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JavaScript provides several kinds of operators, making it possible to carry out basic operations on simple values such as arithmetic operations, assignment operations, logical operations, bitwise operations, etc.
Originally published by Glad Chinda at https://blog.logrocket.com
We often see JavaScript code that contains a mix of assignment operators, arithmetic operators, and logical operators. However, we don’t get to see bitwise operators in use that much.
JavaScript bitwise operators
In this tutorial, we will take a look at all the JavaScript bitwise operators and try to understand how they are evaluated. We will also look at a few interesting applications for bitwise operators in writing simple JavaScript programs. This will require us to take a little peek at how JavaScript bitwise operators represent their operands as signed 32-bit integers. Come on, let’s do this already!
The ~ operator is a unary operator; thus, it takes only one operand. The ~ operator performs a NOT operation on every bit of its operand. The result of a NOT operation is called a complement. The complement of an integer is formed by inverting every bit of the integer.
For a given integer — say, 170 — the complement can be computed using the ~ operator as follows:
// 170 => 00000000000000000000000010101010 // -------------------------------------- // ~ 00000000000000000000000010101010 // -------------------------------------- // = 11111111111111111111111101010101 // -------------------------------------- // = -171 (decimal) console.log(~170); // -171
JavaScript bitwise operators convert their operands to 32-bit signed integers in two’s complement format. Hence, when the ~ operator is used on an integer, the resulting value is the two’s complement of the integer. The two’s complement of an integer A is given by -(A + 1).
~170 => -(170 + 1) => -171
Here are a few points to note about the 32-bit signed integers used by JavaScript bitwise operators:
Here are the 32-bit sequence representations of some important numbers:
0 => 00000000000000000000000000000000 -1 => 11111111111111111111111111111111 2147483647 => 01111111111111111111111111111111 -2147483648 => 10000000000000000000000000000000
From the above representations, it is evident that:
~0 => -1 ~-1 => 0 ~2147483647 => -2147483648 ~-2147483648 => 2147483647
Most JavaScript built-in objects, such as arrays and strings, have some useful methods that can be used to check for the presence of an item in the array or a substring within the string. Here are some of those methods:
These methods all return the zero-based index of the item or substring, if it is found; otherwise, they return -1. For example:
const numbers = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]; console.log(numbers.indexOf(5)); // 2 console.log(numbers.indexOf(8)); // -1
If we are not interested in the index of the found item or substring, we could choose to work with a boolean value instead, such that -1 becomes false for items or substrings not found, and every other value becomes true. Here is what that will look like:
function foundIndex (index) { return Boolean(~index); }
In the above code snippet, the ~ operator, when used on -1, evaluates to 0, which is a falsy value. Hence, using Boolean() to cast a falsy value to a boolean will return false. For every other index value, true is returned. Thus, the previous code snippet can be modified as follows:
const numbers = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]; console.log(foundIndex(numbers.indexOf(5))); // true console.log(foundIndex(numbers.indexOf(8))); // false
The & operator performs an AND operation on each pair of corresponding bits of its operands. The & operator returns 1 only if both bits are 1; otherwise, it returns 0. Thus, the result of an AND operation is the equivalent of multiplying each pair of corresponding bits.
For a pair of bits, here are the possible values of an AND operation.
