Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor


How Does Blockchain Use Public Key Cryptography?

In this post, you'll learn How Does Blockchain Use Public Key Cryptography? 

The importance of security is evident more than ever in the present times. The formidable growth and expansion of computer networks all over the world have resulted in a radical escalation of the volumes of sensitive information moving across systems throughout the world. At the same time, we have a new decentralized, distributed digital ledger network, i.e., blockchain technology, at our disposal.

While blockchain itself offers the inherent advantage of the security, it is important to understand the significance of public key cryptography in blockchain. Public key encryption has emerged as a promising alternative to the conventional symmetric encryption techniques. The following discussion attempts to showcase the use of public key encryption in the blockchain.

Understanding Public Key Encryption or Cryptography

The foremost aspect that is required to understand encryption with public key in blockchain refers to the definition. Public key encryption, otherwise known as asymmetric cryptography, refers to a collection of cryptographic protocols that rely on algorithms. The cryptography method involves using two different keys, such as a private key and a public key.

The private key is secret for every participant in a network and is unique for them, while the public key is visible to all participants in the network. The applications of public key cryptography leverage the pair of keys for encryption and decryption of data to avoid unauthorized use or access. Certification authorities provide public and private key pairs to network users.

Users who want to encrypt data before sending it will have to obtain the recipient’s public key. The public key can help in encrypting a message before sending it to the concerned recipient. When the recipient gets the message, they can use their private key for decrypting the message. It is essential to remember that only the recipient knows about the private key. Therefore, the applications of public key cryptography ensure that the valuable information of users is not tampered with in transit.

Public key encryption leverages the RSA or Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm for transmission of secure and highly sensitive data across an insecure network. The RSA algorithm has achieved profound popularity because of support for using public and private keys for message encryption. At the same time, the RSA algorithm can also ensure better safeguards for confidentiality and authenticity of the public and private keys.

Why Do We Need Public Key Cryptography?

So, why is it important to consider the use of public key approach for blockchain cryptography? What is the problem with conventional secret key systems? Contrary to the general assumption, public key encryption is not tailored for replacing traditional private key cryptography. As a matter of fact, public key encryption emerged as an answer for the shortcomings in secret key-based systems.

Basically, public key or asymmetric cryptography discovers applications in scenarios where private key cryptography does not serve the required results. Public key encryption becomes important in cases that involve a massive number of users. Generally, public key cryptography is suitable for multi-user environments that focus on ensuring confidentiality through digital signatures and key distribution.

Public key encryption provides noticeable benefits in comparison to symmetric private key encryption systems. First of all, it takes away the need to address the logistics and risk concerns associated with swapping keys secretly. In addition, it also provides better security and scalability in comparison to symmetric encryption. As a result, it continues to enjoy the reputation of the most popular cryptographic technique available presently for enterprise environments.

Public and Private Key Pair

Now, it is important to reflect on the different components of public key encryption. It will help in deriving a clear impression of the potential applications of public key cryptography in blockchain. The private key leveraged for public key encryption basically represents a random number having specific properties. Users can derive the public key from the private key.

The keys are capable of ensuring security in public key encryption through the foundations of mathematically complicated issues. The basic notion underlying the use of public and private keys is to ensure ease of performing cryptography and difficulty in reversal. As a result, public key encryption process features polynomial complexity as well as exponential complexity.

Some of the generally used hard problems include the factoring problem or the discrete logarithm problem. Factoring problems involve encryption through the multiplication of two prime numbers that are easier while offering difficulties in factoring. On the other hand, discrete logarithm problems can involve easier exponentiation while presenting difficulties with logarithms.

The difficulty of the problem is an essential requirement for maintaining the perfect balance between usability and security. It is important to note that some operations could be easier than others. Therefore, the applications of public key in blockchain can help in designing algorithms that permit authorized users to carry out easy operations and force unauthorized intruders to execute hard tasks. It is easier to adjust the difficulty of problems by just increasing the size of values used in the problem. As a result, it can ensure that the system is immune to any potential attacks while also offering the desired usability.

The aim of public key encryption with the use of different keys focuses on serving different purposes such as encryption and digital signatures. Encryption is an important function of public key cryptography in blockchain. As the world is slowly coming to terms with newly emerging concepts of security and privacy, encryption bears a larger significance. Any individual with knowledge about the public key of a user could carry out the encryption of a message with it.

The other notable application of public key encryption in the blockchain is visible in digital signatures. Digital signatures enable signing a document or message digitally with a private key that enables verification of the signature with the related public key. The two operations of encryption and digital signature utilize similar algorithms. However, the notable factor, in this case, refers to the use of one key for undoing the action of the other key, i.e., deriving the original message.

