Markus  Bartell

Markus Bartell

1643521140

Blockchain sareak | Kripto sareak | Jakin behar duzun guztia

Gida honek Blockchain sare mota guztiak azalduko ditu, Crypto Networks, haien alde onak, txarrak eta aplikazioak barne.

Blockchain sare mota desberdinetarako hasiberrientzako gida

Blockchain-a sare korporatibo batean transakzioak erregistratzea eta aktiboak kudeatzea (materialak zein ukiezinak) askoz ere eskuragarriago egiten duen liburu-liburu banatu eta aldaezina da. Blockchain sare batean, balio duen ia ezer grabatu eta negoziatu daiteke, arriskua murriztuz eta inplikatutako alderdi guztien kostuak murriztuz. Baina, zer dira blockchain sareak?

Blockchain sarea aplikazioei liburu-liburu eta kontratu adimendunen zerbitzuetara sartzeko aukera ematen dien azpiegitura tekniko bat da. Kontratu adimendunak transakzioak sortzeko erabiltzen dira batez ere, gero sareko nodo pareko bakoitzari transmititzen zaizkio eta erregistroaren kopian aldaezin erregistratzen dira. Bezero aplikazioak edo blockchain sareko administratzaileak erabiltzen dituzten azken erabiltzaileak aplikazioen erabiltzaileen adibideak dira.

Eskaerak, kontuak, ordainketak, produkzioa eta askoz gehiago jarraipena egin daiteke blockchain sare bat erabiliz. Transakzio baten gertakari guztiak muturreraino ikus ditzakezu, kideek egiaren ikuspegi bakarra partekatzen baitute, konfiantza handiagoa eta eraginkortasun eta aukera gehigarriak eskainiz. Beraz, zenbat blockchain sare daude?

Hainbat erakundek partzuergo bat sortzen dute sarea eraikitzeko egoera gehienetan, eta haien baimenak partzuergoak adosten dituen politika multzo batek arautzen ditu sarea lehen aldiz konfiguratzen denean. Beste bloke-sare mota batzuk publikoak, pribatuak, baimenduak izan daitezke.

Blockchain teknologiaren ezaugarri nagusiak

Autoritate bakar baten ordez, blockchain-ek erabiltzaileen sare deszentralizatu batean oinarritzen da transakzioak balioztatzeko eta erregistratzeko. Blockchain-en transakzioak koherenteak, azkarrak, seguruak, merkeak eta faltsuak dira ezaugarri honengatik. Ezaugarri hauek jarraian azaltzen dira:

  • Azkar: Transakzioak zuzenean bidaltzen dira igorletik hartzailera, bitartekari bat edo gehiagoren beharra ezabatuz.
  • Koherentea: Blockchain sareek mundu osoan funtzionatzen dute, eguneko 24 orduetan, asteko zazpi egunetan.
  • Merke: Blockchain sareak funtzionatzeko merkeagoak dira, ez baitute bitartekari zentralizaturik eta alokairu bila.
  • Segurua: bloke-kate baten nodoen sare banatuak erasoen eta etenen aurkako babes kolektiboa eskaintzen du.
  • Manipulaziorik gabekoa: datuak gardenak dira eta ezin dira aldatu erregistroan denbora-zigilua jarri ondoren, blokeo-katea iruzurrerako eta bestelako jokabide kriminaletarako sarezin bihurtuz. Era berean, blockchain sare publikorako sarbidea duten guztiek ikus ditzakete sortutako transakzioak.

Blockchain sare motak

Blockchain sare bat hainbat modutan eraiki daiteke. Publikoak, pribatuak, baimenduak edo partzuergo izeneko pertsona talde batek eraikiak izan daitezke.

Blockchain sare publikoa

Bloke publikoa munduko guztiek ikusi, transakzioak bidali eta transakzio horiek baliozkoak badira eta adostasun-prozesuan parte hartzen badute, eta horrek katera zein bloke gehitzen diren eta uneko egoera zein den zehazten du. .

Kriptoekonomiak - pizgarri ekonomikoen konbinazioa egiaztapen kriptografikoarekin lanaren froga (Bitcoin) edo partaidetza froga (Ethereum) bezalako prozedurak erabiliz - bloke publikoak (Ethereum) ziurtatzen ditu. Blockchain hauek "erabat deszentralizatuta"tzat hartzen dira, oro har. 

Blokeo publikoek aplikazioen erabiltzaileak garatzaileengandik babesteko mekanismo bat eskaintzen dute ekintza zehatzak aplikazioaren garatzaileen eskumenetik kanpo daudela frogatuz. Blockchains publikoak irekita daudenez, baliteke erakunde askok hartzea, hirugarrenen egiaztapenik beharrik gabe. 

Blockchain publikoaren anonimotasuna da hainbeste jarraitzaile erakarri dituen beste arrazoi bat. Bai, plataforma ireki seguru eta segurua da, non negozioak behar bezala eta eraginkortasunez egin ditzakezun. Gainera, parte hartzeko ez duzu zure benetako identitatea edo izena ezagutzera behartuta. Inork ezin du sarean zure jardueraren jarraipena egin zure identitatea babestuta badago.

Hala ere, konputazio-ahalmen handia behar da, transakzioetarako pribatutasun gutxi dago edo ez dago eta segurtasuna ez da egokia. Hauek funtsezko kontuak dira hainbat industriatan blockchain erabilera kasuetarako.

Blockchain sare pribatua

Blockchain pribatuak, kudeatutako blockchains izenez ere ezagunak, baimendutako bloke-kateak dira, entitate bakar batek kudeatzen dituena. Blockchain pribatu bateko agintari zentralak erabakitzen du nor izan daitekeen nodo bat. 

Horrez gain, agintaritza zentralak ez die beti nodo bakoitzari funtzioak exekutatzeko eskubide berdinak ematen. Hala ere, bloke pribatuetarako sarbide publikoa mugatuta dagoenez, partzialki deszentralizatuta daude. 

Ripple (XRP), negozioen arteko moneta truke birtualeko sare bat, eta Hyperledger, kode irekiko blockchain aplikazioetarako aterki proiektua, bloke pribatuen bi adibide dira.

Datuen konfidentzialtasuna kontuan hartuta, sareak partekatzea enpresa mailan maiz pribatutasun-maila handiagoa behar da. Blockchain pribatu bat da aukerarik onena zure beharretako bat bada. Blockchains pribatuak sareko alternatiba egonkorragoak dira, zalantzarik gabe, erabiltzaile gutxi batzuek soilik dutelako transakzio jakinetarako sarbidea. 

Gainera, industria guztietan, betetzea funtsezkoa da. Betetze-arau zorrotzak betetzen ez dituen teknologiak noizbait huts egitera kondenatuta dago. Transakzioak errazak eta errazak izan daitezen, bloke pribatuek beren ekosisteman betetze-arau guztiak betetzen dituzte.

Irakurri gehiago: Zein da Blockchain publikoaren eta pribatuaren arteko aldea?

Bi bloke pribatuek zein publikoek desabantailak dituzte: bloke publikoek gehiago behar dute datu berriak balioztatzeko bloke pribatuek baino, eta bloke pribatuek iruzurra eta aktore txarrak jasan ditzakete. Gainera, ikuspegi zentralizatuak maiz hirugarrenen kudeaketa tresnetan gehiegizko konfiantza sustatzen du eta industriako parte-hartzaile gutxi batzuen alde egiten du. Partzuergoko blokeak akats horiek gainditzeko sortu ziren.

Orain blockchain sare publiko eta pribatuen oinarriak azaldu direnez, labur ditzagun bi sareen arteko ezberdintasunak beheko taulan.

Partzuergoko blockchain sarea

Partzuergoen bloke-kateak, bloke pribatuak ez bezala, erakunde-partzuergo batek kudeatzen dituen baimendutako bloke-kateak dira, erakunde bakar batek baino. Ondorioz, partzuergoko bloke-kateek bloke pribatuek baino deszentralizazio handiagoa dute, eta, ondorioz, segurtasuna areagotzen da. 

