In this tutorial, we’ll be learning and creating RESTful APIs with Flask. To follow along with this tutorial, you should already have a good grasp of Python, Flask, and SQLAlchemy.
Since the application we’re going to build in this article is an extension of the one we built earlier in the Flask SQLAlchemy Tutorial, make sure you’ve already read that post and have the code available for our API additions!
API is one of those technical terms that gets thrown around a lot in the programming world. We hear about people creating applications using Yelp APIs or Google Map APIs. For example, I created a job search application using Twitter’s API. But what exactly is an API, and why is it so important?
API stands for Application Programming Interface, and it refers to the mode of communication between any two software applications. An API is just a medium that lets two entities of code talk to each other.
Have you ever implemented Google Maps in your application or have seen an app that makes use of Google Maps? That’s the Google Maps API.
Companies like Google and Facebook, among many others, have APIs that allow external applications to use their functionalities without exposing their codebase to the world. There’s a high chance that an organization you want to work with already has an API in place – both for developers and end users.
But why do companies allow us to use their content via APIs? By allowing users access to their content, businesses add value for developers and users alike. Instead of building a new functionality from scratch and re-inventing the wheel, developers can use existing APIs and focus on their primary objectives. This practice actually helps organizations by building relationships with developers and growing their user base.
Now that we have a grasp on APIs, let’s talk about REST.
Like API, REST is an acronym, and it stands of Representational State Transfer. It’s an architectural style for designing standards between computers, making it easier for systems to communicate with each other. In simpler terms, REST is a set of rules developers follow when they create APIs. A system is called RESTful when it adheres to these constraints.
To better understand RESTful APIs, we need to define what the terms "client" and the "resource" mean.
Client: A client can refer to either a developer or software application which uses the API. When you are implementing the Google Maps API in your application, you are accessing resources via the API, which makes you a client. Similarly, a web browser can also be a client.
Resource: A resource describes an object, data, or piece of information that you may need to store or send to other services. For example, the location coordinates you receive when you work with Google Maps API are a resource.
So, when a client sends a request to the server, it receives access to a resource. But what language do clients and servers use?
For humans to speak to each other, we have proper syntax and grammar. Without them, it's impossible to understand what’s being communicated. Similarly, APIs have a set of rules for machines to communicate with each other that are called Protocols.
HTTP is one of the protocols that allows you to fetch resources. It is the basis of any data transfer on the Web and a client-server protocol. RESTful APIs almost always rely on HTTP.
When we are working with RESTful APIs, a client will send an HTTP request, and the server will respond with the HTTP response. Let's dig into what HTTP requests and HTTP responses entail.
When an HTTP request is sent to the server, it usually contains the following:
The header consists of an HTTP verb, URI and an HTTP version number which is collectively called a request line.
GET /home.html HTTP/1.1
In the above example,
GET is an HTTP verb,
home.html is a URI where we want to get the data from, and
HTTP/1.1 refers to the HTTP version.
GET isn't the only HTTP verb out there, so let's look at some of the other HTTP verbs commonly used.
When a server receives the request, it sends a message back to the client. If the requests are successful, it returns the data requested else it will return the error.
When an HTTP response is sent back to the client, it usually contains the following:
This time, the header contains the HTTP version, status code, and reason phrase that explains the status code in the plain language.
Have you ever seen an error 404 Not Found? That's one of the status codes where 404 is a status code followed by the reason phrase.
There are many codes sent between the server and the client. Some of the common ones are as follows:
Luckily, Flask's implementation takes care of most of this for us on its own, but it's still useful to know about response codes in order to get the most from API responses.
As a standalone application, our books database is helpful, but we've now realized we want to allow an online book rating service to access our library. Also, we'd like for our online flashcards to be automatically tagged with books, instead of entering book details manually.
As our library grows, our developer followers may be interested in seeing our list, or adding new suggested books. An API with Flask is just the thing.
Let's create some endpoints for the books database. You can think of an endpoint as the location where we access a specific API resource, and it is usually associated with a specific URL string. But before we start creating endpoints, we need to make a change in our
Where we created our
Book table, we need to add some code that returns the object data in an easily serializable format. Serialization will turn an entry into a string format that can be passed around via HTTP.
Our new code should look like this:
class Book(Base): __tablename__ = 'book'
id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
title = Column(String(250), nullable=False)
author = Column(String(250), nullable=False)
genre = Column(String(250))
#we will save the changes and execute this script again.
app.py file, we’ll add some endpoints using the
@app decorator. It’s important to note that by default,
@app.route has a GET method. If we want to use any other HTTP verbs, we have to specify them by passing them via the methods parameter as a list.
