John David

John David


Learn Startup - Build a successful business and change the world

Let's look at the 3 ways in ES6 to filter out duplicates from a JS array and return only the unique values. Using Set, Filter, and Reduce.

Here are 3 ways to filter out duplicates from an array and return only the unique values. My favorite is using Set cause it’s the shortest and simplest 😁

const array = ['🐑', 1,  2, '🐑','🐑', 3];

// 1: “Set”
[…new Set(array)];

// 2: “Filter”
array.filter((item, index) => array.indexOf(item) === index);

// 3: “Reduce”
array.reduce((unique, item) =>
unique.includes(item) ? unique : […unique, item], []);

// [‘🐑’, 1, 2, 3];

1. Using set

Let me start first by explaining what Set is:

Set is a new data object introduced in ES6. Because Set only lets you store unique values. When you pass in an array, it will remove any duplicate values.

Okay, let’s go back to our code and break down what’s happening. There are 2 things going on:

  1. First, we are creating a new Set by passing an array. Because Set only allows unique values, all duplicates will be removed.
  2. Now the duplicates are gone, we’re going to convert it back to an array by using the spread operator …
const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3];

// Step 1
const uniqueSet = new Set(array);
// Set { ‘🐑’, 1, 2, 3 }

// Step 2
const backToArray = […uniqueSet];
// [‘🐑’, 1, 2, 3]

Convert Set to an Array using Array.from

Alternatively, you can also use Array.from to convert a Set into an array:

const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3];

Array.from(new Set(array));

// [‘🐑’, 1, 2, 3]

2: Using filter

In order to understand this option, let’s go through what these two methods are doing: indexOf and filter


The indexOf method returns the first index it finds of the provided element from our array.

const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3];

array.indexOf(‘🐑’); // 0
array.indexOf(1); // 1
array.indexOf(2); // 2
array.indexOf(3); // 5


The filter() method creates a new array of elements that pass the conditional we provide. In other words, if the element passes and returns true, it will be included in the filtered array. And any element that fails or return false, it will be NOT be in the filtered array.

Let’s step in and walk through what happens as we loop through the array.

const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3]

array.filter((item, index) => {

// a. Item
// b. Index
// c. indexOf
// d. Condition
array.indexOf(item) === index,

return array.indexOf(item) === index

Below is the output from the console.log showed above. The duplicates are where the index doesn’t match the indexOf. So in those cases, the condition will be false and won’t be included in our filtered array.

Retrieve the duplicate values

We can also use the filter method to retrieve the duplicate values from the array. We can do this by simply adjusting our condition like so:

const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3];

array.filter((item, index) => array.indexOf(item) !== index);

// [‘🐑’,‘🐑’]

Again, let step through this and see the output:

3: Using reduce

The reduce method is used to reduce the elements of the array and combine them into a final array based on some reducer function that you pass.

In this case, our reducer function is checking if our final array contains the item. If it doesn’t, push that item into our final array. Otherwise, skip that element and return just our final array as is (essentially skipping over that element).

Reduce is always a bit more tricky to understand, so let’s also step into each case and see the output:

const array = [‘🐑’, 1,  2, ‘🐑’,‘🐑’, 3];

array.reduce((unique, item) => {
// a. Item
// b. Final Array (Accumulator)
// c. Condition (Remember it only get pushed if this returns false)
// d. Reducer Function Result
unique.includes(item) ? unique : […unique, item],

return unique.includes(item) ? unique : […unique, item]
}, []); // 👈 The initial value of our Accumulator is an empty array

// [‘🐑’, 1, 2, 3];

And here’s the output from the console.log:



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Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes


Best Electric Bikes and Scooters for Rental Business or Campus Facility

The electric scooter revolution has caught on super-fast taking many cities across the globe by storm. eScooters, a renovated version of old-school scooters now turned into electric vehicles are an environmentally friendly solution to current on-demand commute problems. They work on engines, like cars, enabling short traveling distances without hassle. The result is that these groundbreaking electric machines can now provide faster transport for less — cheaper than Uber and faster than Metro.

