for javascript, TensorFlow.js.

Learn how to build and train Neural Networks using the most popular Machine Learning framework for javascript, TensorFlow.js.

This is a practical workshop where you'll learn "hands-on" by building several different applications from scratch using TensorFlow.js.

If you have ever been interested in Machine Learning, if you want to get a taste for what this exciting field has to offer, if you want to be able to talk to other Machine Learning/AI specialists in a language they understand, then this workshop is for you.

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Further reading about Machine Learning and TensorFlow.js

Machine Learning A-Z™: Hands-On Python & R In Data Science

Machine Learning In Node.js With TensorFlow.js

Machine Learning in JavaScript with TensorFlow.js

A Complete Machine Learning Project Walk-Through in Python

Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms You Should Know to Become a Data Scientist

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Downloadable PDF of Best AI Cheat Sheets in Super High Definition

Let’s begin.

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Data Science in HD

Part 1: Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

Neural Networks Basics

Neural Networks Basics Cheat Sheet

An Artificial Neuron Network (ANN), popularly known as Neural Network is a computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. It is like an artificial human nervous system for receiving, processing, and transmitting information in terms of Computer Science.

Basically, there are 3 different layers in a neural network :

  1. Input Layer (All the inputs are fed in the model through this layer)
  2. Hidden Layers (There can be more than one hidden layers which are used for processing the inputs received from the input layers)
  3. Output Layer (The data after processing is made available at the output layer)

Neural Networks Graphs

Neural Networks Graphs Cheat Sheet

Graph data can be used with a lot of learning tasks contain a lot rich relation data among elements. For example, modeling physics system, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model learns from graph inputs. Graph reasoning models can also be used for learning from non-structural data like texts and images and reasoning on extracted structures.

Part 2: Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

>>> If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.<<<

Machine Learning with Emojis

Machine Learning with Emojis Cheat Sheet

Machine Learning: Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit-learn is a free software machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines is a simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis. It’s built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib an open source, commercially usable — BSD license

Scikit-learn Algorithm Cheat Sheet

Scikit-learn algorithm

This machine learning cheat sheet will help you find the right estimator for the job which is the most difficult part. The flowchart will help you check the documentation and rough guide of each estimator that will help you to know more about the problems and how to solve it.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Machine Learning: Scikit-Learn Algorythm for Azure Machine Learning Studios

Scikit-Learn Algorithm for Azure Machine Learning Studios Cheat Sheet

Part 3: Data Science with Python

Data Science with Python Cheat Sheets

Data Science: TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow is a free and open-source software library for dataflow and differentiable programming across a range of tasks. It is a symbolic math library, and is also used for machine learning applications such as neural networks.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python is one of the most popular data science tool due to its low and gradual learning curve and the fact that it is a fully fledged programming language.

Data Science: PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

“At a high level, every Spark application consists of a driver program that runs the user’s main function and executes various parallel operations on a cluster. The main abstraction Spark provides is a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a collection of elements partitioned across the nodes of the cluster that can be operated on in parallel. RDDs are created by starting with a file in the Hadoop file system (or any other Hadoop-supported file system), or an existing Scala collection in the driver program, and transforming it. Users may also ask Spark to persist an RDD in memory, allowing it to be reused efficiently across parallel operations. Finally, RDDs automatically recover from node failures.” via Spark.Aparche.Org

Data Science: NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.

***If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know ***here.

Data Science: Bokeh Cheat Sheet

Bokeh Cheat Sheet

“Bokeh is an interactive visualization library that targets modern web browsers for presentation. Its goal is to provide elegant, concise construction of versatile graphics, and to extend this capability with high-performance interactivity over very large or streaming datasets. Bokeh can help anyone who would like to quickly and easily create interactive plots, dashboards, and data applications.” from Bokeh.Pydata.com

Data Science: Karas Cheat Sheet

Karas Cheat Sheet

Keras is an open-source neural-network library written in Python. It is capable of running on top of TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, Theano, or PlaidML. Designed to enable fast experimentation with deep neural networks, it focuses on being user-friendly, modular, and extensible.

Data Science: Padas Basics Cheat Sheet

Padas Basics Cheat Sheet

Pandas is a software library written for the Python programming language for data manipulation and analysis. In particular, it offers data structures and operations for manipulating numerical tables and time series. It is free software released under the three-clause BSD license.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

Data Wrangling

The term “data wrangler” is starting to infiltrate pop culture. In the 2017 movie Kong: Skull Island, one of the characters, played by actor Marc Evan Jackson is introduced as “Steve Woodward, our data wrangler”.