Bestalde, partzuergoak sortzea zaila izan daiteke, hainbat negozioren arteko elkarlana beharrezkoa delako, eta horrek arazo logistiko eta lehiakortasunaren aurkako urraketen arriskua dakar.

Gainera, hornikuntza-kateko kide batzuek bloke-katearen teknologiak hartzeko beharrezko teknologia edo azpiegitura falta izan dezakete. Hori egiten dutenek erabaki dezakete beren datuak digitalizatzeko eta hornikuntza-kateko beste kide batzuekin konektatzearen hasierako kostuak ordaintzeko prezio handiegiak direla.

R3 software korporatiboaren garatzaileak partzuergoko bloke-kateen irtenbide multzo ezagun bat garatu du finantza-zerbitzuen industriarako eta haratago. CargoSmart-ek Global Shipping Business Network Collaboration sortu du, irabazi-asmorik gabeko blockchain partzuergoa, bidalketa industria digitalizatzera eta itsas industriako operadoreek modu eraginkorragoan lankidetzan jardutea ahalbidetzen duena.

Partzuergoaren bloke-katea alderdi batek gainbegiratzen du, baina nagusitasunetik babestuta dago. Begirale honek bere arauak exekutatu, saldoetan aldaketak egin eta akatsez beteta daudela frogatuta dauden transakzioak amaitu ditzake kide bakoitzak adostu bezain laster. Horrez gain, beste hainbat lan egiten ditu helburu bera duten enpresei emaitzetara bideratutako lankidetza eskaintzeko.

Egiaztaturiko blokeetako informazioa publikoaren ikuspegitik ezkutatuta dagoenez, partzuergoko bloke-kateak pribatutasun maila handia du. Blockchain honetako kide den edonork, ordea, sar dezake. Partzuergoko blockchain-ak, blockchain publiko batek ez bezala, ez du transakzio kuotarik.

Blockchain publikotik bereizten duen partzuergoko bloke-katearen beste elementu bat bere malgutasuna da. Baliozkotzaile gehienek arazoak izan ditzakete elkarren arteko adostasunarekin eta sinkronizazioarekin blockchain publikoan. Dibergentzia horren ondorioz sortzen dira sardexkak, partzuergoko sareetan gertatzen ez dena.

Partzuergoaren blockchain-ak zenbat abantaila ematen dituen kontuan hartu gabe, bere eragozpenak ere baditu. Blockchain honen eragozpen esanguratsuenetako bat zentralizatuta dagoela da, jokalari gaiztoentzat zaurgarria dela. Parte-hartzaile kopurua mugatuta dagoenean, errua horietako bat dela suposatzen da.

Partzuergoaren blockchain-a abian jartzea prozesu delikatua da. Guztiek onartu beharko dute kideen komunikaziorako protokoloa. Hala ere, enpresa batek enpresa txiki batek baino malgutasun gutxiago duenez, negozioak konektatzeko sare publiko bat ezartzeak denbora asko eskatzen du.

Baimendutako blockchain sarea

Baimendutako blockchain sarea normalean bloke pribatu bat sortzen duten enpresek ezartzen dute. Kontuan izan behar da blockchain sare publikoak ere baimendu daitezkeela. Horrek sarean parte hartzeko baimena duen eta zer transakzio egin ditzakeen mugatzen du. Parte hartzeko, parte hartzaileek gonbidapena edo baimena lortu behar dute lehenik.

Baimendutako bloke-sareek plataforma deszentralizatua eskaintzen dute, eta horrek esan nahi du datuak ez direla biltegi zentral batean gordetzen eta edonork sar dezakeela edozein unetan eta edozein lekutatik. Erregistro guztiek sinadura aldaezinak dituztela ziurtatzen du. Sistema osoa segurua da eta datuak seguru daude, informazio-truke eta transakzio guztiak kriptografikoki enkriptatuta daudelako.

Gainera, sareko meatzariek eta parte-hartzaileek anonimo izaten jarraitzen dute. 

Baimendutako bloke-katearen beste abantaila bat gardentasuna da. Pertsona orok ikus ditzake datu eta informazio guztiak. Hala ere, onura honek atzera egin du, eta baimenik gabeko bloke-katean datuen segurtasunari buruzko kezkak eragin ditu.

Batek ez du bere identitatea frogatu behar baimendutako bloke-katean. Sarean sartzeko, zure konputazio-potentzia eskaintzea besterik ez duzu egin behar. Nonce balioa zehazten duen eta puzzle matematiko konplexua ebazten duen edozein meatzari sar daiteke sisteman.

Enpresa askorentzat, baimenik gabeko blockchain sistemaren mugek proposamen arriskutsu bihurtzen dute. Uste dute baimenik gabeko bloke-katea erabiltzea enpresa-soluzioak saltzeko ez dela egokia haientzat. Eragozpen horiek direla eta, Ethereum, baimenik gabeko bloke-katea, lan-frogatik apustu-froga izatera pasatzen ari da adostasun metodo gisa.

Anonimotasuna seinale ona den arren, merkataritzako parte-hartzaileen identitateak ezkutuan geratzen direlako, arazoak ere izan daitezke. Adibidez, iruzur batean edo norbait transakzio batean parte hartzen duten pertsonen jarraipena egiten saiatzen bada, baimenik gabeko blokeoak ezinezkoa egiten du. Ondorioz, jende askok bloke-katea hartzen ari dira legez kanpoko jardueretarako, ezaugarri horiengatik.

Kripto sareei buruz
 

Kriptomoneta munduko finantza-erakundeak bidali eta jendea banku-establezimenduaren kontrol eta kuota astunetatik kenduko lukeen teknologia iraultzailetzat jotzen da. Eta, ia denek dagoeneko kriptomoneta sareen berri izan badute ere, Bitcoin bezalakoak, oso pertsona gutxik ulertzen dute kriptomoneta benetan nola funtzionatzen duten. Hona hemen horiei buruz jakin beharreko funtsezko gauzak.

1.Cryptocurrency sareak aktibo digitalak dira

Kriptomoneta sareak, Bitcoin bezalakoak, transakzioak ziurtatzeko eta egiaztatzeko kriptografia izeneko enkriptazio-mota oso sofistikatua erabiltzen duten moneta digitalak dira. Kriptografiak kripto-sareei moneta-unitate berrien sorrera kontrolatzeko aukera ematen die. Kriptomoneta sareak deszentralizatua edo agintari zentral batetik independentea den truke-bitarteko gisa funtzionatzeko diseinatuta daude, finantza-erakunde bat bezala.

2. Kripto sareak eros daitezke

Kriptomoneta sareak erostea nahiko erraza da. Kripto-trukeak daude, Binance eta Coinbas bezalakoak, non hainbat txanpon digital eros daitezkeen. Kripto trukeak kriptomoneta zaleei txanpon digitalak erosi eta saltzeko aukera ematen dieten plataformak dira.

Diru-zorro digitalak ere existitzen dira. Aplikazio hauei esker, kriptografia jabeek beste pertsona batzuei funtsak bidal ditzakete erraztasun handiz. Diru-zorro digitala duzunean ere posible da kripto-monetak zeuk gordetzea. Diru-zorro digital baten jabetza zure ordenagailuan edo telefonoan zuzenean gordeko diren gako pribatuen bidez adieraziko da. 

3. Bitcoin ospea lortu duen lehen kriptomoneta sarea da

1990eko hamarkadako teknologiaren gorakadatik, hainbat saiakera egin dira kriptografia-monetak sortzeko. Ospe publikoa lortzen lehena Bitcoin da. Sareak modu kolektiboan kudeatzen ditu Bitcoin-en jaulkipena eta transakzioa, kriptografia-monetak kode irekiko peer-to-peer teknologia erabiltzen baitu. Bitartekaria modu eraginkorrean mozten du.

Programatzaile talde anonimo batek edo banakako programatzaile batek 'Satoshi Nakatomo' ezizenez pean sartu zuen kriptografia-sarea. 2009an bide publikorako eskuragarri egon zenetik, Bitcoin etengabe nagusitu da kriptografia-moneta merkatuan. Kriptomonetak, Bitcoin bezalakoak, aldakoragoak dira moneta fiat tradizionalekin alderatuta. Hori da moneta fiat-ek ez dituztelako salgai fisikoek babesten eta gobernu batek soilik deklaratzen dituelako legezko dirua dela.