Since they are durable, fast, easy to operate and maintain, and are more convenient to park compared to four-wheelers, the eScooters trend has and continues to spike interest as a promising growth area. Several companies and universities are increasingly setting up shop to provide eScooter services realizing a would-be profitable business model and a ready customer base that is university students or residents in need of faster and cheap travel going about their business in school, town, and other surrounding areas.

Electric Scooters Trends and Statistics

In many countries including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, U.K., Germany, France, China, Japan, India, Brazil and Mexico and more, a growing number of eScooter users both locals and tourists can now be seen effortlessly passing lines of drivers stuck in the endless and unmoving traffic.

A recent report by McKinsey revealed that the E-Scooter industry will be worth― $200 billion to $300 billion in the United States, $100 billion to $150 billion in Europe, and $30 billion to $50 billion in China in 2030. The e-Scooter revenue model will also spike and is projected to rise by more than 20% amounting to approximately $5 billion.

And, with a necessity to move people away from high carbon prints, traffic and congestion issues brought about by car-centric transport systems in cities, more and more city planners are developing more bike/scooter lanes and adopting zero-emission plans. This is the force behind the booming electric scooter market and the numbers will only go higher and higher.

Companies that have taken advantage of the growing eScooter trend develop an appthat allows them to provide efficient eScooter services. Such an app enables them to be able to locate bike pick-up and drop points through fully integrated google maps.

List of Best Electric Bikes for Rental Business or Campus Facility 2020:

It’s clear that e scooters will increasingly become more common and the e-scooter business model will continue to grab the attention of manufacturers, investors, entrepreneurs. All this should go ahead with a quest to know what are some of the best electric bikes in the market especially for anyone who would want to get started in the electric bikes/scooters rental business.

We have done a comprehensive list of the best electric bikes! Each bike has been reviewed in depth and includes a full list of specs and a photo.

Billy eBike


To start us off is the Billy eBike, a powerful go-anywhere urban electric bike that’s specially designed to offer an exciting ride like no other whether you want to ride to the grocery store, cafe, work or school. The Billy eBike comes in 4 color options – Billy Blue, Polished aluminium, Artic white, and Stealth black.

Price: $2490

Available countries

Available in the USA, Europe, Asia, South Africa and Australia.This item ships from the USA. Buyers are therefore responsible for any taxes and/or customs duties incurred once it arrives in your country.


  • Control – Ride with confidence with our ultra-wide BMX bars and a hyper-responsive twist throttle.
  • Stealth- Ride like a ninja with our Gates carbon drive that’s as smooth as butter and maintenance-free.
  • Drive – Ride further with our high torque fat bike motor, giving a better climbing performance.
  • Accelerate – Ride quicker with our 20-inch lightweight cutout rims for improved acceleration.
  • Customize – Ride your own way with 5 levels of power control. Each level determines power and speed.
  • Flickable – Ride harder with our BMX /MotoX inspired geometry and lightweight aluminum package


  • Maximum speed: 20 mph (32 km/h)
  • Range per charge: 41 miles (66 km)
  • Maximum Power: 500W
  • Motor type: Fat Bike Motor: Bafang RM G060.500.DC
  • Load capacity: 300lbs (136kg)
  • Battery type: 13.6Ah Samsung lithium-ion,
  • Battery capacity: On/off-bike charging available
  • Weight: w/o batt. 48.5lbs (22kg), w/ batt. 54lbs (24.5kg)
  • Front Suspension: Fully adjustable air shock, preload/compression damping /lockout
  • Rear Suspension: spring, preload adjustment
  • Built-in GPS

Why Should You Buy This?

  • Riding fun and excitement
  • Better climbing ability and faster acceleration.
  • Ride with confidence
  • Billy folds for convenient storage and transportation.
  • Shorty levers connect to disc brakes ensuring you stop on a dime
  • belt drives are maintenance-free and clean (no oil or lubrication needed)

**Who Should Ride Billy? **

Both new and experienced riders

**Where to Buy? **Local distributors or ships from the USA.

Genze 200 series e-Bike


Featuring a sleek and lightweight aluminum frame design, the 200-Series ebike takes your riding experience to greater heights. Available in both black and white this ebike comes with a connected app, which allows you to plan activities, map distances and routes while also allowing connections with fellow riders.