Data Science: Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

“Why Use tidyr & dplyr

  • Although many fundamental data processing functions exist in R, they have been a bit convoluted to date and have lacked consistent coding and the ability to easily flow together → leads to difficult-to-read nested functions and/or choppy code.
  • R Studio is driving a lot of new packages to collate data management tasks and better integrate them with other analysis activities → led by Hadley Wickham & the R Studio teamGarrett Grolemund, Winston Chang, Yihui Xie among others.
  • As a result, a lot of data processing tasks are becoming packaged in more cohesive and consistent ways → leads to:
  • More efficient code
  • Easier to remember syntax
  • Easier to read syntax” via Rstudios

Data Science: Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr

Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr Cheat Sheet

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Scipy Linear Algebra

Scipy Linear Algebra Cheat Sheet

SciPy builds on the NumPy array object and is part of the NumPy stack which includes tools like Matplotlib, pandas and SymPy, and an expanding set of scientific computing libraries. This NumPy stack has similar users to other applications such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, and Scilab. The NumPy stack is also sometimes referred to as the SciPy stack.[3]

Data Science: Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib is a plotting library for the Python programming language and its numerical mathematics extension NumPy. It provides an object-oriented APIfor embedding plots into applications using general-purpose GUI toolkits like Tkinter, wxPython, Qt, or GTK+. There is also a procedural “pylab” interface based on a state machine (like OpenGL), designed to closely resemble that of MATLAB, though its use is discouraged. SciPy makes use of matplotlib.

Pyplot is a matplotlib module which provides a MATLAB-like interface matplotlib is designed to be as usable as MATLAB, with the ability to use Python, with the advantage that it is free.

Data Science: Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

>>> If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here. <<<

Data Science: Big-O Cheat Sheet

Big-O Cheat Sheet

Resources

Special thanks to DataCamp, Asimov Institute, RStudios and the open source community for their content contributions. You can see originals here:

Big-O Algorithm Cheat Sheet: http://bigocheatsheet.com/

Bokeh Cheat Sheet: https://s3.amazonaws.com/assets.datacamp.com/blog_assets/Python_Bokeh_Cheat_Sheet.pdf

Data Science Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/tutorials/python-data-science-cheat-sheet-basics

Data Wrangling Cheat Sheet: https://www.rstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/data-wrangling-cheatsheet.pdf

Data Wrangling: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_wrangling

Ggplot Cheat Sheet: https://www.rstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ggplot2-cheatsheet.pdf

Keras Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/keras-cheat-sheet#gs.DRKeNMs

Keras: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keras

Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://ai.icymi.email/new-machinelearning-cheat-sheet-by-emily-barry-abdsc/

Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-in/azure/machine-learning/machine-learning-algorithm-cheat-sheet

ML Cheat Sheet:: http://peekaboo-vision.blogspot.com/2013/01/machine-learning-cheat-sheet-for-scikit.html

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-matplotlib-cheat-sheet#gs.uEKySpY

Matpotlib: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matplotlib

Neural Networks Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/neural-network-zoo/

Neural Networks Graph Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/blog/

Neural Networks: https://www.quora.com/Where-can-find-a-cheat-sheet-for-neural-network

Numpy Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-numpy-cheat-sheet#gs.AK5ZBgE

NumPy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NumPy

Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-pandas-cheat-sheet#gs.oundfxM

Pandas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandas_(software)

Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pandas-cheat-sheet-python#gs.HPFoRIc

Pyspark Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pyspark-cheat-sheet-python#gs.L=J1zxQ

Scikit Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/scikit-learn-cheat-sheet

Scikit-learn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scikit-learn

Scikit-learn Cheat Sheet: http://peekaboo-vision.blogspot.com/2013/01/machine-learning-cheat-sheet-for-scikit.html

Scipy Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-scipy-cheat-sheet#gs.JDSg3OI

SciPy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SciPy

TesorFlow Cheat Sheet: https://www.altoros.com/tensorflow-cheat-sheet.html

Tensor Flow: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TensorFlow

Learn TensorFlow.js - Deep Learning and Neural Networks with JavaScript

Learn TensorFlow.js - Deep Learning and Neural Networks with JavaScript

This full course introduces the concept of client-side artificial neural networks. We will learn how to deploy and run models along with full deep learning applications in the browser! To implement this cool capability, we’ll be using TensorFlow.js (TFJS), TensorFlow’s JavaScript library.

By the end of this video tutorial, you will have built and deployed a web application that runs a neural network in the browser to classify images! To get there, we'll learn about client-server deep learning architectures, converting Keras models to TFJS models, serving models with Node.js, tensor operations, and more!