4. Hainbat kriptomoneta sare existitzen dira Bitcoin ez ezik

Egia da Bitcoin-ek kriptomoneta merkatuan nagusitzen duela, baina kriptografia-sareak benetan interesatzen bazaizkizu, badaude beste kriptografia-moneta ezagun batzuk aztertu nahi dituzun. Altcoins edo txanpon alternatiboak deitzen dira Bitcoin-en arrakastaren ondoren abian jarri zirenetik.

Jarraian, merkatuan dauden altcoin nabarmenetako batzuk daude.

  • Ethereum - Merkatu-kapitalari dagokionez, gaur egun Ethereum bigarren kokatzen da, Bitcoin atzetik bakarrik. Ether bere kriptografia-moneta espezifikoa da. Kriptomoneta-sare hau Bitcoin-etik nabarmentzen da datuen lineako biltegiratzea oztopatzen saiatzen delako, moneta gisa lan eginez bankua eten beharrean. Ethereum-en blokeo-katea ezaguna bihurtu da kontratu adimendunak gordetzeko.
  • Ripple - Kriptomoneta-sare hau, bere kriptomoneta, XRP-arekin batera, finantza-erakundeei laguntzen saiatzen da bankutik bereizi beharrean. Hori Bitcoin-ek egiten duenaren kontrakoa da. XRP-ren indarra moneta gisa likidezia gutxitzeko duen gaitasunan datza, bi moneta fidagarri desberdinen arteko edozein transakziotan erabil daitekeelako. Ripple-k Bitcoin-ekin alderatuta transakzio-abiadura nabarmen azkarragoa duen sare gisa ere sustatzen du. Kontuan izan sortutako 100.000 mila milioi XRP existitzen direla eta ez direla erauzten.
  • Litecoin - Transakzio-abiadura erakusten duen beste kriptomoneta sare bat Litecoin da. Bitcoin baino azkarragoa dela dio. Kriptomoneta zale batzuek Litecoin Bitcoin-en beste txanpon alternatibo potentzial gisa ikusten dute, moneta legitimo bihur daitekeena. Bitcoin ordainketak onartzen dituzten AEBetako negozio-establezimendu batzuek, Helen's Pizza adibidez, dagoeneko iragarri dute altcoin-ak onartzeko prest daudela, Litecoin adibidez.

5. Kriptomoneta sareek Blockchain Teknologia erabiltzen dute

Blockchain datu-base ustelgaitz bakarra da. Etengabe erregistratzen eta denbora-zigiluak "blokeak" edo transakzioak kronologikoki. Blockchain DLT edo banatutako liburuko teknologia bat da, P2P transakzioak errazten dituena alderdi zentralizaturik gabe modu seguru eta egiaztagarrietan. "Adostasuna" izeneko prozesu baten bidez, transakzio bakoitza egiaztatu behar da. Horregatik blockchain-ek sistema anitzeko parte-hartzaileek modu independentean egiaztatzea eskatzen dute "blokea" sortzen duen algoritmoak sortzen duen irteeraren benetakotasuna. Kontuan izan sarrera berri bat egiaztatzen denean edo blokeo-katean adostu eta egin ondoren, "blokeatuta" dagoela. Horrek esan nahi du ezin dela aldatu. Gehigarri bat edo sarrera berri bat gehitzea da eguneratzeko modu bakarra.

Blockchain teknologiaren erabilerarik ezagunena orain arte kriptomoneta transakzioak onartzen ditu, hala nola Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple edo Litecoin sareak dituztenak. Ez nahastu edo konbinatu Bitcoin blockchain-ekin, bi kontzeptu desberdinak baitira. Blockchain Bitcoin eta beste kriptografia-sare batzuen transakzio berezia eta segurua ahalbidetzen duen datu-base edo teknologia da, eta Bitcoin moneta forma bat da. Besterik gabe, Bitcoin blockchain-en aplikazio ugarietako bat baino ez da.

6. Kriptomoneta sareak ondasunak eta zerbitzuak erosteko erabil daitezke

Ondasunak eta zerbitzuak ordaintzea eta inbertitzea: gauza horiek guztiak kriptomoneta sareen bidez posible dira. Alde horretatik, moneta fisikoen antzekoak dira. Hala ere, kontuan izan kriptografia-monetak ez dutela forma fisikorik, eta, fiat dirua ez bezala, inongo gobernuk ez dutela legezko diru-kopurua deklaratu. Kriptomoneta sare gehienek ere ez dute pertsona juridiko edo gobernu batek babesten. Banku zentralek ez dute kripto-moneta zehatz baten hornidura zehazten. Horrek esan nahi du erabiltzaileek zuzenean parte har dezaketela transakzioetan, nahiz eta bitartekaririk sartu gabe. Fiat diruaren kasuan, bitartekaria normalean banku bat da. 

Herrialde askok kriptomoneta sareen erabilera transakzio juridikotzat hartzen dute. Hala ere, ezinbestekoa da kontuan izan beste batzuek kriptografia-monetak dituzten transakzioak mugatzen dituztela, batzuek guztiz legez kanpokotzat jotzen dituzten bitartean. Pertsona bati kartzela-zigorrak eman diezazkioke kripto sareak erabiliz transakzioak egiteagatik, moneta digitalak legez kanpokoak diren herrialdeetan. Mexikok, Zambiak, Egiptok, Saudi Arabiak eta Txinak kriptomoneten erabilera mugatzen dute. Bestalde, Nepal, Ekuador, Bolivia, Aljeria, Maroko, Vietnam eta Bangladeshek legez kanpoko jardueratzat hartzen dituzte kriptografiako moneta sareak dituzten transakzioak.

7. Kriptomoneta sareak zergapekoak dira

AEBetako Internal Revenue Service-k dio moneta birtualeko transakzio guztiak zergapekoak direla. 

Aktibo gisa gordetzen duzun kripto-moneta jabetza gisa tratatzen da. Horrek esan nahi du ez dela zertan jakinarazi behar kriptografia-moneta batzuk erostea eta, gero, haiek eustea besterik ez egiteak kriptoa bonu edo akzio bihurtzen duelako. Hala ere, zerbait erosteko truke edo saltzen dituzun transakzioen berri eman beharko duzu.

Moneta digital bat zure diru-sarreretan sartzen da eta zure W-2an islatzen da horren bidez ordaintzen bazaizu. Errenta gisa zergapetzen du. Zure langileei kriptografia bidez ordaintzen ari den enpresaburua bazara, zure W-2an dagoela ziurtatu behar duzu. Transakzioa gertatu den egunean USD-n kripto-monetak duen balioa zehaztasunez erregistratu behar da.

Kriptografia-monetak ustiatzen dituzten eta batzuk arrakastaz atera dituzten pertsonek W-2-ko txanponak ere jakinarazi beharko lituzkete diru-sarrera gordinaren zati gisa, IRS-ren arabera. Txanponen balioaren erregistro garbiak ere gorde behar dituzu jasotzen dituzunean, kriptografia-ordainketak egitean bezala.