Price: $2099.00

Available countries

The Genze 200 series e-Bike is available at GenZe retail locations across the U.S or online via website. Customers from outside the US can ship the product while incurring the relevant charges.


  • 2 Frame Options
  • 2 Sizes
  • Integrated/Removable Battery
  • Throttle and Pedal Assist Ride Modes
  • Integrated LCD Display
  • Connected App
  • 24 month warranty
  • GPS navigation
  • Bluetooth connectivity


  • Maximum speed: 20 mph with throttle
  • Range per charge: 15-18 miles w/ throttle and 30-50 miles w/ pedal assist
  • Charging time: 3.5 hours
  • Motor type: Brushless Rear Hub Motor
  • Gears: Microshift Thumb Shifter
  • Battery type: Removable Samsung 36V, 9.6AH Li-Ion battery pack
  • Battery capacity: 36V and 350 Wh
  • Weight: 46 pounds
  • Derailleur: 8-speed Shimano
  • Brakes: Dual classic
  • Wheels: 26 x 20 inches
  • Frame: 16, and 18 inches
  • Operating Mode: Analog mode 5 levels of Pedal Assist Thrott­le Mode

Norco from eBikestore


The Norco VLT S2 is a front suspension e-Bike with solid components alongside the reliable Bosch Performance Line Power systems that offer precise pedal assistance during any riding situation.

Price: $2,699.00

Available countries

This item is available via the various Norco bikes international distributors.


  • VLT aluminum frame- for stiffness and wheel security.
  • Bosch e-bike system – for their reliability and performance.
  • E-bike components – for added durability.
  • Hydraulic disc brakes – offer riders more stopping power for safety and control at higher speeds.
  • Practical design features – to add convenience and versatility.


  • Maximum speed: KMC X9 9spd
  • Motor type: Bosch Active Line
  • Gears: Shimano Altus RD-M2000, SGS, 9 Speed
  • Battery type: Power Pack 400
  • Battery capacity: 396Wh
  • Suspension: SR Suntour suspension fork
  • Frame: Norco VLT, Aluminum, 12x142mm TA Dropouts

Bodo EV


Manufactured by Bodo Vehicle Group Limited, the Bodo EV is specially designed for strong power and extraordinary long service to facilitate super amazing rides. The Bodo Vehicle Company is a striking top in electric vehicles brand field in China and across the globe. Their Bodo EV will no doubt provide your riders with high-level riding satisfaction owing to its high-quality design, strength, breaking stability and speed.

Price: $799

Available countries

This item ships from China with buyers bearing the shipping costs and other variables prior to delivery.


  • Reliable
  • Environment friendly
  • Comfortable riding
  • Fashionable
  • Economical
  • Durable – long service life
  • Braking stability
  • LED lighting technology


  • Maximum speed: 45km/h
  • Range per charge: 50km per person
  • Charging time: 8 hours
  • Maximum Power: 3000W
  • Motor type: Brushless DC Motor
  • Load capacity: 100kg
  • Battery type: Lead-acid battery
  • Battery capacity: 60V 20AH
  • Weight: w/o battery 47kg

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Ilene  Jerde

Ilene Jerde


How This Cybersecurity Startup Is Using Machine Learning

The COVID pandemic has massively escalated the surge of cyberattacks and data breaches despite having robust security controls, software, and solutions abundantly available in the market. A lot of this could be attributed to the vulnerability businesses offer the cybercriminals to take advantage of the situation quickly. While the conventional cybersecurity approach has benefited many, having cybersecurity without cyber-intelligence and necessary awareness can put the security professionals off-guarded to more complicated and novel threats.

Furthermore, with limited cybersecurity resources, businesses need to prioritise their efforts to strengthen cyber posture effectively; however, many organisations do not have an anchor point or a guiding principle, to begin with. With cyber-intelligence inputs missing from cybersecurity capabilities like incident management, vulnerability management, risk assessment and brand monitoring, businesses end up running their security practice in silos instead of an integrated approach.