⭐️Course Sections⭐️

⌨️ 0:00 - Intro to deep learning with client-side neural networks

⌨️ 6:06 - Convert Keras model to Layers API format

⌨️ 11:16 - Serve deep learning models with Node.js and Express

⌨️ 19:22 - Building UI for neural network web app

⌨️ 27:08 - Loading model into a neural network web app

⌨️ 36:55 - Explore tensor operations with VGG16 preprocessing

⌨️ 45:16 - Examining tensors with the debugger

⌨️ 1:00:37 - Broadcasting with tensors

⌨️ 1:11:30 - Running MobileNet in the browser

Deep Learning Using TensorFlow

Deep Learning Using TensorFlow

Deep Learning Using TensorFlow. In this TensorFlow tutorial for professionals and enthusiasts who are interested in applying Deep Learning Algorithm using TensorFlow to solve various problems.

In this TensorFlow tutorial for professionals and enthusiasts who are interested in applying Deep Learning Algorithm using TensorFlow to solve various problems.

TensorFlow is an open source deep learning library that is based on the concept of data flow graphs for building models. It allows you to create large-scale neural networks with many layers. Learning the use of this library is also a fundamental part of the AI & Deep Learning course curriculum. Following are the topics that will be discussed in this TensorFlow tutorial:

  1. What is TensorFlow
  2. TensorFlow Code Basics
  3. TensorFlow UseCase
What are Tensors?

In this TensorFlow tutorial, before talking about TensorFlow, let us first understand what are tensors. **Tensors **are nothing but a de facto for representing the data in deep learning.

As shown in the image above, tensors are just multidimensional arrays, that allows you to represent data having higher dimensions. In general, Deep Learning you deal with high dimensional data sets where dimensions refer to different features present in the data set. In fact, the name “TensorFlow” has been derived from the operations which neural networks perform on tensors. It’s literally a flow of tensors. Since, you have understood what are tensors, let us move ahead in this **TensorFlow **tutorial and understand – what is TensorFlow?

What is TensorFlow?

**TensorFlow **is a library based on Python that provides different types of functionality for implementing Deep Learning Models. As discussed earlier, the term TensorFlow is made up of two terms – Tensor & Flow:

In TensorFlow, the term tensor refers to the representation of data as multi-dimensional array whereas the term flow refers to the series of operations that one performs on tensors as shown in the above image.

Now we have covered enough background about TensorFlow.

Next up, in this TensorFlow tutorial we will be discussing about TensorFlow code-basics.

TensorFlow Tutorial: Code Basics

Basically, the overall process of writing a TensorFlow program involves two steps:

  1. Building a Computational Graph
  2. Running a Computational Graph

Let me explain you the above two steps one by one:

1. Building a Computational Graph

So, what is a computational graph? Well, a computational graph is a series of TensorFlow operations arranged as nodes in the graph. Each nodes take 0 or more tensors as input and produces a tensor as output. Let me give you an example of a simple computational graph which consists of three nodes – a, b & c as shown below:

Explanation of the Above Computational Graph:

**What is TensorFlowTensorFlow Code BasicsTensorFlow UseCase **
Basically, one can think of a computational graph as an alternative way of conceptualizing mathematical calculations that takes place in a TensorFlow program. The operations assigned to different nodes of a Computational Graph can be performed in parallel, thus, providing a better performance in terms of computations.

Here we just describe the computation, it doesn’t compute anything, it does not hold any values, it just defines the operations specified in your code.

2. Running a Computational Graph

Let us take the previous example of computational graph and understand how to execute it. Following is the code from previous example:

Example 1:

import tensorflow as tf
 
# Build a graph
a = tf.constant(5.0)
b = tf.constant(6.0)
c = a * b

Now, in order to get the output of node c, we need to run the computational graph within a session. Session places the graph operations onto Devices, such as CPUs or GPUs, and provides methods to execute them.

A session encapsulates the control and state of the *TensorFlow *runtime i.e. it stores the information about the order in which all the operations will be performed and passes the result of already computed operation to the next operation in the pipeline. Let me show you how to run the above computational graph within a session (Explanation of each line of code has been added as a comment):

# Create the session object
sess = tf.Session()
 
#Run the graph within a session and store the output to a variable
output_c = sess.run(c)
 
#Print the output of node c
print(output_c)
 
#Close the session to free up some resources
sess.close()
Output:
30

So, this was all about session and running a computational graph within it. Now, let us talk about variables and placeholders that we will be using extensively while building deep learning model using TensorFlow.

Constants, Placeholder and Variables

In TensorFlow, constants, placeholders and variables are used to represent different parameters of a deep learning model. Since, I have already discussed constants earlier, I will start with placeholders.

