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Veronica  Roob

Veronica Roob

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A Pure PHP Implementation Of The MessagePack Serialization Format

msgpack.php

A pure PHP implementation of the MessagePack serialization format.

Features

Installation

The recommended way to install the library is through Composer:

composer require rybakit/msgpack

Usage

Packing

To pack values you can either use an instance of a Packer:

$packer = new Packer();
$packed = $packer->pack($value);

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$packed = MessagePack::pack($value);

In the examples above, the method pack automatically packs a value depending on its type. However, not all PHP types can be uniquely translated to MessagePack types. For example, the MessagePack format defines map and array types, which are represented by a single array type in PHP. By default, the packer will pack a PHP array as a MessagePack array if it has sequential numeric keys, starting from 0 and as a MessagePack map otherwise:

$mpArr1 = $packer->pack([1, 2]);               // MP array [1, 2]
$mpArr2 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 1 => 2]);     // MP array [1, 2]
$mpMap1 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {0: 1, 2: 3}
$mpMap2 = $packer->pack([1 => 2, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {1: 2, 2: 3}
$mpMap3 = $packer->pack(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // MP map {a: 1, b: 2}

However, sometimes you need to pack a sequential array as a MessagePack map. To do this, use the packMap method:

$mpMap = $packer->packMap([1, 2]); // {0: 1, 1: 2}

Here is a list of type-specific packing methods:

$packer->packNil();           // MP nil
$packer->packBool(true);      // MP bool
$packer->packInt(42);         // MP int
$packer->packFloat(M_PI);     // MP float (32 or 64)
$packer->packFloat32(M_PI);   // MP float 32
$packer->packFloat64(M_PI);   // MP float 64
$packer->packStr('foo');      // MP str
$packer->packBin("\x80");     // MP bin
$packer->packArray([1, 2]);   // MP array
$packer->packMap(['a' => 1]); // MP map
$packer->packExt(1, "\xaa");  // MP ext

Check the "Custom types" section below on how to pack custom types.

Packing options

The Packer object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the packing process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
FORCE_STRForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack UTF-8 strings
FORCE_BINForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack binary data
DETECT_STR_BINDetects MessagePack str/bin type automatically
  
FORCE_ARRForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack arrays
FORCE_MAPForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack maps
DETECT_ARR_MAPDetects MessagePack array/map type automatically
  
FORCE_FLOAT32Forces PHP floats to be packed as 32-bits MessagePack floats
FORCE_FLOAT64Forces PHP floats to be packed as 64-bits MessagePack floats

The type detection mode (DETECT_STR_BIN/DETECT_ARR_MAP) adds some overhead which can be noticed when you pack large (16- and 32-bit) arrays or strings. However, if you know the value type in advance (for example, you only work with UTF-8 strings or/and associative arrays), you can eliminate this overhead by forcing the packer to use the appropriate type, which will save it from running the auto-detection routine. Another option is to explicitly specify the value type. The library provides 2 auxiliary classes for this, Map and Bin. Check the "Custom types" section below for details.

Examples:

// detect str/bin type and pack PHP 64-bit floats (doubles) to MP 32-bit floats
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::DETECT_STR_BIN | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32);

// these will throw MessagePack\Exception\InvalidOptionException
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_STR | PackOptions::FORCE_BIN);
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32 | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT64);

Unpacking

To unpack data you can either use an instance of a BufferUnpacker:

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();

$unpacker->reset($packed);
$value = $unpacker->unpack();

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$value = MessagePack::unpack($packed);

If the packed data is received in chunks (e.g. when reading from a stream), use the tryUnpack method, which attempts to unpack data and returns an array of unpacked messages (if any) instead of throwing an InsufficientDataException:

while ($chunk = ...) {
    $unpacker->append($chunk);
    if ($messages = $unpacker->tryUnpack()) {
        return $messages;
    }
}

If you want to unpack from a specific position in a buffer, use seek:

$unpacker->seek(42); // set position equal to 42 bytes
$unpacker->seek(-8); // set position to 8 bytes before the end of the buffer

To skip bytes from the current position, use skip:

$unpacker->skip(10); // set position to 10 bytes ahead of the current position

To get the number of remaining (unread) bytes in the buffer:

$unreadBytesCount = $unpacker->getRemainingCount();

To check whether the buffer has unread data:

$hasUnreadBytes = $unpacker->hasRemaining();

If needed, you can remove already read data from the buffer by calling:

$releasedBytesCount = $unpacker->release();

With the read method you can read raw (packed) data:

$packedData = $unpacker->read(2); // read 2 bytes

Besides the above methods BufferUnpacker provides type-specific unpacking methods, namely:

$unpacker->unpackNil();   // PHP null
$unpacker->unpackBool();  // PHP bool
$unpacker->unpackInt();   // PHP int
$unpacker->unpackFloat(); // PHP float
$unpacker->unpackStr();   // PHP UTF-8 string
$unpacker->unpackBin();   // PHP binary string
$unpacker->unpackArray(); // PHP sequential array
$unpacker->unpackMap();   // PHP associative array
$unpacker->unpackExt();   // PHP MessagePack\Type\Ext object

Unpacking options

The BufferUnpacker object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the unpacking process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
BIGINT_AS_STRConverts overflowed integers to strings [1]
BIGINT_AS_GMPConverts overflowed integers to GMP objects [2]
BIGINT_AS_DECConverts overflowed integers to Decimal\Decimal objects [3]

1. The binary MessagePack format has unsigned 64-bit as its largest integer data type, but PHP does not support such integers, which means that an overflow can occur during unpacking.

2. Make sure the GMP extension is enabled.

3. Make sure the Decimal extension is enabled.

Examples:

$packedUint64 = "\xcf"."\xff\xff\xff\xff"."\xff\xff\xff\xff";

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // string(20) "18446744073709551615"

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_GMP);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(GMP) {...}

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_DEC);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(Decimal\Decimal) {...}

Custom types

In addition to the basic types, the library provides functionality to serialize and deserialize arbitrary types. This can be done in several ways, depending on your use case. Let's take a look at them.

Type objects

If you need to serialize an instance of one of your classes into one of the basic MessagePack types, the best way to do this is to implement the CanBePacked interface in the class. A good example of such a class is the Map type class that comes with the library. This type is useful when you want to explicitly specify that a given PHP array should be packed as a MessagePack map without triggering an automatic type detection routine:

$packer = new Packer();

$packedMap = $packer->pack(new Map([1, 2, 3]));
$packedArray = $packer->pack([1, 2, 3]);

More type examples can be found in the src/Type directory.

Type transformers

As with type objects, type transformers are only responsible for serializing values. They should be used when you need to serialize a value that does not implement the CanBePacked interface. Examples of such values could be instances of built-in or third-party classes that you don't own, or non-objects such as resources.

A transformer class must implement the CanPack interface. To use a transformer, it must first be registered in the packer. Here is an example of how to serialize PHP streams into the MessagePack bin format type using one of the supplied transformers, StreamTransformer:

$packer = new Packer(null, [new StreamTransformer()]);

$packedBin = $packer->pack(fopen('/path/to/file', 'r+'));

More type transformer examples can be found in the src/TypeTransformer directory.

Extensions

In contrast to the cases described above, extensions are intended to handle extension types and are responsible for both serialization and deserialization of values (types).

An extension class must implement the Extension interface. To use an extension, it must first be registered in the packer and the unpacker.

The MessagePack specification divides extension types into two groups: predefined and application-specific. Currently, there is only one predefined type in the specification, Timestamp.

Timestamp

The Timestamp extension type is a predefined type. Support for this type in the library is done through the TimestampExtension class. This class is responsible for handling Timestamp objects, which represent the number of seconds and optional adjustment in nanoseconds:

$timestampExtension = new TimestampExtension();

$packer = new Packer();
$packer = $packer->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();
$unpacker = $unpacker->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$packedTimestamp = $packer->pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = $unpacker->reset($packedTimestamp)->unpack();

$seconds = $timestamp->getSeconds();
$nanoseconds = $timestamp->getNanoseconds();

When using the MessagePack class, the Timestamp extension is already registered:

$packedTimestamp = MessagePack::pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = MessagePack::unpack($packedTimestamp);

Application-specific extensions

In addition, the format can be extended with your own types. For example, to make the built-in PHP DateTime objects first-class citizens in your code, you can create a corresponding extension, as shown in the example. Please note, that custom extensions have to be registered with a unique extension ID (an integer from 0 to 127).

More extension examples can be found in the examples/MessagePack directory.

To learn more about how extension types can be useful, check out this article.

Exceptions

If an error occurs during packing/unpacking, a PackingFailedException or an UnpackingFailedException will be thrown, respectively. In addition, an InsufficientDataException can be thrown during unpacking.

An InvalidOptionException will be thrown in case an invalid option (or a combination of mutually exclusive options) is used.

Tests

Run tests as follows:

vendor/bin/phpunit

Also, if you already have Docker installed, you can run the tests in a docker container. First, create a container:

./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

The command above will create a container named msgpack with PHP 8.1 runtime. You may change the default runtime by defining the PHP_IMAGE environment variable:

PHP_IMAGE='php:8.0-cli' ./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

See a list of various images here.