Applications of Public Keys in Blockchain Cryptography

Now, let us arrive at the most important point of discussion on our agenda in reflecting on the use of public keys in blockchain for cryptography. Blockchain has been tailored as a distributed and decentralized network. All nodes in the network take on the responsibility for the maintenance of their own copy of the digital ledger. In addition, blockchain also ensures the transmission of data in the shape of blocks and transactions among the nodes through a peer-to-peer network.

However, blockchain adoption depends a lot on the feasibility of fundamental benefits of security, transparency, and control. Public key cryptography and digital signatures are highly critical for ensuring the effective functioning of security in blockchain systems. Public key encryption can allocate the following distinct features in the blockchain landscape.

1. Authentication

Authentication is one of the critical aspects that establish the formidable foundation for blockchain cryptography. Digital signatures can provide adequate proof regarding the fact that a message has been created by an individual with proper awareness regarding the relevant private key. The association of public keys with specific accounts ensures that only an individual with knowledge regarding the account’s private key could create transactions starting from the concerned account.

2. Integrity Protection

The second important application of public key cryptography in blockchain refers to integrity safeguards. Blockchain transactions generally involve the transmission of a specific transaction or block through multiple nodes. The transaction or block has to cross all nodes starting from the origin to a specific node in the network. Now, it is important to note that blockchain has been created specifically to reduce the need for trust in other nodes.

Therefore, it is highly crucial to ensure that the data of a transaction or block is safe from any unauthorized, malicious intervention. In addition, digital signatures are able to achieve validity only in event of zero modifications or tampering with the associated data. As a result, public key cryptography could provide the assured benefits of authentication as well as integrity protection with ease.

3. Identity Management

The applications of public key encryption in blockchain also find a formidable mention for identity management. Public key cryptography helps in identity management on the blockchain. Since the account addresses are based on public keys, it is easier to create valid accounts only through creating private/public key pairs and the related address.

As a result, blockchain users could remain anonymous as the private key is just a random number without any links to the real identity of users. At the same time, blockchain cryptography also ensures proper authorization of all transactions made through the concerned account. Since all the authorized transactions on blockchain carry valid digital signatures, it enables easier verification of transaction authenticity.

Advantages of Public Key Encryption for Blockchain

Based on the distinct applications of public key cryptography in blockchain, any individual could find out the benefits. However, public key encryption has more wide-ranging benefits at its disposal. First of all, public key encryption enables better data security. It is still one of the most secure protocols in comparison to private key cryptography for various reasons.

Public key encryption does not demand any transmission or exposure of private keys to other individuals. Therefore, it can ensure that cybercriminals cannot discover a person’s secret key during the transmission of information over blockchain networks.

Public key cryptography also ensures non-repudiation of transactions. It implies that every user must bear the responsibility of safeguarding their private key. On the other hand, private key systems demand that users must share their secret keys and trust third parties in certain cases for ensuring transmission.

Implications of Public Key Encryption in Blockchain

Blockchain cryptography relies profoundly on the public key approach. As discussed already, it involves two different keys, with each pair having its own uniqueness. In addition, it is also important to note that asymmetric cryptography algorithms develop key pairs linked to each other mathematically. So, it is reasonable to encounter longer key lengths in comparison to the shared secret key used in symmetric encryption.

The longer length of the key, generally in the range of 1024 to 2048 bits, creates profound difficulties in drawing a private key from the public key. The most common algorithm utilized for public key encryption, i.e., RSA algorithm, features the creation of keys through the multiplication of large prime numbers.

Public key encryption is capable of resolving profound problems of encryption. The communication keys used for encryption and decryption are different from each other in public key encryption. On the other hand, the sharing of the single secret key over insecure connections can expose the key to unauthorized third parties. Subsequently, the unauthorized parties could view all the messages encrypted with a shared key.

Symmetric encryption approaches have been leveraging the power of cryptographic techniques to solve the problem. However, they still present prominent risks for the security of the keys. In the case of public key cryptography, it is easier to share the key used for encryption throughout the network. Therefore, it is possible to achieve better protection with a public key or asymmetric cryptography in comparison to symmetric encryption.

Limitations of Public Key Encryption in Blockchain

Finally, it is also important to reflect on the limitations associated with public key encryption. The limitations can help in understanding the extent to which it will be usable for blockchain applications and networks. The foremost setback with public key cryptography in blockchain comes with the problem of algorithms slowing down when dealing with massive volumes of data.