(0 & 0) === 0 // 0 x 0 = 0 (0 & 1) === 0 // 0 x 1 = 0 (1 & 0) === 0 // 1 x 0 = 0 (1 & 1) === 1 // 1 x 1 = 1
The & operator is commonly used in bit masking applications to ensure that certain bits are turned off for a given sequence of bits. This is based on the fact that for any bit A:
For example, say we have an 8-bit integer, and we want to ensure that the first 4 bits are turned off (set to 0). The & operator can be used to achieve this as follows:
const mask = 0b11110000; // 222 => 11011110 // (222 & mask) // ------------ // 11011110 // & 11110000 // ------------ // = 11010000 // ------------ // = 208 (decimal) console.log(222 & mask); // 208
The & operator has some other useful bit masking applications. One such application is in determining whether one or more bits are set for a given sequence of bits. For example, say we want to check if the fifth bit is set for a given decimal number. Here is how we can use the & operator to do that:
const mask = 0b10000;
// 34 => 100010 // (34 & mask) => (100010 & 010000) = 000000 console.log((34 & mask) === mask); // false // 50 => 110010 // (50 & mask) => (110010 & 010000) = 010000 console.log((50 & mask) === mask); // true
The use of the & operator in checking for set bits for a decimal number can be extended to check whether a given decimal number is even or odd. To achieve this, 1 is used as the bit mask (to determine whether the first bit or rightmost bit is set).
For integers, the least significant bit (first bit or rightmost bit) can be used to determine whether the number is even or odd. If the least significant bit is turned on (set to 1), the number is odd; otherwise, the number is even.
function isOdd (int) { return (int & 1) === 1; } function isEven (int) { return (int & 1) === 0; } console.log(isOdd(34)); // false console.log(isOdd(-63)); // true console.log(isEven(-12)); // true console.log(isEven(199)); // false
Before proceeding to the next operator, here are some useful identities for & operations (for any signed 32-bit integer A):
(A & 0) === 0 (A & ~A) === 0 (A & A) === A (A & -1) === A
The | operator performs an OR operation on each pair of corresponding bits of its operands. The | operator returns 0 only if both bits are 0; otherwise, it returns 1.
For a pair of bits, here are the possible values of an OR operation:
(0 | 0) === 0 (0 | 1) === 1 (1 | 0) === 1 (1 | 1) === 1
In bit masking applications, the | operator can be used to ensure that certain bits in a sequence of bits are turned on (set to 1). This is based on the fact that for any given bit A:
For example, say we have an 8-bit integer and we want to ensure that all the even-position bits (second, fourth, sixth, eighth) are turned on (set to 1). The | operator can be used to achieve this as follows:
const mask = 0b10101010; // 208 => 11010000 // (208 | mask) // ------------ // 11010000 // | 10101010 // ------------ // = 11111010 // ------------ // = 250 (decimal) console.log(208 | mask); // 250
Before proceeding to the next operator, here are some useful identities for | operations (for any signed 32-bit integer A):
(A | 0) === A (A | ~A) === -1 (A | A) === A (A | -1) === -1
The ^ operator performs an XOR (exclusive-OR) operation on each pair of corresponding bits of its operands. The ^ operator returns 0 if both bits are the same (either 0 or 1); otherwise, it returns 1.
For a pair of bits, here are the possible values of an XOR operation.
(0 ^ 0) === 0 (0 ^ 1) === 1 (1 ^ 0) === 1 (1 ^ 1) === 0
In bit masking applications, the ^ operator is commonly used for toggling or flipping certain bits in a sequence of bits. This is based on the fact that for any given bit A:
For example, say we have an 8-bit integer and we want to ensure that every bit is toggled except the least significant (first) and most significant (eighth) bits. The ^ operator can be used to achieve this as follows:
const mask = 0b01111110; // 208 => 11010000 // (208 ^ mask) // ------------ // 11010000 // ^ 01111110 // ------------ // = 10101110 // ------------ // = 174 (decimal) console.log(208 ^ mask); // 174
Before proceeding to the next operator, here are some useful identities for ^ operations (for any signed 32-bit integer A):
(A ^ 0) === A (A ^ ~A) === -1 (A ^ A) === 0 (A ^ -1) === ~A
From the identities listed above, it is evident that an XOR operation on A and -1 is equivalent to a NOT operation on A. Hence, the foundIndex() function from before can also be written like so:
function foundIndex (index) { return Boolean(index ^ -1); }
The left shift (<<) operator takes two operands. The first operand is an integer, while the second operand is the number of bits of the first operand to be shifted to the left. Zero (0) bits are shifted in from the right, while the excess bits that have been shifted off to the left are discarded.