8. Kriptomoneta sareak Gobernuan oinarritutako dirua baino irtenbide hobea dira

Aditu askok diote kripto-monetak fida-diru tradizionalak baino hobeak direla. Hona hemen kriptografia-moneta sareen izaera deszentralizatuak eskaintzen dituen irtenbideetako batzuk:

  • Jendeari bere dirua kobratzen dio - Jendeak, funtsean, bere eskudiru tradizionalaren gaineko kontrola ematen die gobernuari eta banku zentralei. Hori ez da arazorik izango zure gobernuan konfiantza osoa baduzu. Hala ere, gobernuek gogor irabazitako funtsetarako sarbidea ukatu besterik ez dute egin zure banku-kontua izoztuz. Adibidez, gobernuak zure ondasunen eskubide guztiak ditu AEBetan negozio baten jabe zaren bitartean bat-batean hiltzen bazara legezko borondaterik gabe. Hartu India beste adibide gisa: herrialdeko gobernuak banku billeteak ezabatu zituen 2016an. Gauza horiek guztiak saihestu daitezke kriptografia-sareekin, zuk eta zuk bakarrik izango duzu zure fondoetarako sarbidea plataforma hauetan.
  • Banku gabekoei balio du - Mundu osoan teknologiaren etengabeko aurrerapenak izan arren, jende askok oraindik ez du sarbiderik edo sarbide mugatua du finantza-erakundeetara, bankuak bezala. Merkataritza digitala munduan zehar zabalduz, kriptografia-moneta sareek arazo hau konpondu dezakete. Kriptomoneta bidez, edonor has daiteke ordainketak egiten eta jasotzen, betiere telefono mugikorretarako sarbidea badu. Gauza ona da jende gehiagok gailuetara sarbidea baitu bankuetara baino, telefono mugikorrak, tabletak eta ordenagailu eramangarriak adibidez.
  • Cuts Out The Middleman - Ordainketa digitalaren zerbitzu batek edo zure bankuak mozketa bat hartzen du ohiko dirua erabiliz ordainketa bidaltzen edo jasotzen duzun bakoitzean. Bestalde, sareko kide guztiek bitartekari lanak egiten dituzte kriptografia-monetak erabiltzean. Horrek esan nahi du bitartekarien kuota gutxienekoa dela, baldin badago.

Eskerrik asko artikulu hau bisitatzeagatik eta irakurtzeagatik! Mesedez, partekatu gustatu bazaizu!

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Devin Pinto

1606217442

Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Training Course | Blockchain Council

In all the market sectors, Blockchain technology has contributed to the redesign. The improvements that were once impossible have been pushed forward. Blockchain is one of the leading innovations with the ability to influence the various sectors of the industry. It also has the ability to be one of the career-influencing innovations at the same time. We have seen an increasing inclination towards the certification of the Blockchain in recent years, and there are obvious reasons behind it. Blockchain has everything to offer, from good packages to its universal application and futuristic development. Let’s address the reasons why one should go for Blockchain certification.

5 advantages of certification by Blockchain:

1. Lucrative packages- Everyone who completes their education or upskills themselves wants to end up with a good bundle, not only is one assured of a good learning experience with Blockchain, but the packages are drool-worthy at the same time. A Blockchain developer’s average salary varies between $150,000 and $175,000 per annum. Comparatively, a software developer gets a $137,000 per year salary. For a Blockchain developer, the San Francisco Bay area provides the highest bundle, amounting to $162,288 per annum. There’s no point arguing that learning about Blockchain is a smart decision with such lucrative packages.

2. Growing industry- When you select any qualification course, it becomes important that you choose a growing segment or industry that promises potential in the future. You should anticipate all of these with Blockchain. The size of the blockchain market is expected to rise from USD 3.0 billion in 2020 to USD 39.7 billion by 2025. This will see an incredible 67.3 percent CAGR between 2020-2025. To help business processes, several businesses are outsourcing Blockchain technologies. This clearly demonstrates that there will be higher demand in the future for Blockchain developers and certified Blockchain professionals.

3. Universal application- One of the major reasons for the success of Blockchain is that it has a global application. It is not sector-specific. Blockchain usage cases are discovered by almost all market segments. In addition, other innovations such as AI, big data, data science and much more are also supported by Blockchain. It becomes easier to get into a suitable industry once you know about Blockchain.

**4. Work protection-**Surely you would like to invest in an ability that ensures job security. You had the same chance for Blockchain. Since this is the technology of the future, understanding that Blockchain can keep up with futuristic developments will help in a successful and safe job.

**5.**After a certain point of your professional life, you are expected to learn about new abilities that can help enhance your skills. Upskilling is paramount. Upskilling oneself has become the need for the hour, and choosing a path that holds a lot of potential for the future is the best way to do this. For all computer geeks and others who want to gain awareness of emerging technology, Blockchain is a good option.

Concluding thoughts- opting for Blockchain certification is a successful career move with all these advantages. You will be able to find yourself in a safe and secured work profile once you have all the knowledge and information. Link for Blockchain certification programme with the Blockchain Council.

#blockchain certificate #blockchain training #blockchain certification #blockchain developers #blockchain #blockchain council

5 Blockchain Applications That Have Transformed the World of Technology

The blockchain is the decentralized database of the blocks of information, which gets recorded in the chain format and linked in a secured crypto graphical manner. This technology ensures proper safety of the data due to its secure nature, and it totally changes how people carry out transactions. It also brings about a faster and secure process of validating information needed to establish reliability.

Though blockchain technology came into the market to carry out only digital transactions, it is now used in various industries like supply chain, finance, health care, and many more.

The blockchain technology has made its position in mobile app development as well. Blockchain applications are transparent and accountable. From getting easy access to medical records and buying insurance, you can see blockchain applications everywhere.

Here are some of the areas where you can see the use of blockchain applications and how they have changed various industries.

1. Ripple

Ripple is useful for increasing banking transactions. The implementation of blockchain technology in the financial sector is much more profound than any other sector. Ripple proves this. It is one of the greatest tools to record and complete financial transactions.

It develops a large network despite strict physical boundaries. As there is no such third-party involvement present, the cost of these transactions is lower than usual. At the same time, the network also remains transparent and quite secured.

It is normally seen that financial transactions that happen globally are

error-prone and take a lot of time. In addition to this, when the transaction

fees and exchange rates get added up, the total cost usually gets high.

However, Ripple offers real-time international transactions without spending too much money. It has the network of about 200+ institutions making the process affordable, secure, and fast for all sorts of international transactions.

2. Etherisc

This blockchain application helps in automating flight insurance. Insurance is another area where blockchain is gaining popularity. Through this application, insurers can make smart contracts rather than getting involved in the traditional contracts that are usually complex. Etherisc is the blockchain application that helps customers buy flight insurance. If the flight gets canceled or delayed, they do not have to wait for months to get the payment back. This application ensures an on-time payout.

#blockchain #blockchain-technology #blockchain-development #blockchain-use-cases #blockchain-a #blockchain-technologies #technology #decentralization

A Collection About Awesome Blockchains

Mining Digital Gold one Block at a Time?! • Don't Expect to Get Insanely Rich (Quick) • Tulips :tulip::tulip::tulip: (like Blockchains) are Great and Gorgeous (and will Endure)

b0 = Block.first(
        { from: "Dutchgrown", to: "Vincent", what: "Tulip Bloemendaal Sunset", qty: 10 },
        { from: "Keukenhof",  to: "Anne",    what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 7  } )

b1 = Block.next( b0,
        { from: "Flowers",    to: "Ruben",   what: "Tulip Admiral van Eijck",  qty: 5  },
        { from: "Vicent",     to: "Anne",    what: "Tulip Bloemendaal Sunset", qty: 3  },
        { from: "Anne",       to: "Julia",   what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 1  },
        { from: "Julia",      to: "Luuk",    what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 1  } )
...

(Source: blockchain_with_transactions.rb)

Awesome Blockchains

A collection about awesome blockchains - open distributed databases w/ crypto hashes incl. git ;-). Blockchains are the new tulips :tulip::tulip::tulip:.

Contents:

What's News?

For blockchain books, see the new Best of Crypto Books page »

The Open Blockchains Book of the Year 2020 Award Goes To...

Libra Shrugged: How Facebook Tried to Take Over the Money by David Gerard, November 2020, 182 Pages -- Introduction: Taking over the money ++ A user's guide to Libra ++ The genesis of Libra: Beller's blockchain ++ To launch a Libra: Let’s start a crypto ++ Bitcoin: why Libra is like this ++ The Libra White Papers ++ Banking the unbanked ++ The Libra Reserve plan and economic stability ++ Libra, privacy and your digital identity ++ The regulators recoil in horror ++ David Marcus before the US House and Senate ++ July to September 2019: Libra runs the gauntlet ++ October 2019: Libra's bad month ++ Mark Zuckerberg before the US House ++ November 2019: The comedown ++ Central bank digital currencies ++ Epilogue: Libra 2.0: not dead yet ++ Appendix: 2010–2013: The rise and fall of Facebook Credits

For more about Diem (formerly Libra), see the Awesome Diem (formerly Libra) and Move page »


For crypto quotes, see the new 100+ Best of Crypto Quotes - I HODL, you HODL, we HODL! - BREAKING: BITCOIN JUST BROKE $22 000! page »

The Best Crypto Quote "Oracle Saying" of the Year 2020 Award Goes To...