Then run the unit tests:

docker run --rm -v $PWD:/msgpack -w /msgpack msgpack

Fuzzing

To ensure that the unpacking works correctly with malformed/semi-malformed data, you can use a testing technique called Fuzzing. The library ships with a help file (target) for PHP-Fuzzer and can be used as follows:

php-fuzzer fuzz tests/fuzz_buffer_unpacker.php

Performance

To check performance, run:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0030 ........ 0.0139
false ................ 0.0037 ........ 0.0144
true ................. 0.0040 ........ 0.0137
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0052 ........ 0.0120
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0059 ........ 0.0114
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0119
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0126
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0064 ........ 0.0132
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0135
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0078 ........ 0.0200
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0212
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0203
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0111 ........ 0.0271
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0115 ........ 0.0260
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0103 ........ 0.0273
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0116 ........ 0.0326
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0118 ........ 0.0332
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0325
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0140 ........ 0.0277
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0294
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0086 ........ 0.0241
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0089 ........ 0.0225
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0085 ........ 0.0229
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0280
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0121 ........ 0.0270
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0109 ........ 0.0274
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0128 ........ 0.0346
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0339
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0135 ........ 0.0368
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0138 ........ 0.0276
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0132 ........ 0.0286
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0274
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0180 ........ 0.0285
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0284
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0275
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0283
fix string #1 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0133
fix string #2 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0216
fix string #3 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0222
fix string #4 ........ 0.0091 ........ 0.0241
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0122 ........ 0.0301
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0118 ........ 0.0304
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0119 ........ 0.0315
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0150 ........ 0.0388
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1545 ........ 0.1665
32-bit string ........ 0.1570 ........ 0.1756
wide char string #1 .. 0.0091 ........ 0.0236
wide char string #2 .. 0.0122 ........ 0.0313
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0100 ........ 0.0302
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0123 ........ 0.0324
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0327
16-bit binary ........ 0.0168 ........ 0.0372
32-bit binary ........ 0.1588 ........ 0.1754
fix array #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0131
fix array #2 ......... 0.0294 ........ 0.0367
fix array #3 ......... 0.0412 ........ 0.0472
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1378 ........ 0.1596
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.1865 ........ 0.2283
fix map #1 ........... 0.0725 ........ 0.1048
fix map #2 ........... 0.0319 ........ 0.0405
fix map #3 ........... 0.0356 ........ 0.0665
fix map #4 ........... 0.0465 ........ 0.0497
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2540 ........ 0.3028
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2372 ........ 0.2710
fixext 1 ............. 0.0283 ........ 0.0358
fixext 2 ............. 0.0291 ........ 0.0371
fixext 4 ............. 0.0302 ........ 0.0355
fixext 8 ............. 0.0288 ........ 0.0384
fixext 16 ............ 0.0293 ........ 0.0359
8-bit ext ............ 0.0302 ........ 0.0439
16-bit ext ........... 0.0334 ........ 0.0499
32-bit ext ........... 0.1845 ........ 0.1888
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0337 ........ 0.0547
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0335 ........ 0.0560
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0371 ........ 0.0575
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0374 ........ 0.0542
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0356 ........ 0.0533
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0362 ........ 0.0699
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0381 ........ 0.0701
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0367 ........ 0.0687
=============================================
Total                  2.7618          4.0820
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

With JIT:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0005 ........ 0.0054
false ................ 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
true ................. 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0047
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0025 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0023 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0024 ........ 0.0045
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0081
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0079
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0041 ........ 0.0080
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0095
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0091
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0094
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0114
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0122
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0120
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0159
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0157
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0158
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0081
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0095
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0090
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0056 ........ 0.0085
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0107
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0106
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0104
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0162
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0073 ........ 0.0174
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0164
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0161
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0135
fix string #1 ....... -0.0002 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0067
fix string #3 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0077
fix string #4 ........ 0.0033 ........ 0.0078
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0110
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0121
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0124
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0099 ........ 0.0146
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1522 ........ 0.1474
32-bit string ........ 0.1511 ........ 0.1483
wide char string #1 .. 0.0039 ........ 0.0084
wide char string #2 .. 0.0073 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0112
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0077 ........ 0.0129
16-bit binary ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0145
32-bit binary ........ 0.1535 ........ 0.1479
fix array #1 ......... 0.0008 ........ 0.0061
fix array #2 ......... 0.0121 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0193 ........ 0.0222
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0607 ........ 0.0479
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.0749 ........ 0.0824
fix map #1 ........... 0.0329 ........ 0.0431
fix map #2 ........... 0.0161 ........ 0.0189
fix map #3 ........... 0.0205 ........ 0.0262
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0205
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1016 ........ 0.0927
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1096 ........ 0.1030
fixext 1 ............. 0.0157 ........ 0.0161
fixext 2 ............. 0.0175 ........ 0.0183
fixext 4 ............. 0.0156 ........ 0.0185
fixext 8 ............. 0.0163 ........ 0.0184
fixext 16 ............ 0.0164 ........ 0.0182
8-bit ext ............ 0.0158 ........ 0.0207
16-bit ext ........... 0.0203 ........ 0.0219
32-bit ext ........... 0.1614 ........ 0.1539
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0195 ........ 0.0249
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0188 ........ 0.0260
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0281
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0212 ........ 0.0291
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0295
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0222 ........ 0.0358
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0228 ........ 0.0353
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0210 ........ 0.0319
=============================================
Total                  1.6432          1.9674
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