And, thus, in an attempt to revolutionise the cyber threat visibility and intelligence market, CYFIRMA, a cyber analytics startup assists businesses to understand the relevance of the current threat landscape. Not only it provides insights on threat actors and indicators, emerging threats and digital risks, but also automatically applies intelligence into cyber posture management. To dig deeper, Analytics India Magazine got in touch with the chairman and CEO of the company, Kumar Ritesh, to understand how the company uses a predictive intelligence-driven approach to discover cyber threats.

#startups #cyber security startup india #cybersecurity startup #machine learning #startup #startups

The Fastest Way to Learn Is to Run Your Own Business

I am an avid learner, and since you’re currently this article on Medium, which is full of riches in terms of knowledge and advice and perspectives, so are you. Learning can feel very good when you feel that you’ve gained something new and fresh that you can add to your life and living, yet it can also be very frustrating at times. I’m a person who hates clutter and disorganization, yet I’m also someone who likes to explore new things and venture into unknown territory. On one hand, that makes me something who is willing to go above and beyond to find good resources and create plans for actually digesting different types of material, on the other hand, it’s difficult to be consistent and actually stick to one thing at a time. I jokingly call this the “bookstore phenomenon”, just like when I go to a Barnes and Noble just to browse the many different pieces of literature around me and I can never actually finish a single book because I always have my attention taken away by another interesting book. I assume that many of you have this same problem.

I spent a lot of time trying to solve this dilemma, and I finally found the solution. I started a small business called FirstFruits Analytics, which works with other small businesses to increase growth in their marketing pipelines through web analytics and content/brand strategy. It’s still in its fledgling stage, but the growth is encouraging. Through this whole process of starting and growing my business and working with various clients, my learning has been supercharged and I’m very excited to see what the future holds. Here are the reasons why starting your own business is the best way to learn (even if you never wanted to be an entrepreneur).

The Obvious Incentive

If you didn’t have that much motivation to put in the work to learn something or create something, adding the prospect of money definitely can boost your motivation. Of course, money won’t come flowing in that quickly given that you are just getting started, but it’s an incredible feeling when that first paycheck or online payment comes, no matter how tiny the amount may be. Also, while you’re working on your business, you’ll learn important skills like money management, negotiation, and overall people skills.

The 80/20 Rule (“Pareto Principle”)

What’s really important to know when it comes to doing client work is that you will most certainly not need to be knowledgeable in the full sphere of whatever field you are in. For example, if you do client work in web development, it’s very unlikely that you’ll need to know every single technology and framework in the world of web development. People usually ask for very specific things. Take a look at most freelance aggregator sites and you’ll see what I mean.

You can take this fact to your advantage. The 80/20 Rule, also known as the “Pareto Principle” states that you can get 80% of the results by focusing on only 20% of the problems. There are simply some matters that come up much more often then others. In fact, more than 80% of the problems that people face can be solved with less than 20% of the actual solutions/remedies.

Although you can technically apply the Pareto principle anytime, working with clients forces you to cut down on what you actually focus on, and that’s ultimately to your benefit.

#startup #learning #self-improvement #business #deep learning

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes


How to start an electric scooter facility/fleet in a university campus/IT park

Are you leading an organization that has a large campus, e.g., a large university? You are probably thinking of introducing an electric scooter/bicycle fleet on the campus, and why wouldn’t you?

Introducing micro-mobility in your campus with the help of such a fleet would help the people on the campus significantly. People would save money since they don’t need to use a car for a short distance. Your campus will see a drastic reduction in congestion, moreover, its carbon footprint will reduce.

Micro-mobility is relatively new though and you would need help. You would need to select an appropriate fleet of vehicles. The people on your campus would need to find electric scooters or electric bikes for commuting, and you need to provide a solution for this.

To be more specific, you need a short-term electric bike rental app. With such an app, you will be able to easily offer micro-mobility to the people on the campus. We at Devathon have built Autorent exactly for this.