Placeholder:

A TensorFlow constant allows you to store a value but, what if, you want your nodes to take inputs on the run? For this kind of functionality, placeholders are used which allows your graph to take external inputs as parameters. Basically, a placeholder is a promise to provide a value later or during runtime. Let me give you an example to make things simpler:

import tensorflow as tf
 
# Creating placeholders
a = tf. placeholder(tf.float32)
b = tf. placeholder(tf.float32)
 
# Assigning multiplication operation w.r.t. a &amp; b to node mul
mul = a*b
 
# Create session object
sess = tf.Session()
 
# Executing mul by passing the values [1, 3] [2, 4] for a and b respectively
output = sess.run(mul, {a: [1,3], b: [2, 4]})
print('Multiplying a b:', output)
Output:
[2. 12.]

Points to Remember about placeholders:

**What is TensorFlowTensorFlow Code BasicsTensorFlow UseCase **
Now, let us move ahead and understand – what are variables?

Variables

In deep learning, placeholders are used to take arbitrary inputs in your model or graph. Apart from taking input, you also need to modify the graph such that it can produce new outputs w.r.t. same inputs. For this you will be using variables. In a nutshell, a variable allows you to add such parameters or node to the graph that are trainable i.e. the value can be modified over the period of a time. Variables are defined by providing their initial value and type as shown below:

var = tf.Variable( [0.4], dtype = tf.float32 )

**Note: **
**What is TensorFlowTensorFlow Code BasicsTensorFlow UseCase **
Constants are initialized when you call tf.constant, and their value can never change. On the contrary, variables are not initialized when you call tf.Variable. To initialize all the variables in a TensorFlow program, you must explicitly call a special operation as shown below:

init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
sess.run(init)

Always remember that a variable must be initialized before a graph is used for the first time.

Note: TensorFlow variables are in-memory buffers that contain tensors, but unlike normal tensors that are only instantiated when a graph is run and are immediately deleted afterwards, variables survive across multiple executions of a graph.

Now that we have covered enough basics of TensorFlow, let us go ahead and understand how to implement a linear regression model using TensorFlow.

Linear Regression Model Using TensorFlow

Linear Regression Model is used for predicting the unknown value of a variable (Dependent Variable) from the known value of another variables (Independent Variable) using linear regression equation as shown below:

Therefore, for creating a linear model, you need:

  1. Building a Computational Graph
  2. Running a Computational Graph

So, let us begin building linear model using TensorFlow:

Copy the code by clicking the button given below:

# Creating variable for parameter slope (W) with initial value as 0.4
W = tf.Variable([.4], tf.float32)
 
#Creating variable for parameter bias (b) with initial value as -0.4
b = tf.Variable([-0.4], tf.float32)
 
# Creating placeholders for providing input or independent variable, denoted by x
x = tf.placeholder(tf.float32)
 
# Equation of Linear Regression
linear_model = W * x + b
 
# Initializing all the variables
sess = tf.Session()
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
sess.run(init)
 
# Running regression model to calculate the output w.r.t. to provided x values
print(sess.run(linear_model {x: [1, 2, 3, 4]})) 

Output:

[ 0.     0.40000001 0.80000007 1.20000005]

The above stated code just represents the basic idea behind the implementation of regression model i.e. how you follow the equation of regression line so as to get output w.r.t. a set of input values. But, there are two more things left to be added in this model to make it a complete regression model:
**What is TensorFlowTensorFlow Code BasicsTensorFlow UseCase **
Now let us understand how can I incorporate the above stated functionalities into my code for regression model.

Loss Function – Model Validation

A loss function measures how far apart the current output of the model is from that of the desired or target output. I’ll use a most commonly used loss function for my linear regression model called as Sum of Squared Error or SSE. SSE calculated w.r.t. model output (represent by linear_model) and desired or target output (y) as:

y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32)
error = linear_model - y
squared_errors = tf.square(error)
loss = tf.reduce_sum(squared_errors)
print(sess.run(loss, {x:[1,2,3,4], y:[2, 4, 6, 8]})

Output:
90.24

As you can see, we are getting a high loss value. Therefore, we need to adjust our weights (W) and bias (b) so as to reduce the error that we are receiving.

tf.train API – Training the Model

TensorFlow provides optimizers that slowly change each variable in order to minimize the loss function or error. The simplest optimizer is gradient descent. It modifies each variable according to the magnitude of the derivative of loss with respect to that variable.

#Creating an instance of gradient descent optimizer
optimizer = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.01)
 
train = optimizer.minimize(loss)
 
for i in range(1000):
     sess.run(train, {x:[1, 2, 3, 4], y:[2, 4, 6, 8]})
print(sess.run([W, b]))

Output:
 [array([ 1.99999964], dtype=float32), array([ 9.86305167e-07], dtype=float32)]

So, this is how you create a linear model using TensorFlow and train it to get the desired output.