For example, consider the integer 170. Let’s say we want to shift three bits to the left. We can use the << operator as follows:
// 170 => 00000000000000000000000010101010 // 170 << 3 // -------------------------------------------- // (000)00000000000000000000010101010(***) // -------------------------------------------- // = (***)00000000000000000000010101010(000) // -------------------------------------------- // = 00000000000000000000010101010000 // -------------------------------------------- // = 1360 (decimal) console.log(170 << 3); // 1360
The left shift bitwise operator (<<) can be defined using the following JavaScript expressions:
(A << B) => A * (2 ** B) => A * Math.pow(2, B)
Hence, looking back at the previous example:
(170 << 3) => 170 * (2 ** 3) => 170 * 8 => 1360
One very useful application of the left shift (<<) operator is converting colors from an RGB representation to a hexadecimal representation.
The color value for each component of an RGB color is between 0 - 255. Simply put, each color value can be represented perfectly by 8 bits.
0 => 0b00000000 (binary) => 0x00 (hexadecimal) 255 => 0b11111111 (binary) => 0xff (hexadecimal)
Thus, the color itself can be perfectly represented by 24 bits (8 bits each for red, green, and blue components). The first 8 bits starting from the right will represent the blue component, the next 8 bits will represent the green component, and the 8 bits after that will represent the red component.
(binary) => 11111111 00100011 00010100 (red) => 11111111 => ff => 255 (green) => 00100011 => 23 => 35 (blue) => 00010100 => 14 => 20 (hex) => ff2314
Now that we understand how to represent the color as a 24-bit sequence, let’s see how we can compose the 24 bits of the color from the values of the color’s individual components. Let’s say we have a color represented by rgb(255, 35, 20). Here is how we can compose the bits:
(red) => 255 => 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 (green) => 35 => 00000000 00000000 00000000 00100011 (blue) => 20 => 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010100 // Rearrange the component bits and pad with zeroes as necessary // Use the left shift operator (red << 16) => 00000000 11111111 00000000 00000000 (green << 8) => 00000000 00000000 00100011 00000000 (blue) => 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010100 // Combine the component bits together using the OR (|) operator // ( red << 16 | green << 8 | blue ) 00000000 11111111 00000000 00000000 | 00000000 00000000 00100011 00000000 | 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010100 // ----------------------------------------- 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100 // -----------------------------------------
Now that the procedure is pretty clear, here is a simple function that takes the RGB values of a color as an input array and returns the corresponding hexadecimal representation of the color based on the above procedure:
function rgbToHex ([red = 0, green = 0, blue = 0] = []) { return `#${(red << 16 | green << 8 | blue).toString(16)}`; }
The sign-propagating right shift (>>) operator takes two operands. The first operand is an integer, while the second operand is the number of bits of the first operand to be shifted to the right.
The excess bits that have been shifted off to the right are discarded, whereas copies of the sign bit (leftmost bit) are shifted in from the left. As a result, the sign of the integer is always preserved, hence the name sign-propagating right shift.
For example, consider the integers 170 and -170. Let’s say we want to shift three bits to the right. We can use the >> operator as follows:
// 170 => 00000000000000000000000010101010 // -170 => 11111111111111111111111101010110 // 170 >> 3 // -------------------------------------------- // (***)00000000000000000000000010101(010) // -------------------------------------------- // = (000)00000000000000000000000010101(***) // -------------------------------------------- // = 00000000000000000000000000010101 // -------------------------------------------- // = 21 (decimal) // -170 >> 3 // -------------------------------------------- // (***)11111111111111111111111101010(110) // -------------------------------------------- // = (111)11111111111111111111111101010(***) // -------------------------------------------- // = 11111111111111111111111111101010 // -------------------------------------------- // = -22 (decimal) console.log(170 >> 3); // 21 console.log(-170 >> 3); // -22
The sign-propagating right shift bitwise operator (>>) can be described by the following JavaScript expressions:
(A >> B) => Math.floor(A / (2 ** B)) => Math.floor(A / Math.pow(2, B))
Thus, looking back at the previous example:
(170 >> 3) => Math.floor(170 / (2 ** 3)) => Math.floor(170 / 8) => 21 (-170 >> 3) => Math.floor(-170 / (2 ** 3)) => Math.floor(-170 / 8) => -22
One very good application of the right shift (>>) operator is extracting RGB color values from a color. When the color is represented in RGB, it is very easy to distinguish between the red, green, and blue color component values. However, it will take a bit more effort for a color represented as hexadecimal.
