Cyril  Parisian

Cyril Parisian


How to Implement Advent Of Code 2021 Solutions using Modern C++

It is day two of Advent of Code. Today we will be working with a struct and have a look at the spaceship operator.

⭐️You can see more at the link at the end of the article. Thank you for your interest in the blog, if you find it interesting, please give me a like, comment and share to show your support for the author.

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How to Implement Advent Of Code 2021 Solutions using Modern C++
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel


Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer


We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:


The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:



import io


import tokenize



code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"



for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):





TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')


TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')


TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')


TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Julie  Donnelly

Julie Donnelly


Should you learn C in 2020/2021?

When working with embedded systems that depend on speed or have a minimal amount of memory, C is a perfect language of choice. This is a short paper about why you should learn C and the benefits of doing so.

To add some credibility to this story, let me introduce myself. My name is Eric and I am a computer science student in Sweden. I have been programming for quite some time now and I feel like it is time to share some of my opinions about C, one of the best programming languages to learn.

Background story

C is an old language, to be formal, it appeared the first time in 1972. The language was developed to combines the capabilities of an assembly language with the feature of high-level language.

Despite its age, the language is still widely used today because of its power and ease of use.

When working with embedded systems that depend on speed or have a minimal amount of memory, C is a perfect language of choice.

Because of its age, many individuals claim that C is not necessary, that newer languages could replace it. However, every language has its purpose and that is what I would like to explain to you.

#c #why-learn-c #learning-to-code #programming-languages #coding #c++

Pass method as parameter using C# | Delegates in C# | C# Bangla Tutorial | Advanced C#

#oop in c# #object oriented programming in c# #object oriented concept in c# #learn oop concept #advance c# #pass method as parameter using c#

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich


Using isdigit() in C/C++

In this article, we’ll take a look at using the isdigit() function in C/C++. This is a very simple way to check if any value is a digit or not. Let’s look at how to use this function, using some simple examples.

#c programming #c++ #c #c#

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich


A Guide to using the strdup() function in C/C++

In this article, we’ll take a look at using the strdup() function in C/C++.

The strdup() function is very useful if you want to duplicate the contents of a string onto another string.

Let’s see how we can utilize this function, using some simple examples.

#c programming #c++ #c #c#