In addition, the success of public key encryption depends considerably on the ability to maintain private key in secrecy. Users could accidentally lose their private keys, thereby losing access to encrypted data. At the same time, the private key repositories are highly vulnerable to malicious attacks, thereby resulting in compromised private keys.

Final Words

On a final note, it is reasonable to find out a reasonable connection between the applications and benefits of public key cryptography and blockchain. Blockchain is emerging as a promising technology for the future with prominent value propositions for enterprises, governments, and individuals. So, it is quite important to reflect on the security concerns associated with blockchain.

Public key encryption or cryptography provides the advantages of secure verification of ownership and secure transmission of data. Furthermore, public key encryption also empowers blockchain with potentially resilient algorithms that ensure data integrity and privacy. With all the benefits of cryptography for blockchain, careers in blockchain security are on the rise.

#blockchain #cryptography 

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How Does Blockchain Use Public Key Cryptography?
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


5 Blockchain Applications That Have Transformed the World of Technology

The blockchain is the decentralized database of the blocks of information, which gets recorded in the chain format and linked in a secured crypto graphical manner. This technology ensures proper safety of the data due to its secure nature, and it totally changes how people carry out transactions. It also brings about a faster and secure process of validating information needed to establish reliability.

Though blockchain technology came into the market to carry out only digital transactions, it is now used in various industries like supply chain, finance, health care, and many more.

The blockchain technology has made its position in mobile app development as well. Blockchain applications are transparent and accountable. From getting easy access to medical records and buying insurance, you can see blockchain applications everywhere.

Here are some of the areas where you can see the use of blockchain applications and how they have changed various industries.

1. Ripple

Ripple is useful for increasing banking transactions. The implementation of blockchain technology in the financial sector is much more profound than any other sector. Ripple proves this. It is one of the greatest tools to record and complete financial transactions.

It develops a large network despite strict physical boundaries. As there is no such third-party involvement present, the cost of these transactions is lower than usual. At the same time, the network also remains transparent and quite secured.

It is normally seen that financial transactions that happen globally are

error-prone and take a lot of time. In addition to this, when the transaction

fees and exchange rates get added up, the total cost usually gets high.

However, Ripple offers real-time international transactions without spending too much money. It has the network of about 200+ institutions making the process affordable, secure, and fast for all sorts of international transactions.

2. Etherisc

This blockchain application helps in automating flight insurance. Insurance is another area where blockchain is gaining popularity. Through this application, insurers can make smart contracts rather than getting involved in the traditional contracts that are usually complex. Etherisc is the blockchain application that helps customers buy flight insurance. If the flight gets canceled or delayed, they do not have to wait for months to get the payment back. This application ensures an on-time payout.

#blockchain #blockchain-technology #blockchain-development #blockchain-use-cases #blockchain-a #blockchain-technologies #technology #decentralization

Devin Pinto


Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Training Course | Blockchain Council

In all the market sectors, Blockchain technology has contributed to the redesign. The improvements that were once impossible have been pushed forward. Blockchain is one of the leading innovations with the ability to influence the various sectors of the industry. It also has the ability to be one of the career-influencing innovations at the same time. We have seen an increasing inclination towards the certification of the Blockchain in recent years, and there are obvious reasons behind it. Blockchain has everything to offer, from good packages to its universal application and futuristic development. Let’s address the reasons why one should go for Blockchain certification.

5 advantages of certification by Blockchain:

1. Lucrative packages- Everyone who completes their education or upskills themselves wants to end up with a good bundle, not only is one assured of a good learning experience with Blockchain, but the packages are drool-worthy at the same time. A Blockchain developer’s average salary varies between $150,000 and $175,000 per annum. Comparatively, a software developer gets a $137,000 per year salary. For a Blockchain developer, the San Francisco Bay area provides the highest bundle, amounting to $162,288 per annum. There’s no point arguing that learning about Blockchain is a smart decision with such lucrative packages.

2. Growing industry- When you select any qualification course, it becomes important that you choose a growing segment or industry that promises potential in the future. You should anticipate all of these with Blockchain. The size of the blockchain market is expected to rise from USD 3.0 billion in 2020 to USD 39.7 billion by 2025. This will see an incredible 67.3 percent CAGR between 2020-2025. To help business processes, several businesses are outsourcing Blockchain technologies. This clearly demonstrates that there will be higher demand in the future for Blockchain developers and certified Blockchain professionals.

3. Universal application- One of the major reasons for the success of Blockchain is that it has a global application. It is not sector-specific. Blockchain usage cases are discovered by almost all market segments. In addition, other innovations such as AI, big data, data science and much more are also supported by Blockchain. It becomes easier to get into a suitable industry once you know about Blockchain.