SEC Investor Education:

  • Don't understand an investment?
  • Don't invest in it.

Yes, but what if there's only 21 million of it?

- Trolly McTrollface

Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Q.s) & Answers

Q: What's a Blockchain?

A: A blockchain is a distributed database with a list (that is, chain) of records (that is, blocks) linked and secured by digital fingerprints (that is, cryptho hashes). Example from blockchain.rb:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743">,
 #<Block:0x1eec838
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:12:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @hash          = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4">,
  ...

Q: What's a Hash? What's a (One-Way) Crypto(graphic) Hash Digest Checksum?

A: A hash e.g. eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743 is a small digest checksum calculated with a one-way crypto(graphic) hash digest checksum function e.g. SHA256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256 Bits) from the data. Example from blockchain.rb:

def calc_hash
  sha = Digest::SHA256.new
  sha.update( @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
  sha.hexdigest   ## returns "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743"
end

A blockchain uses

  • the block timestamp (e.g. 1637-09-15 20:52:38) and
  • the hash from the previous block (e.g. edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b) and finally
  • the block data (e.g. Transaction Data...)

to calculate the new hash digest checksum, that is, the hash e.g. be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4.

Q: What's a Merkle Tree?

A: A Merkle tree is a hash tree named after Ralph Merkle who patented the concept in 1979 (the patent expired in 2002). A hash tree is a generalization of hash lists or hash chains where every leaf node (in the tree) is labelled with a data block and every non-leaf node (in the tree) is labelled with the crypto(graphic) hash of the labels of its child nodes. For more see the Merkle tree Wikipedia Article.

Note: By adding crypto(graphic) hash functions you can "merkelize" any data structure.

Q: What's a Merkelized DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph)?

A: It's a blockchain secured by crypto(graphic) hashes that uses a directed acyclic graph data structure (instead of linear "classic" linked list).

Note: Git uses merkelized dag (directed acyclic graph)s for its blockchains.

Q: Is the Git Repo a Blockchain?

A: Yes, every branch in the git repo is a blockchain. The "classic" Satoshi-blockchain is like a git repo with a single master branch (only).

Do-It-Yourself (DIY) - Build Your Own Blockchain

PythonRubyJavaScriptJavaGo

Python

Let's Build the Tiniest Blockchain in Python Series by Gerald Nash

Build Your Own Blockchain: A Python Tutorial by Eric Munsing, March 2017, (Source)

Learn Blockchains by Building One (in Python) by Daniel van Flymen, September 2017, (Source) -- The fastest way to learn how Blockchains work is to build one

Build Your Own Blockchain (in Python 3) Series by Jack Schultz, (Source)

A Practical Introduction to Blockchain with Python by Adil Moujahid, March 2018, (Source)

Ruby

How Does Bitcoin Force Consensus Among Byzantine Generals? by Fabio Akita, November 2017

blockchain-lite - Build your own blockchains with crypto hashes; revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time! by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 1, December 2017

merkletree library - Build Your Own Crypto Hash Trees; Grow Your Own Money on Trees by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 19, December 2017

centralbank command line tool (and library) - Print Your Own Money / Cryptocurrency; Run Your Own Federated Central Bank Nodes on the Blockchain Peer-to-Peer over HTTP by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 24, December 2017

A guide to building a blockchain & cryptocurrency from scratch (Source) by Antoine Fink, April 2021

Crystal

Write your own blockchain and Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm using Crystal by Bradford Lamson-Scribner, May 2018, (Source)

JavaScript

Writing a Tiny Blockchain in JavaScript by Xavier Decuyper, July 2017

Node.js Blockchain Imlementation: BrewChain: Chain+WebSockets+HTTP Server by Darren Beck, November 2017, (Source) -- Protecting the tea making ledger from unscrupulous colleagues

Build your own Blockchain in Javascript/Visualization of Blockchains by Nam Chu Hoai, January 2018

TypeScript

Naivecoin: a tutorial for building a cryptocurrency by Lauri Hartikka, (Source)

Java

Creating Your First Blockchain with Java, Part 1 by Kass, December 2017, (Source)

Kotlin

Let's implement a cryptocurrency in Kotlin by Vasily Fomin, July 2018, (Source)

SQL

Blockchain by Example in SQL Server by Benjamin Campbell, December 2017, (Source)

Rust

Building Blockchain in Rust Series by Jacob Lindahl, GeekLaunch, (Source), (Slide Decks in PDF)

Go

Building Blockchain in Go Series by Ivan Kuznetsov, (Source)

Blockchain Series in Go by by Coral Health (Source)

Talk Notes

More

See Build your own Blockchain / Cryptocurrency @ Build your own (insert technology here)

Samples

Blockchain from Scratch - Ruby Version

class Block

  attr_reader :timestamp
  attr_reader :data
  attr_reader :previous_hash
  attr_reader :hash

  def initialize(data, previous_hash)
    @timestamp     = Time.now
    @data          = data
    @previous_hash = previous_hash
    @hash          = calc_hash
  end

  def self.first( data="Genesis" )    # create genesis (big bang! first) block
    ## note: uses all zero for previous_hash ("0")
    Block.new( data, "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" )
  end

  def self.next( previous, data="Transaction Data..." )
    Block.new( data, previous.hash )
  end

private

  def calc_hash
    sha = Digest::SHA256.new
    sha.update( @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
    sha.hexdigest
  end

end  # class Block


#####
## let's get started
##   build a blockchain a block at a time

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )

blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

pp blockchain

(Source: blockchain.rb)

will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743">,
 #<Block:0x1eec838
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:12:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @hash          = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4">,
 #<Block:0x1eec6d0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:22:38,
  @data          = "More Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4",
  @hash          = "5ee2981606328abfe0c3b1171440f0df746c1e1f8b3b56c351727f7da7ae5d8d">]

Comments from the reddit ruby posting:

Wait, so a blockchain is just a linked list?

No. A linked list is only required to have a reference to the previous element, a block must have an identifier depending on the previous block's identifier, meaning that you cannot replace a block without recomputing every single block that comes after. In this implementation that happens as the previous digest is input in the calc_hash method.

What about Proof of Work / Waste?

Let's add a proof of work / waste to the blockchain. In the classic blockchain you have to compute a block hash that starts with leading zeros (00). The more leading zeros the harder (more difficult) to compute. Let's keep it easy to compute with two leading zeros (00), that is, 16^2 = 256 possibilites (^1,2). Three leading zeros (000) would be 16^3 = 4_096 possibilites and four zeros (0000) would be 16^4 = 65_536 and so on.

(^1): 16 possibilties because it's a hex or hexadecimal or base 16 number, that is, 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 a (10) b (11) c (12) d (13) e (14) f (15).

(^2): A random secure hash algorithm needs on average 256 tries (might be lets say 305 tries, for example, because it's NOT a perfect statistic distribution of possibilities).