You may change default benchmark settings by defining the following environment variables:

NameDefault
MP_BENCH_TARGETSpure_p,pure_u, see a list of available targets
MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS100_000
MP_BENCH_DURATIONnot set
MP_BENCH_ROUNDS3
MP_BENCH_TESTS-@slow, see a list of available tests

For example:

export MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p
export MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS=1000000
export MP_BENCH_ROUNDS=5
# a comma separated list of test names
export MP_BENCH_TESTS='complex array, complex map'
# or a group name
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='-@slow' // @pecl_comp
# or a regexp
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='/complex (array|map)/'

Another example, benchmarking both the library and the PECL extension:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0031 ........ 0.0141 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0064
false ................ 0.0039 ........ 0.0154 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0053
true ................. 0.0038 ........ 0.0139 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0110 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0029
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0045 ........ 0.0025
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0047 ........ 0.0103 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0046 ........ 0.0102 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0023
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0174 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0031
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0167 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0029
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0168 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0092 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0049 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0227 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0046
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0123 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0051
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0136 ........ 0.0331 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0130 ........ 0.0336 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0329 ...... 0.0051 ........ 0.0048
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0126 ........ 0.0268 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0135 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0046
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0131 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0077 ........ 0.0236 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0087 ........ 0.0244 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0048
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0084 ........ 0.0241 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0112 ........ 0.0271 ...... 0.0048 ........ 0.0045
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0124 ........ 0.0292 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0270 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0050
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0051
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0133 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0049
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0129 ........ 0.0350 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0048
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0145 ........ 0.0254 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0214 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0287 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0050
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0143 ........ 0.0277 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0052
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0141 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0144 ........ 0.0282 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
fix string #1 ........ 0.0036 ........ 0.0143 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0053
fix string #2 ........ 0.0107 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0068
fix string #3 ........ 0.0116 ........ 0.0245 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0069
fix string #4 ........ 0.0105 ........ 0.0253 ...... 0.0083 ........ 0.0077
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0318 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0088
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0121 ........ 0.0295 ...... 0.0076 ........ 0.0086
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0293 ...... 0.0130 ........ 0.0093
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0159 ........ 0.0368 ...... 0.0117 ........ 0.0086
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1547 ........ 0.1686 ...... 0.1516 ........ 0.1373
32-bit string ........ 0.1558 ........ 0.1729 ...... 0.1511 ........ 0.1396
wide char string #1 .. 0.0098 ........ 0.0237 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0065
wide char string #2 .. 0.0128 ........ 0.0291 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0082
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0040 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0120 ........ 0.0058
fix array #2 ......... 0.0279 ........ 0.0390 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0415 ........ 0.0463 ...... 0.0162 ........ 0.0187
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1349 ........ 0.1628 ...... 0.0334 ........ 0.0341
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0345 ........ 0.0391 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0168
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0459 ........ 0.0473 ...... 0.0151 ........ 0.0163
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2518 ........ 0.2962 ...... 0.0400 ........ 0.0490
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2380 ........ 0.2682 ...... 0.0545 ........ 0.0579
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  1.5625          2.3866        0.7735          0.7243
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