In the previous section, we saw the procedure for composing the bits of a color from the bits of its individual components (red, green, and blue). If we work through that procedure backwards, we will be able to extract the values of the individual components of the color. Let’s give that a shot.
Let’s say we have a color represented by the hexadecimal notation #ff2314. Here is the signed 32-bit representation of the color:
(color) => ff2314 (hexadecimal) => 11111111 00100011 00010100 (binary) // 32-bit representation of color 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100
To get the individual components, we will right-shift the color bits by multiples of 8 as necessary until we get the target component bits as the first 8 bits from the right. Since the most significant bit of the 32 bits for the color is 0, we can safely use the sign-propagating right shift (>>) operator for this.
color => 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100 // Right shift the color bits by multiples of 8 // Until the target component bits are the first 8 bits from the right red => color >> 16 => 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100 >> 16 => 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 green => color >> 8 => 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100 >> 8 => 00000000 00000000 11111111 00100011 blue => color >> 0 => color => 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100
Now that we have the target component bits as the first 8 bits from the right, we need a way to mask out every other bits except the first 8 bits. That brings us back to the AND (&) operator. Remember that the & operator can be used to ensure that certain bits are turned off.
mask => 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 => 0b11111111 (binary) => 0xff (hexadecimal)
With the bit mask ready, we can carry out an AND (&) operation on each of the results from the previous right-shifting operations using the bit mask to extract the target component bits.
red => color >> 16 & 0xff => 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 => & 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 => = 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111 => 255 (decimal)green => color >> 8 & 0xff
=> 00000000 00000000 11111111 00100011
=> & 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111
=> = 00000000 00000000 00000000 00100011
=> 35 (decimal)blue => color & 0xff
=> 00000000 11111111 00100011 00010100
=> & 00000000 00000000 00000000 11111111
=> = 00000000 00000000 00000000 00010100
=> 20 (decimal)
Based on the above procedure, here is a simple function that takes a hex color string (with six hexadecimal digits) as input and returns the corresponding array of RGB color component values.
function hexToRgb (hex) {
hex = hex.replace(/^#?([0-9a-f]{6})$/i, ‘$1’);
hex = Number(0x${hex}
);return [
hex >> 16 & 0xff, // red
hex >> 8 & 0xff, // green
hex & 0xff // blue
];
}
Zero-fill right shift (>>>)
The zero-fill right shift (>>>) operator behaves pretty much like the sign-propagating right shift (>>) operator. However, the key difference is in the bits that are shifted in from the left.
As the name implies, 0 bits are always shifted in from the left. As a result, the >>> operator always returns an unsigned 32-bit integer since the sign bit of the resulting integer is always 0. For positive integers, both >> and >>> will always return the same result.
For example, consider the integers 170 and -170. Let’s say we want to shift 3 bits to the right, we can use the >>> operator as follows:
// 170 => 00000000000000000000000010101010
// -170 => 11111111111111111111111101010110// 170 >>> 3
// --------------------------------------------
// ()00000000000000000000000010101(010)
// --------------------------------------------
// = (000)00000000000000000000000010101()
// --------------------------------------------
// = 00000000000000000000000000010101
// --------------------------------------------
// = 21 (decimal)// -170 >>> 3
// --------------------------------------------
// ()11111111111111111111111101010(110)
// --------------------------------------------
// = (000)11111111111111111111111101010()
// --------------------------------------------
// = 00011111111111111111111111101010
// --------------------------------------------
// = 536870890 (decimal)console.log(170 >>> 3); // 21
console.log(-170 >>> 3); // 536870890
Config flags
Before we wrap up this tutorial, let’s consider another pretty common application of bitwise operators and bit masking: config flags.