Example:

def compute_hash_with_proof_of_work( difficulty="00" )
  nonce = 0
  loop do
    hash = calc_hash_with_nonce( nonce )
    if hash.start_with?( difficulty )  
      return [nonce,hash]     ## bingo! proof of work if hash starts with leading zeros (00)
    else
      nonce += 1              ## keep trying (and trying and trying)
    end
  end
end

def calc_hash_with_nonce( nonce=0 )
  sha = Digest::SHA256.new
  sha.update( nonce.to_s + @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
  sha.hexdigest
end

(Source: blockchain_with_proof_of_work.rb)

Let's rerun the sample with the proof of work machinery added. Now the sample will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1e204f0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:13:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @nonce         = 242,
  @hash          = "00b8e77e27378f9aa0afbcea3a2882bb62f6663771dee053364beb1887e18bcf">,
 #<Block:0x1e56e20
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:23:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "00b8e77e27378f9aa0afbcea3a2882bb62f6663771dee053364beb1887e18bcf",
  @nonce         = 46,
  @hash          = "00aae8d2e9387e13c71b33f8cd205d336ac250d2828011f5970062912985a9af">,
 #<Block:0x1e2bd58
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:33:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "00aae8d2e9387e13c71b33f8cd205d336ac250d2828011f5970062912985a9af",
  @nonce         = 350,
  @hash          = "00ea45e0f4683c3bec4364f349ee2b6816be0c9fd95cfd5ffcc6ed572c62f190">,
 #<Block:0x1fa8338
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:43:38,
  @data          = "More Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "00ea45e0f4683c3bec4364f349ee2b6816be0c9fd95cfd5ffcc6ed572c62f190",
  @nonce         = 59,
  @hash          = "00436f0fca677652963e904ce4c624606a255946b921132d5b1f70f7d86c4ab8">]

See the difference? All hashes now start with leading zeros (00) and the nonce is the random "lucky number" that makes it happen. That's the magic behind the proof of work.

Blockchain from Scratch - JavaScript Version

class Block {

  constructor(data, previousHash) {
    this.timestamp    = new Date()
    this.data         = data
    this.previousHash = previousHash
    this.hash         = this.calcHash()
  }

  calcHash() {
    var sha = SHA256.create()
    sha.update( this.timestamp.toString() + this.previousHash + this.data )
    return sha.hex()
  }

  static first( data="Genesis" ) {    // create genesis (big bang! first) block
    // uses all-zero previousHash
    return new Block( data, "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" )
  }

  static next( previous, data="Transaction Data..." ) {
    return new Block( data, previous.hash )
  }
}


//////
// let's get started
//   build a blockchain a block at a time

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )


blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

console.log( blockchain )

(Source: blockchain.js)

will log something like:

[ Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:25:54,
     data         : 'Genesis',
     previousHash : '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000',
     hash         : 'c396de4c03ddb5275661982adc75ce5fc5905d2a2457d1266c74436c1f3c50f1' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:35:54,
     data         : 'Transaction Data...',
     previousHash : 'c396de4c03ddb5275661982adc75ce5fc5905d2a2457d1266c74436c1f3c50f1',
     hash         : '493131e09c069645c82795c96e4715cea0f5558be514b5096d853a5b9899154a' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:45:54,
     data         : 'Transaction Data......',
     previousHash : '493131e09c069645c82795c96e4715cea0f5558be514b5096d853a5b9899154a',
     hash         : '97aa3cb5052615d60ff8e6b41bef606562588c4874f011970ac2f218e2f0f4a8' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:55:54,
     data         : 'More Transaction Data...',
     previousHash : '97aa3cb5052615d60ff8e6b41bef606562588c4874f011970ac2f218e2f0f4a8',
     hash         : 'e10e020f832e46c2b60e1c3c0412bd370b2fde5f0f782c16eb87d0313ea0d3a3' } ]

Blockchain Articles

Reflections on the Blockchain by Rufus Pollock (Open Knowledge Foundation), July 2016 -- The DAO: Code is not Law – and It’s Dangerous to Think So ++ The Internet changed the world - surely the Blockchain will too? ++ Gold-rush or Internet-rush? ++ Governance Matters in Bitcoin ++ The Myth of a Costless, Ownerless Network ++ Lessons from History

On the Dangers of a Blockchain Monoculture by Tony Arcieri, January 2016 -- The Bitcoin blockchain: the world's worst database ++ Next-generation protocols ++ Decentralized ledger protocols ++ Bitcoin-NG ++ Blockchain! Blockchain! Blockchain! ++ The great decentralized database in the sky

I Don’t Believe in Blockchain by Tim Bray, May 2017

Minimum Viable Blockchain by Ilya Grigorik, May 2014 -- Securing transactions with triple-entry bookkeeping ++ Securing transactions with PKI ++ Balance = Σ(receipts) ++ Multi-party transfers & verification ++ Double-spending and distributed consensus - Requirements for a distributed consensus network; Protecting the network from Sybil attacks; Proof-of-work as a participation requirement ++ Building the minimum viable blockchain - Adding "blocks" & transaction fee incentives; Racing to claim the transaction fees; Resolving chain conflicts; Blocks are never final ++ Properties of the (minimum viable) blockchain

Blockchains by analogies and applications: How blockchain compares to Git, Raft, and other technologies. by Kieren James-Lubin, January 2016 -- Blockchains are databases ++ Understanding transactions ++ Persistent, replicated databases (related technology: Git) ++ Peer-to-peer networks (related technology: BitTorrent) ++ Distributed consensus (related technology: distributed databases, Raft) ++ Minting new coins (mining) ++ Embedded identities (related technology: TLS) ++ Smart contracts: Like SQL expressions & triggers ++ What can we really do with blockchains?

Blockchain Books

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard, London, 2017 -- What is a bitcoin? ++ The Bitcoin ideology ++ The incredible promises of Bitcoin! ++ Early Bitcoin: the rise to the first bubble ++ How Bitcoin mining centralised ++ Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? ++ Spending bitcoins in 2017 ++ Trading bitcoins in 2017: the second crypto bubble ++ Altcoins ++ Smart contracts, stupid humans ++ Business bafflegab, but on the Blockchain ++ Case study: Why you can’t put the music industry on a blockchain

Mastering Bitcoin - Programming the Open Blockchain 2nd Edition, by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, 2017 - FREE (Online Source Version) -- What Is Bitcoin? ++ How Bitcoin Works ++ Bitcoin Core: The Reference Implementation ++ Keys, Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Advanced Transactions and Scripting ++ The Bitcoin Network ++ The Blockchain ++ Mining and Consensus ++ Bitcoin Security ++ Blockchain Applications


BEWARE: Bitcoin is a gigantic ponzi scheme¹. To the moon!? The new gold standard!? Do NOT "invest" trying to get-rich-quick HODLing. Why not? The bitcoin code is archaic and out-of-date. Burn, baby, burn! Proof-of-work / waste is a global energy environmental disaster using 300 kW/h per bitcoin transaction (!) that's about 179 kilograms of CO₂ emissions². Programmable money (or the internet of value) for all future generations with (bitcoin) script without loops and jumps (gotos) and all "stateless"!? LOL.

¹: (Source: Best of Bitcoin Maximalist - Scammers, Morons, Clowns, Shills & BagHODLers - Inside The New New Crypto Ponzi Economics)

²: Assuming let's say 0.596 kilograms of CO₂ per kW/h (that's the energy efficiency in Germany) that's about 179 kilograms of CO₂ per bitcoin transaction (300 kW/h × 0.596 kg). For more insights see the Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index.


Programming Bitcoin from Scratch by Jimmy Song, 2019 - FREE (Online Source Version) -- Chapter 6 - Script - How Script Works • Example Operations • Parsing the Script Fields • Combining the Script Fields • Standard Scripts • p2pk • Problems with p2pk • Solving the Problems with p2pkh • Scripts Can Be Arbitrarily Constructed • Conclusion ++ Chapter 8 - Pay-to-Script Hash - Bare Multisig • Coding OP_CHECKMULTISIG • Problems with Bare Multisig • Pay-to-Script-Hash (p2sh) • Coding p2sh • Conclusion ++ Chapter 13 - Segregated Witness - Pay-to-Witness-Pubkey-Hash (p2wpkh) • p2wpkh Transactions • p2sh-p2wpkh • Coding p2wpkh and p2sh-p2wpkh • Pay-to-Witness-Script-Hash (p2wsh) • p2sh-p2wsh • Coding p2wsh and p2sh-p2wsh • Other Improvements • Conclusion

Programming Bitcoin Script Transaction (Crypto) Contracts Step-by-Step ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2019 - FREE (Online Version) -- Let's start with building your own bitcoin stack machine from zero / scratch and let's run your own bitcoin ops (operations)...