With JIT:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0001 ........ 0.0052 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0042
false ................ 0.0007 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0043
true ................. 0.0008 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0021 ........ 0.0043 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0022 ........ 0.0044 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0030 ........ 0.0048 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0032 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0050
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0044
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0082 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0095 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0047
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0088 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0039
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0118 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0097 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0095 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0047
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0053 ........ 0.0083 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0089 ........ 0.0097 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0046
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0093 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0122 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0087 ........ 0.0120 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0121 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0149 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0045
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0160 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0046
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0152 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0045
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0044
fix string #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0045 ...... 0.0071 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0075 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0060
fix string #3 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0086 ...... 0.0068 ........ 0.0060
fix string #4 ........ 0.0050 ........ 0.0088 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0059
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0081 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0062
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0128 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0065
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0126 ...... 0.0115 ........ 0.0065
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0105 ........ 0.0137 ...... 0.0128 ........ 0.0068
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1510 ........ 0.1486 ...... 0.1526 ........ 0.1391
32-bit string ........ 0.1517 ........ 0.1475 ...... 0.1504 ........ 0.1370
wide char string #1 .. 0.0044 ........ 0.0085 ...... 0.0067 ........ 0.0057
wide char string #2 .. 0.0081 ........ 0.0125 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0063
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0014 ........ 0.0059 ...... 0.0132 ........ 0.0055
fix array #2 ......... 0.0146 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0155 ........ 0.0148
fix array #3 ......... 0.0211 ........ 0.0229 ...... 0.0179 ........ 0.0180
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0673 ........ 0.0498 ...... 0.0343 ........ 0.0388
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0148 ........ 0.0180 ...... 0.0156 ........ 0.0179
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0201 ...... 0.0214 ........ 0.0167
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1027 ........ 0.0836 ...... 0.0388 ........ 0.0510
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1104 ........ 0.1010 ...... 0.0556 ........ 0.0602
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  0.9642          1.0909        0.8224          0.7213
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

Note that the msgpack extension (v2.1.2) doesn't support ext, bin and UTF-8 str types.

License

The library is released under the MIT License. See the bundled LICENSE file for details.

Author: rybakit
Source Code: https://github.com/rybakit/msgpack.php
License: MIT License

#php 

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Substrate Knowledge Map For Hackathon Participants

Substrate Knowledge Map for Hackathon Participants

The Substrate Knowledge Map provides information that you—as a Substrate hackathon participant—need to know to develop a non-trivial application for your hackathon submission.

The map covers 6 main sections:

  1. Introduction
  2. Basics
  3. Preliminaries
  4. Runtime Development
  5. Polkadot JS API
  6. Smart Contracts

Each section contains basic information on each topic, with links to additional documentation for you to dig deeper. Within each section, you'll find a mix of quizzes and labs to test your knowledge as your progress through the map. The goal of the labs and quizzes is to help you consolidate what you've learned and put it to practice with some hands-on activities.

Introduction

One question we often get is why learn the Substrate framework when we can write smart contracts to build decentralized applications?

The short answer is that using the Substrate framework and writing smart contracts are two different approaches.

Smart contract development

Traditional smart contract platforms allow users to publish additional logic on top of some core blockchain logic. Since smart contract logic can be published by anyone, including malicious actors and inexperienced developers, there are a number of intentional safeguards and restrictions built around these public smart contract platforms. For example:

Fees: Smart contract developers must ensure that contract users are charged for the computation and storage they impose on the computers running their contract. With fees, block creators are protected from abuse of the network.

Sandboxed: A contract is not able to modify core blockchain storage or storage items of other contracts directly. Its power is limited to only modifying its own state, and the ability to make outside calls to other contracts or runtime functions.

Reversion: Contracts can be prone to undesirable situations that lead to logical errors when wanting to revert or upgrade them. Developers need to learn additional patterns such as splitting their contract's logic and data to ensure seamless upgrades.

These safeguards and restrictions make running smart contracts slower and more costly. However, it's important to consider the different developer audiences for contract development versus Substrate runtime development.

Building decentralized applications with smart contracts allows your community to extend and develop on top of your runtime logic without worrying about proposals, runtime upgrades, and so on. You can also use smart contracts as a testing ground for future runtime changes, but done in an isolated way that protects your network from any errors the changes might introduce.

In summary, smart contract development:

  • Is inherently safer to the network.
  • Provides economic incentives and transaction fee mechanisms that can't be directly controlled by the smart contract author.
  • Provides computational overhead to support graceful logical failures.
  • Has a low barrier to entry for developers and enables a faster pace of community interaction.

Substrate runtime development

Unlike traditional smart contract development, Substrate runtime development offers none of the network protections or safeguards. Instead, as a runtime developer, you have total control over how the blockchain behaves. However, this level of control also means that there is a higher barrier to entry.

Substrate is a framework for building blockchains, which almost makes comparing it to smart contract development like comparing apples and oranges. With the Substrate framework, developers can build smart contracts but that is only a fraction of using Substrate to its full potential.

With Substrate, you have full control over the underlying logic that your network's nodes will run. You also have full access for modifying and controlling each and every storage item across your runtime modules. As you progress through this map, you'll discover concepts and techniques that will help you to unlock the potential of the Substrate framework, giving you the freedom to build the blockchain that best suits the needs of your application.

You'll also discover how you can upgrade the Substrate runtime with a single transaction instead of having to organize a community hard-fork. Upgradeability is one of the primary design features of the Substrate framework.