Let’s say we have a function that accepts a couple of boolean options that can be used to control how the function runs or the kind of value it returns. One possible way to create this function is by passing all the options as arguments to the function, probably with some default values, like so:
function doSomething (optA = true, optB = true, optC = false, optD = true, …) {
// something happens here…
}
Surely, this isn’t so convenient. Here are two cases in which this approach starts getting quite problematic:
One way to solve the issues with the previous approach would be to use an object for the config options, like so:
const defaultOptions = {
optA: true,
optB: true,
optC: false,
optD: true,
…
};function doSomething (options = defaultOptions) {
// something happens here…
}
This approach is very elegant, and you’ve most likely seen it used, or even used it yourself at some point or another. With this approach, however, the options argument will always be an object, which can be considered overkill for just configuration options.
If all the options take boolean values, we could use an integer instead of an object to represent the options. In this case, certain bits of the integer will be mapped to designated options. If a bit is turned on (set to 1), the designated option’s value is true;otherwise, it is false.
We can demonstrate this approach using a simple example. Let’s say we have a function that normalizes the items of an array list containing numbers and returns the normalized array. The returned array can be controlled by three options, namely:
We can use an integer with 3 bits to represent these options, each bit being mapped to an option. The following code snippet shows the option flags:
const LIST_FRACTION = 0x1; // (001)
const LIST_UNIQUE = 0x2; // (010)
const LIST_SORTED = 0x4; // (100)
To activate one or more options, the | operator can be used to combine the corresponding flags as necessary. For example, we can create a flag that activates all the options, as follows:
const LIST_ALL = LIST_FRACTION | LIST_UNIQUE | LIST_SORTED; // (111)
Again, let’s say we want only the fraction and sorted options to be activated by default. We could use the | operator again, as follows:
const LIST_DEFAULT = LIST_FRACTION | LIST_SORTED; // (101)
While this doesn’t look bad with just three options, it tends to become quite messy when there are so many options, and a lot of them are required to be activated by default. In such a scenario, a better approach will be to deactivate the unwanted options using the ^ operator:
const LIST_DEFAULT = LIST_ALL ^ LIST_UNIQUE; // (101)
Here, we have the LIST_ALL flag that activates all the options. We then use the ^ operator to deactivate the unique option, leaving other options activated as required.
Now that we have the option flags ready, we can go ahead and define the normalizeList() function:
function normalizeList (list, flag = LIST_DEFAULT) {
if (flag & LIST_FRACTION) {
const max = Math.max(…list);
list = list.map(value => Number((value / max).toFixed(2)));
}
if (flag & LIST_UNIQUE) {
list = […new Set(list)];
}
if (flag & LIST_SORTED) {
list = list.sort((a, b) => a - b);
}
return list;
}
To check if an option is activated, we use the & operator to check if the corresponding bit of the option is turned on (set to 1). The & operation is carried out with the flag argument passed to the function and the corresponding flag for the option, as demonstrated in the following code snippet:
// Checking if the unique option is activated
// (flag & LIST_UNIQUE) === LIST_UNIQUE (activated)
// (flag & LIST_UNIQUE) === 0 (deactivated)flag & LIST_UNIQUE
Hey, I’m really glad that you made it to the end of this article despite the long read time, and I strongly hope that you learned a thing or two while reading it. Thanks for your time.
JavaScript bitwise operators, though sparingly used, have some pretty interesting use cases, as we’ve seen in this article. I strongly hope that the insights you’ve gotten in the course of reading this article will find expression in your day-to-day coding from now on.
Thanks for reading ❤
If you liked this post, please do share/like it with all of your programming buddies!