Programming Blockchains in Ruby from Scratch Step-by-Step Starting w/ Crypto Hashes... ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 - FREE (Online Version) -- (Crypto) Hash ++ (Crypto) Block ++ (Crypto) Block with Proof-of-Work ++ Blockchain! Blockchain! Blockchain! ++ Blockchain Broken? ++ Timestamping ++ Mining, Mining, Mining - What's Your Hash Rate? ++ Bitcoin, Bitcoin, Bitcoin ++ (Crypto) Block with Transactions (Tx)

Mastering Ethereum - Building Contract Services and Decentralized Apps on the Blockchain - by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood, 2018 - FREE (Online Source Version) What is Ethereum ++ Introduction ++ Ethereum Clients ++ Ethereum Testnets ++ Keys and Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Contract Services ++ Tokens ++ Oracles ++ Accounting & Gas ++ EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) ++
Consensus ++
DevP2P (Peer-To-Peer) Protocol ++ Dev Tools and Frameworks ++ Decentralized Apps ++ Ethereum Standards (EIPs/ERCs)

Building Decentralized Apps on the Ethereum Blockchain by Roberto Infante, 2018 - FREE chapter 1 -- Understanding decentralized applications ++ The Ethereum blockchain ++ Building contract services in (JavaScript-like) Solidity ++ Running contract services on the Ethereum blockchain ++ Developing Ethereum Decentralized apps with Truffle ++ Best design and security practice

Programming Crypto Blockchain Contracts Step-by-Step Book / Guide ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2019 - FREE (Online Version) -- Let's Start with Ponzi & Pyramid Schemes. Run Your Own Lotteries, Gambling Casinos and more on the Blockchain World Computer...

Programming Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains in Ruby ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 - FREE (Online Version) @ Yuki & Moto Press Bookshelf -- Digital $$$ Alchemy - What's a Blockchain? - How-To Turn Digital Bits Into $$$ or €€€? • Decentralize Payments. Decentralize Transactions. Decentralize Blockchains. • The Proof of the Pudding is ... The Bitcoin (BTC) Blockchain(s) ++ Building Blockchains from Scratch - A Blockchain in Ruby in 20 Lines! A Blockchain is a Data Structure • What about Proof-of-Work? What about Consensus? • Find the Lucky Number - Nonce == Number Used Once ++ Adding Transactions - The World's Worst Database - Bitcoin Blockchain Mining • Tulips on the Blockchain! Adding Transactions ++ Blockchain Lite - Basic Blocks • Proof-of-Work Blocks • Transactions ++ Merkle Tree - Build Your Own Crypto Hash Trees; Grow Your Own Money on Trees • What's a Merkle Tree? • Transactions ++ Central Bank - Run Your Own Federated Central Bank Nodes on the Blockchain Peer-to-Peer over HTTP • Inside Mining - Printing Cryptos, Cryptos, Cryptos on the Blockchain ++ Awesome Crypto ++ Case Studies - Dutch Gulden • Shilling • CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats)

Blockchain for Dummies, IBM Limited Edition by Manav Gupta, 2017 - FREE (Digital Download w/ Email) -- Grasping Blockchain Fundamentals ++ Taking a Look at How Blockchain Works ++ Propelling Business with Blockchains ++ Blockchain in Action: Use Cases ++ Hyperledger, a Linux Foundation Project ++ Ten Steps to Your First Blockchain application

Get Rich Quick "Business Blockchain" Bible - The Secrets of Free Easy Money, 2018 - FREE -- Step 1: Sell hot air. How? ++ Step 2: Pump up your tokens. How? ++ Step 3: Revolutionize the World. How?

Best of Bitcoin Maximalist - Scammers, Morons, Clowns, Shills & BagHODLers - Inside The New New Crypto Ponzi Economics by Trolly McTrollface, et al, 2018 - FREE

Crypto Facts - Decentralize Payments - Efficient, Low Cost, Fair, Clean - True or False? by Nouriel Roubini, David Gerard, et al, 2018 - FREE

Crypto is the Mother of All Scams and (Now Busted) Bubbles - While Blockchain Is The Most Over-Hyped Technology Ever, No Better than a Spreadsheet/Database by Nouriel Roubini, 2018 - FREE

IslandCoin White Paper - A Pen and Paper Cash System - How to Run a Blockchain on a Deserted Island by Tal Kol -- Motivation ++ Consensus ++ Transaction and Block Specification - Transaction format • Block format • Genesis block ++ References

Blockchain (Lite) Crypto Hash Libraries

RubyJavaScript

Ruby

blockchain.lite (github: openblockchains/blockchain.lite.rb, gem: blockchain-lite) - build your own blockchain with crypto hashes - revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time

require 'blockchain-lite'

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )

blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

pp blockchain   

will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
  ...

JavaScript

blockchain.lite (github: openblockchains/blockchain.lite.js, npm: blockchain-lite) - build your own blockchain with crypto hashes - revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time

const Blocks = require( "blockchain-lite" )

// use basic block
let Block = Blocks.basic

let b0 = Block.first( 'Genesis' )
let b1 = Block.next( b0, 'Transaction Data...' )
let b2 = Block.next( b1, 'Transaction Data......' )
let b3 = Block.next( b2, 'More Transaction Data...' )

let blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

console.log( blockchain )

will log something like:

[ Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:03:38,
    data:         'Genesis',
    previousHash: '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000',
    hash:         '08f4fa71628c5bc6b430228738bc8c41afaf508ece0b1cf9c9cac53d02e11829' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:13:38,
    data:         'Transaction Data...',
    previousHash: '08f4fa71628c5bc6b430228738bc8c41afaf508ece0b1cf9c9cac53d02e11829',
    hash:         '740a4aeb3441484c96d1e7f63d31b716220ccee3b6fe94547cae2afbb6010626' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:23:38,
    data:         'Transaction Data......',
    previousHash: '740a4aeb3441484c96d1e7f63d31b716220ccee3b6fe94547cae2afbb6010626',
    hash:         '28b6892a069e2ff7f1c3128ab495d7cd9b9b1636a51a7f69db93a14b1ee6b1a7' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:33:38,
    data:         'More Transaction Data...',
    previousHash: '28b6892a069e2ff7f1c3128ab495d7cd9b9b1636a51a7f69db93a14b1ee6b1a7',
    hash:         '4cc0329b2c0cb32e0451fa3179bd944d4cd0fcf410939172f979e9fd2aa9f5f3' } ]

Git, Git, Git - The Stupid Content Tracker with Crypto Hashes

Everything is local. Distributed is the new centralized.

Quotes - Blockchains and Git

Yep, that's the joke. Nobody has been able to explain to me how the "blockchain" buzzword is significantly different to "git repo". -- Yaakov

But if you said "let's build a currency where all transactions are stored in a git repo" you wouldn't be taken seriously for even 24 hrs. -- Yaakov

Soon explaining git like "a git repo is like a blockchain with commits instead of blocks". -- Nicolás Berger

"A local branch is like a state channel. It can be pushed and merged into the master blockchain at any moment." -- Nicolás Berger

The #Blockchain has changed the world. Here I make the argument that the #Blockchain is just like #git. -- Jackson Kelley

git merge [-m REF] [-g BLOB] --push Merge and push all signed commits to the blockchain. -- Git Commands

Books

Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous by Michael Hartl - FREE (Online Version) -- Getting started ++ Backing up and sharing ++ Intermediate workflow ++ Collaborating ++ Conclusion ++ Advanced setup

Pro Git by Scott Chacon and Ben Straub, 2nd Edition, 2014 - FREE (Online Version) -- Getting Started ++ Git Basics ++ Git Branching ++ Git on the Server ++ Distributed Git ++ GitHub ++ Git Tools ++ Customizing Git ++ Git and Other Systems ++ Git Internals ++ A1: Git in Other Environments ++ A2: Embedding Git in your Applications ++ A3: Git Commands

Git gets easier once you get the basic idea that branches are homeomorphic endofunctors mapping submanifolds of a Hilbert space. -- Anonymous

Open Distributed Databases on Git

football.db - open public domain football datasets (incl. clubs, national teams, leagues, match schedules, etc.)

world.db - open public domain world (country) datasets

beer.db - open public domain beer & brewery datasets

Add a beer transaction to the #blockchain on #git and win a free Wiener Lager beer! Cheers. Prost. -- Gerald Bauer @ Austria Codes

Open Distributed (Hyper) Ledger Books on Git

Shilling (or Schilling) - Shilling on the Blockchain! - Rock-Solid Alpine Dollar from Austria

Tulips - Tulips on the Blockchain! - Learn by Example from the Real World (Anno 1637) - Buy! Sell! Hold! Enjoy the Beauty of Admiral of Admirals, Semper Augustus, and More

Classic Tulip Mania

A period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

Quotes - Blockchains are the next Internets / Tulips

People who compare digital tokens to tulips are essentially saying digital tokens are a bubble backed by nothing but pure hype and speculation.