In summary, runtime development:

  • Provides low level access to your entire blockchain.
  • Removes the overhead of built-in safety for performance.
  • Has a higher barrier of entry for developers.
  • Provides flexibility to customize full-stack application logic.

To learn more about using smart contracts within Substrate, refer to the Smart Contract - Overview page as well as the Polkadot Builders Guide.

Navigating the documentation

If you need any community support, please join the following channels based on the area where you need help:

Alternatively, also look for support on Stackoverflow where questions are tagged with "substrate" or on the Parity Subport repo.

Use the following links to explore the sites and resources available on each:

Substrate Developer Hub has the most comprehensive all-round coverage about Substrate, from a "big picture" explanation of architecture to specific technical concepts. The site also provides tutorials to guide you as your learn the Substrate framework and the API reference documentation. You should check this site first if you want to look up information about Substrate runtime development. The site consists of:

Knowledge Base: Explaining the foundational concepts of building blockchain runtimes using Substrate.

Tutorials: Hand-on tutorials for developers to follow. The first SIX tutorials show the fundamentals in Substrate and are recommended for every Substrate learner to go through.

How-to Guides: These resources are like the O'Reilly cookbook series written in a task-oriented way for readers to get the job done. Some examples of the topics overed include:

  • Setting up proper weight functions for extrinsic calls.
  • Using off-chain workers to fetch HTTP requests.
  • Writing tests for your pallets It can also be read from

API docs: Substrate API reference documentation.

Substrate Node Template provides a light weight, minimal Substrate blockchain node that you can set up as a local development environment.

Substrate Front-end template provides a front-end interface built with React using Polkadot-JS API to connect to any Substrate node. Developers are encouraged to start new Substrate projects based on these templates.

If you face any technical difficulties and need support, feel free to join the Substrate Technical matrix channel and ask your questions there.

Additional resources

Polkadot Wiki documents the specific behavior and mechanisms of the Polkadot network. The Polkadot network allows multiple blockchains to connect and pass messages to each other. On the wiki, you can learn about how Polkadot—built using Substrate—is customized to support inter-blockchain message passing.

Polkadot JS API doc: documents how to use the Polkadot-JS API. This JavaScript-based API allows developers to build custom front-ends for their blockchains and applications. Polkadot JS API provides a way to connect to Substrate-based blockchains to query runtime metadata and send transactions.

Quiz #1

👉 Submit your answers to Quiz #1

Basics

Set up your local development environment

Here you will set up your local machine to install the Rust compiler—ensuring that you have both stable and nightly versions installed. Both stable and nightly versions are required because currently a Substrate runtime is compiled to a native binary using the stable Rust compiler, then compiled to a WebAssembly (WASM) binary, which only the nightly Rust compiler can do.

Also refer to:

Lab #1

👉 Complete Lab #1: Run a Substrate node

Interact with a Substrate network using Polkadot-JS apps

Polkadot JS Apps is the canonical front-end to interact with any Substrate-based chain.

You can configure whichever endpoint you want it to connected to, even to your localhost running node. Refer to the following two diagrams.

  1. Click on the top left side showing your currently connected network:

assets/01-polkadot-app-endpoint.png

  1. Scroll to the bottom of the menu, open DEVELOPMENT, and choose either Local Node or Custom to specify your own endpoint.

assets/02-polkadot-app-select-endpoint.png

Quiz #2

👉 Complete Quiz #2

Lab #2

👉 Complete Lab #2: Using Polkadot-JS Apps

Notes: If you are connecting Apps to a custom chain (or your locally-running node), you may need to specify your chain's custom data types in JSON under Settings > Developer.

Polkadot-JS Apps only receives a series of bytes from the blockchain. It is up to the developer to tell it how to decode and interpret these custom data type. To learn more on this, refer to:

You will also need to create an account. To do so, follow these steps on account generation. You'll learn that you can also use the Polkadot-JS Browser Plugin (a Metamask-like browser extension to manage your Substrate accounts) and it will automatically be imported into Polkadot-JS Apps.

Notes: When you run a Substrate chain in development mode (with the --dev flag), well-known accounts (Alice, Bob, Charlie, etc.) are always created for you.

Lab #3

👉 Complete Lab #3: Create an Account

Preliminaries

You need to know some Rust programming concepts and have a good understanding on how blockchain technology works in order to make the most of developing with Substrate. The following resources will help you brush up in these areas.

Rust

You will need familiarize yourself with Rust to understand how Substrate is built and how to make the most of its capabilities.