What does Autorent do and how can it help you? How does it enable you to introduce micro-mobility on your campus? We explain these in this article, however, we will touch upon a few basics first.

Micro-mobility: What it is


You are probably thinking about micro-mobility relatively recently, aren’t you? A few relevant insights about it could help you to better appreciate its importance.

Micro-mobility is a new trend in transportation, and it uses vehicles that are considerably smaller than cars. Electric scooters (e-scooters) and electric bikes (e-bikes) are the most popular forms of micro-mobility, however, there are also e-unicycles and e-skateboards.

You might have already seen e-scooters, which are kick scooters that come with a motor. Thanks to its motor, an e-scooter can achieve a speed of up to 20 km/h. On the other hand, e-bikes are popular in China and Japan, and they come with a motor, and you can reach a speed of 40 km/h.

You obviously can’t use these vehicles for very long commutes, however, what if you need to travel a short distance? Even if you have a reasonable public transport facility in the city, it might not cover the route you need to take. Take the example of a large university campus. Such a campus is often at a considerable distance from the central business district of the city where it’s located. While public transport facilities may serve the central business district, they wouldn’t serve this large campus. Currently, many people drive their cars even for short distances.

As you know, that brings its own set of challenges. Vehicular traffic adds significantly to pollution, moreover, finding a parking spot can be hard in crowded urban districts.

Well, you can reduce your carbon footprint if you use an electric car. However, electric cars are still new, and many countries are still building the necessary infrastructure for them. Your large campus might not have the necessary infrastructure for them either. Presently, electric cars don’t represent a viable option in most geographies.

As a result, you need to buy and maintain a car even if your commute is short. In addition to dealing with parking problems, you need to spend significantly on your car.

All of these factors have combined to make people sit up and think seriously about cars. Many people are now seriously considering whether a car is really the best option even if they have to commute only a short distance.

This is where micro-mobility enters the picture. When you commute a short distance regularly, e-scooters or e-bikes are viable options. You limit your carbon footprints and you cut costs!

Businesses have seen this shift in thinking, and e-scooter companies like Lime and Bird have entered this field in a big way. They let you rent e-scooters by the minute. On the other hand, start-ups like Jump and Lyft have entered the e-bike market.

Think of your campus now! The people there might need to travel short distances within the campus, and e-scooters can really help them.

How micro-mobility can benefit you


What advantages can you get from micro-mobility? Let’s take a deeper look into this question.

Micro-mobility can offer several advantages to the people on your campus, e.g.:

  • Affordability: Shared e-scooters are cheaper than other mass transportation options. Remember that the people on your campus will use them on a shared basis, and they will pay for their short commutes only. Well, depending on your operating model, you might even let them use shared e-scooters or e-bikes for free!
  • Convenience: Users don’t need to worry about finding parking spots for shared e-scooters since these are small. They can easily travel from point A to point B on your campus with the help of these e-scooters.
  • Environmentally sustainable: Shared e-scooters reduce the carbon footprint, moreover, they decongest the roads. Statistics from the pilot programs in cities like Portland and Denver showimpressive gains around this key aspect.
  • Safety: This one’s obvious, isn’t it? When people on your campus use small e-scooters or e-bikes instead of cars, the problem of overspeeding will disappear. you will see fewer accidents.

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Ian  Robinson

Ian Robinson


The Importance Of Data-Driven Decisions For Business Success

Running a business in this digital age requires a businessman to be quick-on-the-feet regarding various technology trends. One such buzzword is big data. Most businesses have gone digital and are generating several GBs of customer data. Now is the time to leverage this digital insight. By understanding how to analyze the data and measure data accuracy, well-informed business decisions can be made that will lead to commercial growth and drive the business forward.

Companies that have fallen behind on this have noticed their data-driven competitors get success and make their stand in the industry by keeping the customer experience at the forefront. Big tech companies like Amazon, Facebook, and Google have aced and other Fortune 1000 companies are also heavily investing in data and AI initiatives.

Backing Business Decisions With Metrics
A Guide To Become A Data-Driven Business

#big data #latest news #the importance of data-driven decisions for business success #data-driven decisions #business #business success