@app.route(“/booksApi”, methods = [‘GET’, ‘POST’])
if request.method == ‘GET’:
elif request.method == ‘POST’:
title = request.args.get(‘title’, ‘’)
author = request.args.get(‘author’, ‘’)
genre = request.args.get(‘genre’, ‘’)
return makeANewBook(title, author, genre)
@app.route(“/booksApi/<int:id>”, methods = [‘GET’, ‘PUT’, ‘DELETE’])
if request.method == ‘GET’:
elif request.method == ‘PUT’:
title = request.args.get(‘title’, ‘’)
author = request.args.get(‘author’, ‘’)
genre = request.args.get(‘genre’, ‘’)
return updateBook(id,title, author,genre)
elif request.method == ‘DELETE’:
We created two functions
bookFunctionId(id). Our first function evaluates whether the request method is GET or POST. If it’s the former, it will return the
get_books method. Otherwise, it will return the
makeANewBook() function takes in three parameters. These are the values we need to create a row in our database table.
Our second function,
bookFunctionId(), also checks for a GET request. There is a subtle difference between the GET request in
bookFunctionId. The GET request in our first function returns all the books in our database, while the GET request in our second function only returns the filtered book.
bookFunctionId() function also evaluates for PUT and DELETE methods and returns
from Flask import jsonify
books = session.query(Book).all()
return jsonify(books= [b.serialize for b in books])
books = session.query(Book).filter_by(id = book_id).one()
return jsonify(books= books.serialize)
def makeANewBook(title,author, genre):
addedbook = Book(title=title, author=author,genre=genre)
def updateBook(id,title,author, genre):
updatedBook = session.query(Book).filter_by(id = id).one()
if not title:
updatedBook.title = title
if not author:
updatedBook.author = author
if not genre:
updatedBook.genre = genre
return “Updated a Book with id %s” % id
bookToDelete = session.query(Book).filter_by(id = id).one()
return “Removed Book with id %s” % id
At the top, we import
jsonify from Flask, a function that serializes the data you pass it to JSON. Data serialization converts the structured data to a format that allows sharing or storage of the data in its original structure.
Before JSON became popular, XML was widely used for open data interchange. JSON involves less overhead when parsing, so you’re more likely to see it when interacting with APIs via Python.
Here we create five different functions that execute CRUD operations. To create a new book, we insert new values in our Book table. To read the existing books from our database, we use
all(). To update a book in our database, we first find the book, update the values and add them. And lastly, to delete a book, we first find the book, and then simply call
delete()and commit the change.
To check our endpoints, we can use Postman. Postman is an application for testing APIs that works by sending requests to the web server and getting the responses back. We can test our endpoints via Python as well, but it’s nice to have a sleek user interface to make requests with without the hassle of writing a bunch of code just to test them out.
Once we have Postman installed, let’s start testing our endpoints. In this article, we’ll only test our GET and POST requests.
First let’s execute our
app.py file. To check if everything is working, we’ll try a GET request. From the dropdown menu, we select GET and send a request to http://localhost:4996/booksApi. You should see something like the following image:
In order to test our POST request, we’ll select POST from the dropdown menu. We then update our values using the key value forms provided. As you’re typing in the updated values, notice how our URL updates automatically.
Once we have updated the value, we will hit send again – and voila! We have successfully added a new Book. You can check this by sending a GET request again, and your new book should be in the list.
We just created a Flask web application that provides REST APIs for our books tracker application. As you can see, writing RESTful APIs isn’t hard. Now you have an idea on how to write a RESTful API using Flask.
Because it’s so easy to implement, at least with Flask, you might start thinking more about you could “API-ify” other web applications. Think about how to determine which resources an online service makes available, how to know who will be accessing the resources, and how to authenticate users and systems which request access to these resources. Further, what’s the best way for your application to pass parameters to your endpoints, and what happens when there are multiple versions of your API?
Python and Flask – optionally using SQLAlchemy to handle the database – are excellent tools to help answer these questions and more, along with the Python and Open Source communities.
#python #flask #api #rest
The REST acronym is defined as a “REpresentational State Transfer” and is designed to take advantage of existing HTTP protocols when used for Web APIs. It is very flexible in that it is not tied to resources or methods and has the ability to handle different calls and data formats. Because REST API is not constrained to an XML format like SOAP, it can return multiple other formats depending on what is needed. If a service adheres to this style, it is considered a “RESTful” application. REST allows components to access and manage functions within another application.
REST was initially defined in a dissertation by Roy Fielding’s twenty years ago. He proposed these standards as an alternative to SOAP (The Simple Object Access Protocol is a simple standard for accessing objects and exchanging structured messages within a distributed computing environment). REST (or RESTful) defines the general rules used to regulate the interactions between web apps utilizing the HTTP protocol for CRUD (create, retrieve, update, delete) operations.
An API (or Application Programming Interface) provides a method of interaction between two systems.
A RESTful API (or application program interface) uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE data following the REST standards. This allows two pieces of software to communicate with each other. In essence, REST API is a set of remote calls using standard methods to return data in a specific format.
The systems that interact in this manner can be very different. Each app may use a unique programming language, operating system, database, etc. So, how do we create a system that can easily communicate and understand other apps?? This is where the Rest API is used as an interaction system.