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JavaScript is unarguablly one of the most common things you’ll learn when you start programming for the web. Here’s a small post on JavaScript compound assignment operators and how we use them.
The compound assignment operators consist of a binary operator and the simple assignment operator.
The binary operators, work with two operands. For example a+b where + is the operator and the a, b are operands. Simple assignment operator is used to assign values to a variable(s).
It’s quite common to modify values stored in variables. To make this process a little quicker, we use compound assignment operators.
They are:
You can also check my video tutorial compound assignment operators.
Let’s consider an example. Suppose price = 5 and we want to add ten more to it.
var price = 5;
price = price + 10;
We added ten to price. Look at the repetitive price variable. We could easily use a compound += to reduce this. We do this instead.
price += 5;
Awesome. Isn’t it? What’s the value of price now? Practice and comment below. If you don’t know how to practice check these lessons.
Lets bring down the price by 5 again and display it.
We use console.log command to display what is stored in the variable. It is very help for debugging.
Debugging let’s you find errors or bugs in your code. More on this later.
price -= 5;
console.log(price);
Lets multiply price and show it.
price *=5;
console.log(price);
and finally we will divide it.
price /=5;
console.log(price);
If you have any doubts, comment below.
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As a JavaScript developer of any level, you need to understand its foundational concepts and some of the new ideas that help us developing code. In this article, we are going to review 16 basic concepts. So without further ado, let’s get to it.
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Who invented JavaScript, how it works, as we have given information about Programming language in our previous article ( What is PHP ), but today we will talk about what is JavaScript, why JavaScript is used The Answers to all such questions and much other information about JavaScript, you are going to get here today. Hope this information will work for you.
JavaScript language was invented by Brendan Eich in 1995. JavaScript is inspired by Java Programming Language. The first name of JavaScript was Mocha which was named by Marc Andreessen, Marc Andreessen is the founder of Netscape and in the same year Mocha was renamed LiveScript, and later in December 1995, it was renamed JavaScript which is still in trend.
JavaScript is a client-side scripting language used with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). JavaScript is an Interpreted / Oriented language called JS in programming language JavaScript code can be run on any normal web browser. To run the code of JavaScript, we have to enable JavaScript of Web Browser. But some web browsers already have JavaScript enabled.
Today almost all websites are using it as web technology, mind is that there is maximum scope in JavaScript in the coming time, so if you want to become a programmer, then you can be very beneficial to learn JavaScript.
In JavaScript, ‘document.write‘ is used to represent a string on a browser.
<script type="text/javascript">
document.write("Hello World!");
</script>
<script type="text/javascript">
//single line comment
/* document.write("Hello"); */
</script>
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OpenCV is an image processing library created by intel which includes various packages and several functions in it. OpenCV is used to solve many problems in computer vision and machine learning applications and due to its large community, it is getting updated day by day. OpenCV can be implemented in C++, Python, Java programming languages, and different platforms like Linux, Windows, macOS.
In this article, we will demonstrate one of the interesting applications of OpenCV in performing bitwise operations on images.
Bitwise operations can be used in image manipulations. These bitwise techniques are used in many computer vision applications like for creating masks of the image, adding watermarks to the image and it is possible to create a new image using these bitwise operators. These operations work on the individual pixels in the image to give accurate results compared with other morphing techniques in OpenCV.
Using the below code snippet, we will create two images – image1, image2 as input images on which the bitwise operations will be performed.
import numpy as np
import cv2
from google.colab.patches import cv2_imshow
image1 = np.zeros((400, 400), dtype="uint8")
cv2.rectangle(image1, (100, 100), (250, 250), 255, -1)
cv2_imshow(image1)
image2 = np.zeros((400, 400), dtype="uint8")
cv2.circle(image2, (150, 150), 90, 255, -1)
cv2_imshow(image2)
#developers corner #bitwise and #bitwise not #bitwise or #bitwise xor #opencv image processing
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