**4. Work protection-**Surely you would like to invest in an ability that ensures job security. You had the same chance for Blockchain. Since this is the technology of the future, understanding that Blockchain can keep up with futuristic developments will help in a successful and safe job.

**5.**After a certain point of your professional life, you are expected to learn about new abilities that can help enhance your skills. Upskilling is paramount. Upskilling oneself has become the need for the hour, and choosing a path that holds a lot of potential for the future is the best way to do this. For all computer geeks and others who want to gain awareness of emerging technology, Blockchain is a good option.

Concluding thoughts- opting for Blockchain certification is a successful career move with all these advantages. You will be able to find yourself in a safe and secured work profile once you have all the knowledge and information. Link for Blockchain certification programme with the Blockchain Council.

#blockchain certificate #blockchain training #blockchain certification #blockchain developers #blockchain #blockchain council

The Evolution of The Public-Private Key Encryption in Blockchain Systems

There are many different methods to verify a user’s identification. Although the management of authentication and active sessions has come a long way, simple password authentication has not been able to provide sufficient security to support the rapid growth in data, advancements in mobile and cloud technologies, and increasing volumes of security breaches.

Exposure of session data is only one example of where this authentication method can fall short. After a user password is authenticated, the user is exposed to a brief period of vulnerability where session data can be copied or stolen.

Blockchain uses a public-key cryptosystem for identification rather than a traditional username and password process. Using a public-key cryptosystem for identification is not a new concept. RSA or Rivest-Shamir-Adleman was created and adopted in the 1970s by US government institutions.

RSA was made available to the public in 1997. RSA algorithm allows data to be encrypted by a private key and decrypted by a public key. A private key first encrypts data, then sends it to the receiver. The receiver decrypts the data using a public key.

This method protects private keys unless the user accidentally exposes their private key.

Blockchain systems with private-public key systems function the same way. When a transaction is initiated, the requestor’s identity needs to be verified using a digital signature.

Miners use the public key to decrypt the digital signature to view the hash output. Once identification is verified, the miners will **validate **the latest unspent amount.

Alternative blockchains systems are similar but operate under different consensus mechanisms to ensure that spending is legitimate. For this article, we will focus on **authorization **rather than consensus models.

Private Key plays a significant role in blockchain

The private key is the most crucial piece of information to identify a user’s action. People holding large amounts of cryptocurrency may have a fear of losing, misplacing, or unintentionally divulging their private keys.

The custodian key management system was created as a solution to this problem. This system uses a third party, or encryption key management provider to manage keys.

Hackers scavenging public data leaks and running mass malware programs scouring the internet and devices for private keys poses another threat.

The encryption key management provider incurs the responsibility of thwarting attacks, ensuring redundancy and availability, and making this experience seamless for customers.

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Real-World Uses for Blockchain Technology

Blockchain is changing the mindset of businesses and governments as we know it. Blockchain has been identified as the next big thing since the internet. It is producing innovative models that are disrupting traditional ones.

The momentum created from this latest technology shows no sign of slowing down. Businesses are aspiring for ways to reach out to the mechanics of this evolving science.

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Blockchain is more than crypto

Since the two are almost always mentioned together, many people do not realize that cryptocurrency is just one application of blockchain. Predominantly, it facilitates transactions without the involvement of banks.

It seems that crypto may soon become an acceptable mode for international payments. This will give businesses access to an increasingly global supply chain.

However, there are plenty of other real-world applications of this game-changing technology. Blockchain has a solid future. The underlying technology already exhibits a great deal of potential, with numerous use cases across various industries.

Examples of how blockchain is changing the world we live in

Here are a few fantastic examples of blockchain at work. The sheer number of applications of the technology makes it next to impossible to list all. This is only the tip of the iceberg. But once you finish reading this blog, you will get a gist of the potential -and power- of what blockchain technology has to offer.

1. International money transfers

This is what cryptocurrency has been successfully doing all along. As people move away from traditional transfer options and onto the blockchain, they can acquire multiple benefits.

Without a central authority, individuals can transfer funds anywhere in the world, at any time, more quickly, and with lower transaction fees. And because transactions are completed faster for a fraction of the cost, it is a more favorable choice.

2. Paying parking fines

Though New York City was the first to propose this idea back in 2014, there has been no follow-up action as of yet. But just recently, South Africa mentioned the same idea. The implication is that governments are considering the use of blockchain for various applications.

3. Government level tasks

While we are on the subject of governments, why not mention those countries that are making headway in adopting blockchain technology.