When using a RESTful API, we should determine in advance what resources we want to expose to the outside world. Typically, the RESTful API service is implemented, keeping the following ideas in mind:
The features of the REST API design style state:
For REST to fit this model, we must adhere to the following rules:
#tutorials #api #application #application programming interface #crud #http #json #programming #protocols #representational state transfer #rest #rest api #rest api graphql #rest api json #rest api xml #restful #soap #xml #yaml
I’ve been working with Restful APIs for some time now and one thing that I love to do is to talk about APIs.
So, today I will show you how to build an API using the API-First approach and Design First with OpenAPI Specification.
First thing first, if you don’t know what’s an API-First approach means, it would be nice you stop reading this and check the blog post that I wrote to the Farfetchs blog where I explain everything that you need to know to start an API using API-First.
Before you get your hands dirty, let’s prepare the ground and understand the use case that will be developed.
If you desire to reproduce the examples that will be shown here, you will need some of those items below.
To keep easy to understand, let’s use the Todo List App, it is a very common concept beyond the software development community.
#api #rest-api #openai #api-first-development #api-design #apis #restful-apis #restful-api
APIs have been around for decades – they allow different systems to talk to each other in a seamless, fast fashion – yet it’s been during the past decade that this technology has become a significant force.
So then why all the interest in APIs? We all know the usual stories – Uber, Airbnb, Apple Pay… the list goes on, and the reasons are plentiful. Today the question is, how? Perhaps you are looking to differentiate your business or want a first-mover advantage. How can you execute quickly and at low cost/risk to try new market offerings?
An API provides several benefits to an organisation, but without a dedicated team of trained developers, it might seem like an implausible option. Developers are expensive, and it can take months to develop an API from the ground up. If you don’t fancy outsourcing or have the capability in house to build internal APIs, a low-code platform might just be the answer.
For a small one-page application, this might only be a day or two of talking with stakeholders and designing business logic. The purpose of this first step is to ensure that the API will cover all use cases and provides stakeholders with what they need. Refactoring an entire coding design due to missing business logic is not only frustrating for the development team but adds high cost and time to the API project.
During the planning and design stage, remember that running an API requires more infrastructure than just resources to execute endpoint logic. You need a database to store the data, an email system to send messages, storage for files, and security to handle authorisation and authentication. These services can be farmed out to cloud providers to expedite the API build process (e.g. AWS provides all these infrastructure components, but Microsoft Azure is an optional cloud provider with SendGrid as the email application.)
**Planning considerations: **An API “speaks” in JSON or XML, so the output provided to client applications should be decided. Should you choose to later create endpoints for public developer consumption, you could offer both for ease-of-use and fostering more adoption. Ensuring the API follows OpenAPI standards will encourage more adoption and attract more developers.
#api #rest-api #api-development #restful-api #low-code-platform #low-code #build-a-rest-api #low-code-approach
In this tutorial I will show you the fundamentals of designing a RESTful API specification by applying REST principles and best practices, then you’ll be ready to try my online tutorial: How to design a REST API with API Designer?
If you already know what is meant by API in the context of RESTful web services, you can skip to the next section. If not, read on.
The abbreviation API stands for Application Programming Interface this in itself, does not help us understand what it is, however in the context of web services, it can refer to one of two things:
In this post, I will use the first understanding of this term. Even though both are correct, the most technically relevant for this post is the first: an API is a contract for how software applications talk to each other.
The acronym REST stands for REpresentational State Transfer. It is an architectural style used to represent the transmission of data from one application component to another. In the context of web services, we are talking about the representation of resources (i.e. data) transferred over HTTP by calling a URI that represents the data and via an HTTP method that represents the action to perform against the given data.
RESTful API design is the activity of describing the behavior of a web service in terms of its data structures and the actions you allow other application components to perform on its data by the principles of REST. Those principles are covered later in this blog.
Imagine that you are an Architect (the kind the design building) and you set out to build an office block without a blueprint. You turn up on the first day with a truck full of bricks and some cement. What are the chances that you’ll be successful and build a structure that conforms to code and more importantly, doesn’t fall? It’s about zero. Without a blueprint the chance of failure is high.
The same approach applies to web service development. You need a blueprint, or more appropriately, an API specification. This is necessary to evaluate the API design and solicit feedback before even starting to build the implementation.
In addition to providing a specification for the web service’s development, an API contract serves to document its expected behavior, data types, and security requirements.
You should now be satisfied that API design is necessary for a RESTful web service, and should start to wonder how is the best approach to actually designing an API specification.
The tooling chosen by an API designer has substantial influence over the designer’s productivity. Highly productive tools such as the Anypoint API Designer from MuleSoft is perfect for designing APIs with OAS (swagger) or RAML.
#integration #api #rest #rest api #restful #api design #raml #rest api design
#api #rest api #restful api #asp.net api #api tutorial #consume api