What they fail to understand is that tulips come from dirt, not a blockchain.

And as we all know, blockchain is possibly the best technological innovation since the internet. It will have a tremendous impact on global business and society in general. -- TulipToken

Books

Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused by Mike Dash, 2001 -- A Mania for Tulips ++ The Valley of Tien Shan ++ Within the Abode of Bliss ++ Stranger from the East ++ Clusius ++ Leiden ++ An Adornment to the Cleavage ++ The Tulip in the Mirror ++ Florists ++ Boom ++ At the Sign of the Golden Grape ++ The Orphans of Wouter Winkel ++ Bust ++ Goddess of Whores ++ At the Court of the Tulip King ++ Late Flowering

Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age by Anne Goldgar, 2007 -- Something Strange ++ Art & Flowers ++ Bloemisten ++ Grieving Money ++ Bad Faith ++ Cabbage Fever ++ Glossary ++ A Note on Money

Breaking News: CryptoKitties (Yes, Cute Little Cartoon Cats) on the Blockchain!

Collectible. Breedable. Adorable.

Collect and breed digital cats. Start meow. Buy! Sell! Hold!

Learn more @ cryptokitties.co

Latest (and Greatest) Investment Opportunity!

Blockchain has unlocked the magic of digital scarcity, and combining that with the power of making the digital goods persistent gives them a potential value that is only limited by how much prestige a wealthy person might place on ownership of the item.

-- Justin Poirier

All I want for Christmas is a CryptoKitty.

-- Kayla Williams

I got a fever. And the only prescription is more CryptoKitties.

-- Eduardo Salazar

My Gen 7 CryptoKitty #104375. The Future is Meow.

-- Anshul Dhawan

  • Fabulous Persian Spock Gerbil Gold Cottoncandy - Extremely rare gen 5 swift virgin | 2.9 ETH
  • Rarity: 0.00264% Gen 5 JAGUAR FABULOUS GOLD DALI!! VIRGIN!
  • Rarity: 0.0015% Princess Bubblegum is now for sale! Gen 12 | Brisk | Virgin | Chartreux | Bubblegum | Otaku | Emeraldgreen | Saycheese | Mauveover | Spock - Starts ETH 20/Ends ETH 10
  • Gold ducat, Gen 5, Virgin, Swift. Very cheap
  • Cheap Gen 1 cute kittie with rare genes! Only 0.125 ETH
  • UNIQUE Virgin Peach Googly Gold Mauveover gen:2 cooldown:1 0.87992% RARE
  • SUPER CHEAP: Gerbil, Ragdoll, Scarlet, Chestnut, Cotton Candy!!! 0.02 ETH (~$14)
  • I'm giving away a Gen 1 FAST Gold for free...

-- CrypoKittiesMarket

Awesome CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats)

A collection about Awesome CryptoKitties (Yes, Cute Little Cartoon Cats) on the Blockchain! and CryptoCopycats - digital collectibles secured on a distributed public databases w/ crypto hashes. Are CryptoPuppies the new CryptoKitties? Learn by Example from the Real World (Anno 2017) - Buy! Sell! Hodl!

More @ cryptocopycats/awesome-cryptokitties

Events, Meetups, Orgs

Revolutionize the world one country at a time. Blockchainers of the world, unite!

Awesome Awesomeness

A curated list of awesome lists.

  • Blockchain Stuff -- a curated list of blockchain and general cryptocurrency resources
  • Awesome Blockchain by Igor Barinov et al -- a curated list of the bitcoin blockchain services
  • Awesome Blockchain by Tim Reznich et al -- a curated list of blockchain services and exchanges
  • Awesome Blockchain by istinspring et al -- a curated list of awesome projects and services based on blockchain technology
  • Awesome Coins by Kenneth Reitz et al -- a guide to crypto-currencies and their algos
  • Awesome CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats) by Gerald Bauer et al -- a curated list about the awesome crypto kitties and copycats
  • Awesome Git by Dick Tang et al -- a curated list of amazingly awesome Git tools, resources and shiny things
  • Awesome by Sindre Sorhus et al -- a curated list of awesome lists

Author: openblockchains
Source Code: https://github.com/openblockchains/awesome-blockchains
License: CC0-1.0 License

#blockchain 

Devin Pinto

1606971339

Certified Blockchain Expert™ | Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Council

A multitude of use cases around the numerous industrial segments are now contained in the blockchain technology that once began as the underlying system for Bitcoin trading. One of the main impacts on the financial sector has been felt. Blockchain technology has been publicly adopted by businesses like JP Morgan. The financial sector is suffering from data protection problems, faster transactions, transparency and other bottlenecks that hamper the growth of businesses that rely on monetary transactions from banks and NBFCs. Blockchain could therefore be a possible solution here. Banks and financial sectors can easily solve the disadvantages that hold back the banks’ smooth functioning with Blockchain’s involvement.

Some of the biggest developments we have seen in the Blockchain sector are the development of Blockchain platforms such as Hyperledger Sawtooth, Hyperledger Fabric, Corda, etc This approved Blockchain not only ensures that the system operates efficiently, but also ensures that transactions take place at a faster rate. It actually helps the banking system work much better and in a more effective way.

How the financial sector is impacted by Blockchain:

1. Providing a safe platform-
The need for a secured platform is one of the greatest challenges facing most banking and financial institutions. As most of the transactions and other work have now been digitised, most banks and other allied companies are looking for a stable platform that is free of any mistakes or defects. In addition, there is also a high rise in the need for a network that can efficiently combat data breach problems, and so we have Blockchain. By time-stamping all information or data on it this DLT platform works. This guarantees full security. And with the introduction of approved Blockchain networks, the security feature is even more assured.

2. No third party- Time lag and paperwork are two weaknesses of the financial sector that appear to hold up the processes and ultimately influence the company’s efficiency as well. We can solve these problems with the assistance of Blockchain technology and thus ensure quicker transactions. Blockchain technology operates on peer-to-peer transactions, ensuring that for authentication and approval, there is no need to rely on a third party, which speeds up the transaction process.

3. Tracking and tracing- For banking firms, these features can be highly beneficial. Banks invest a large amount of money on authentication and verification, amid all the efforts of false identity cases, and fraud reports are growing, we can easily put an end to it with Blockchain. As data tracking and tracing becomes simpler and history can be easily traced back, compared to the traditional technologies that banks use, it becomes easier to rely on this platform.

These are the three big benefits that Blockchain can reap from the banking and financial field. Blockchain developers and Blockchain experts are in high demand because of this, and we will see an increase in this number in the times to come.

Conclusion- The Blockchain Council provides Blockchain with the best online certificate programme. This detailed curriculum will allow you to absorb all Blockchain-related knowledge while also learning how to incorporate it. Then what are you going to wait for? Register for today’s Blockchain certification.

#blockchain technology #blockchain development #blockchain expert #blockchain professional #blockchain developer

Ajay Kapoor

1623918965

Custom Blockchain Development & Outsourcing Company India

Being one of leading blockchain development companies in India, we have marked a niche by providing some successful Blockchain based software solutions on ethereum, hyperledger, Smart Contracts, and much more. You can leverage Blockchain technology to enhance data security, complete process automation, reduce data storage cost, eliminates duplication of data and reduce time,

We have industry best experts to provide you feature packed Blockchain development services catering to your business challanges. Get in touch now to explore the benefits of Blockchain for your business!

#blockchain-development-company-in-india #blockchain #blockchain-companies-india #blockchain-outsourcing-companies #blockchain-development-services #blockchain-development-company