If you are new to Rust, or need a brush up on your Rust knowledge, please refer to The Rust Book. You could still continue learning about Substrate without knowing Rust, but we recommend you come back to this section whenever in doubt about what any of the Rust syntax you're looking at means. Here are the parts of the Rust book we recommend you familiarize yourself with:

  • ch 1 - 10: These chapters cover the foundational knowledge of programming in Rust
  • ch 13: On iterators and closures
  • ch 18 - 19: On advanced traits and advanced types. Learn a bit about macros as well. You will not necessarily be writing your own macros, but you'll be using a lot of Substrate and FRAME's built-in macros to write your blockchain runtime.

How blockchains work

Given that you'll be writing a blockchain runtime, you need to know what a blockchain is, and how it works. The **Web3 Blockchain Fundamental MOOC Youtube video series provides a good basis for understanding key blockchain concepts and how blockchains work.

The lectures we recommend you watch are: lectures 1 - 7 and lecture 10. That's 8 lectures, or about 4 hours of video.

Quiz #3

👉 Complete Quiz #3

Substrate runtime development

High level architecture

To know more about the high level architecture of Substrate, please go through the Knowledge Base articles on Getting Started: Overview and Getting Started: Architecture.

In this document, we assume you will develop a Substrate runtime with FRAME (v2). This is what a Substrate node consists of.

assets/03-substrate-architecture.png

Each node has many components that manage things like the transaction queue, communicating over a P2P network, reaching consensus on the state of the blockchain, and the chain's actual runtime logic (aka the blockchain runtime). Each aspect of the node is interesting in its own right, and the runtime is particularly interesting because it contains the business logic (aka "state transition function") that codifies the chain's functionality. The runtime contains a collection of pallets that are configured to work together.

On the node level, Substrate leverages libp2p for the p2p networking layer and puts the transaction pool, consensus mechanism, and underlying data storage (a key-value database) on the node level. These components all work "under the hood", and in this knowledge map we won't cover them in detail except for mentioning their existence.

Quiz #4

👉 Complete Quiz #4

Runtime development topics

In our Developer Hub, we have a thorough coverage on various subjects you need to know to develop with Substrate. So here we just list out the key topics and reference back to Developer Hub. Please go through the following key concepts and the directed resources to know the fundamentals of runtime development.

Key Concept: Runtime, this is where the blockchain state transition function (the blockchain application-specific logic) is defined. It is about composing multiple pallets (can be understood as Rust modules) together in the runtime and hooking them up together.

Runtime Development: Execution, this article describes how a block is produced, and how transactions are selected and executed to reach the next "stage" in the blockchain.

Runtime Develpment: Pallets, this article describes what the basic structure of a Substrate pallet is consists of.

Runtime Development: FRAME, this article gives a high level overview of the system pallets Substrate already implements to help you quickly develop as a runtime engineer. Have a quick skim so you have a basic idea of the different pallets Substrate is made of.

Lab #4

👉 Complete Lab #4: Adding a Pallet into a Runtime

Runtime Development: Storage, this article describes how data is stored on-chain and how you could access them.

Runtime Development: Events & Errors, this page describe how external parties know what has happened in the blockchain, via the emitted events and errors when executing transactions.

Notes: All of the above concepts we leverage on the #[pallet::*] macro to define them in the code. If you are interested to learn more about what other types of pallet macros exist go to the FRAME macro API documentation and this doc on some frequently used Substrate macros.

Lab #5

👉 Complete Lab #5: Building a Proof-of-Existence dApp

Lab #6

👉 Complete Lab #6: Building a Substrate Kitties dApp

Quiz #5

👉 Complete Quiz #5

Polkadot JS API

Polkadot JS API is the javascript API for Substrate. By using it you can build a javascript front end or utility and interact with any Substrate-based blockchain.

The Substrate Front-end Template is an example of using Polkadot JS API in a React front-end.

  • Runtime Development: Metadata, this article describes the API allowing external parties to query what API is open for the chain. Polkadot JS API makes use of a chain's metadata to know what queries and functions are available from a chain to call.

Lab #7

👉 Complete Lab #7: Using Polkadot-JS API

Quiz #6

👉 Complete Quiz #6: Using Polkadot-JS API

Smart contracts

Learn about the difference between smart contract development vs Substrate runtime development, and when to use each here.

In Substrate, you can program smart contracts using ink!.

Quiz #7

👉 Complete Quiz #7: Using ink!

What we do not cover

A lot 😄

On-chain runtime upgrades. We have a tutorial on On-chain (forkless) Runtime Upgrade. This tutorial introduces how to perform and schedule a runtime upgrade as an on-chain transaction.

About transaction weight and fee, and benchmarking your runtime to determine the proper transaction cost.