In 2016, representatives of 30 government departments in Dubai investigated the possibility of becoming the world’s first blockchain-powered state.
Estonia, on the other hand, is collaborating with Ericsson. They aim to move public records onto the blockchain.
Let’s not forget Samsung’s efforts to help the South Korean government with the technology. They are using it for public safety and transport applications. Learn more from blockchain onine course

4. Charging electric cars

As electric cars are a relatively new concept, it will take time for other technological advancements to attach themselves to it. But a German utility company, RWE, is setting the record straight. They have taken a bold step to incorporate blockchain into their options. Now, this technology is backing their charging stations.

5. Car dealers

EV charging facilities are not the only blockchain use case to enter the automotive market. The Mobi initiative is carrying various companies towards the blockchain faster than you think.

Autocoincar is a platform for car dealers. It aims at facilitating the buying and selling of vehicles with the use of crypto all over the world. Though the company supports transactions through fiat currencies such as the US dollar, British pound, Euro, and UAE dirham, it also encourages people to buy a car for sale with bitcoin cash (BCH).

Like many other startups, autocoincars has introduced its cryptocurrency, the Autocoin. The technology backing it is likely to bring the digital currency into the mainstream. It’ll be available for making payments in real-time or for holding onto as reserve assets. Moreover, car dealers can now offer their stock of crypto to buyers and investors alike.

But the most significant advantage lies in the fact that the crypto car sales industry overcomes the exchange rate barrier. That is why there is so much potential for growth.

6. Smart contracts

This is precisely what it sounds- contracts that are much smarter than regular ones. Because smart contracts are developed on the blockchain, there are no intermediaries. And they don’t require a third-party to monitor and legalize them.

Smart contracts are gaining a great deal of traction, especially in the insurance sector. Companies such as Guardtime and Etherisc have already established a foothold. Industries are switching to them as they reduce the dependency on standard legal contracts. Moreover, blockchain has the ability to create trust in a trustless ecosystem with the use of public ledgers. That way, smart contracts can track claims and hold both parties accountable.

7. Copyright and royalty protection

With the explosion of online content, copyright and ownership issues are common concerns. Blockchain is promoting these laws in the digital space. All information is chronologically timestamped, ensuring a clear recording of events. So now, your music, videos, blogs, or any other content is secure.

Furthermore, since downloads can be monitored, artists and content creators can warrant their fair share of the money. Information such as royalty distribution will be available in real-time.

8. Healthcare

The healthcare system is bogged down by multiple inefficiencies. Primarily, they stem from the use of numerous forms, human error, and poor communication between doctors, lab technicians, patients, etc.

Blockchain can automate processes and save countless hours of paperwork. As forms and data are safely stored on the chain, it reduces the probability of human error.

Examples of blockchain already in use in the healthcare system include:

Health Nexus- provides decentralized blockchain patient records
ConnectingCare- tracks the progress of patients after they leave the hospital
MedRec – an electronic medical records system on blockchain designed to manage authentication, confidentiality, and data sharing
9. Digital voting

Voter fraud is a growing concern in developing as well as developed countries. With increasing criticism on the matter, there is a greater need to switch to the blockchain.

The technology touts a high level of transparency as well as information security. With these essential features, voter fraud can be completely eradicated. Any irregularities and attempts at distorting data can be highlighted in real-time. This can bolster a trusted, fair system that promotes success.

10. Cybersecurity

Blockchain is well-known for its ability to safeguard sensitive information. Industries rely heavily on protecting their data, especially with current trends circulating KYC (Know Your Customer) processes.

Remember that blockchain’s ledgers are decentralized. Additionally, blockchain data is encrypted. Information from one block is linked to another. That means that it can’t be corrupted or manipulated by one authority. Any unusual behavior will be instantly detected.

And data is entirely transparent to members (nodes) on a chain. While everyone can view the actions of other individuals, the true identity can remain hidden.

Wrapping up

Blockchain technology is an innovation that is being embraced by many industries. As we travel through the digital era, the functionalities of various technological developments will become more apparent.

Blockchain is offering a wide array of excellent solutions. But it is essential to understand that it cannot be the solution to every problem. Unique applications can satisfy issues that different businesses are facing.

What is currently being observed is the eagerness with which the IT sector is leveraging Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS). Major market trendsetters, such as Microsoft, Amazon, and IBM, have already started investing in it.

IT companies are aiming to create a whole new selection of services. Combining BaaS with cloud service, IoT, AI, etc. can open a vast number of solutions. Only time will tell how we will fare in this unexplored territory.

I hope you reach blockchain technology. You can learn more from Blockchain online training Hyderabad.

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