Off-chain Features

There are certain limits to on-chain logic. For instance, computation cannot be too intensive that it affects the block output time, and computation must be deterministic. This means that computation that relies on external data fetching cannot be done on-chain. In Substrate, developers can run these types of computation off-chain and have the result sent back on-chain via extrinsics.

Tightly- and Loosely-coupled pallets, calling one pallet's functions from another pallet via trait specification.

Blockchain Consensus Mechansim, and a guide on customizing it to proof-of-work here.

Parachains: one key feature of Substrate is the capability of becoming a parachain for relay chains like Polkadot. You can develop your own application-specific logic in your chain and rely on the validator community of the relay chain to secure your network, instead of building another validator community yourself. Learn more with the following resources:

Terms clarification

  • Substrate: the blockchain development framework built for writing highly customized, domain-specific blockchains.
  • Polkadot: Polkadot is the relay chain blockchain, built with Substrate.
  • Kusama: Kusama is Polkadot's canary network, used to launch features before these features are launched on Polkadot. You could view it as a beta-network with real economic value where the state of the blockchain is never reset.
  • Web 3.0: is the decentralized internet ecosystem that, instead of apps being centrally stored in a few servers and managed by a sovereign party, it is an open, trustless, and permissionless network when apps are not controlled by a centralized entity.
  • Web3 Foundation: A foundation setup to support the development of decentralized web software protocols. Learn more about what they do on thier website.

Others


Author: substrate-developer-hub
Source Code: https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/hackathon-knowledge-map
License: 

#blockchain #substrate 

Luna  Mosciski

Luna Mosciski

1600583123

8 Popular Websites That Use The Vue.JS Framework

In this article, we are going to list out the most popular websites using Vue JS as their frontend framework.

Vue JS is one of those elite progressive JavaScript frameworks that has huge demand in the web development industry. Many popular websites are developed using Vue in their frontend development because of its imperative features.

This framework was created by Evan You and still it is maintained by his private team members. Vue is of course an open-source framework which is based on MVVM concept (Model-view view-Model) and used extensively in building sublime user-interfaces and also considered a prime choice for developing single-page heavy applications.

Released in February 2014, Vue JS has gained 64,828 stars on Github, making it very popular in recent times.

Evan used Angular JS on many operations while working for Google and integrated many features in Vue to cover the flaws of Angular.

“I figured, what if I could just extract the part that I really liked about Angular and build something really lightweight." - Evan You

#vuejs #vue #vue-with-laravel #vue-top-story #vue-3 #build-vue-frontend #vue-in-laravel #vue.js

Aria Barnes

Aria Barnes

1625232484

Why is Vue JS the most Preferred Choice for Responsive Web Application Development?

For more than two decades, JavaScript has facilitated businesses to develop responsive web applications for their customers. Used both client and server-side, JavaScript enables you to bring dynamics to pages through expanded functionality and real-time modifications.

Did you know!

According to a web development survey 2020, JavaScript is the most used language for the 8th year, with 67.7% of people choosing it. With this came up several javascript frameworks for frontend, backend development, or even testing.

And one such framework is Vue.Js. It is used to build simple projects and can also be advanced to create sophisticated apps using state-of-the-art tools. Beyond that, some other solid reasons give Vuejs a thumbs up for responsive web application development.

Want to know them? Then follow this blog until the end. Through this article, I will describe all the reasons and benefits of Vue js development. So, stay tuned.

Vue.Js - A Brief Introduction

Released in the year 2014 for public use, Vue.Js is an open-source JavaScript framework used to create UIs and single-page applications. It has over 77.4 million likes on Github for creating intuitive web interfaces.

The recent version is Vue.js 2.6, and is the second most preferred framework according to Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019.

Every Vue.js development company is widely using the framework across the world for responsive web application development. It is centered around the view layer, provides a lot of functionality for the view layer, and builds single-page web applications.

Some most astonishing stats about Vue.Js:

• Vue was ranked #2 in the Front End JavaScript Framework rankings in the State of JS 2019 survey by developers.

• Approximately 427k to 693k sites are built with Vue js, according to Wappalyzer and BuiltWith statistics of June 2020.

• According to the State of JS 2019 survey, 40.5% of JavaScript developers are currently using Vue, while 34.5% have shown keen interest in using it in the future.

• In Stack Overflow's Developer Survey 2020, Vue was ranked the 3rd most popular front-end JavaScript framework.

Why is Vue.Js so popular?

• High-speed run-time performance
• Vue.Js uses a virtual DOM.
• The main focus is on the core library, while the collaborating libraries handle other features such as global state management and routing.
• Vue.JS provides responsive visual components.

Top 7 Reasons to Choose Vue JS for Web Application Development

Vue js development has certain benefits, which will encourage you to use it in your projects. For example, Vue.js is similar to Angular and React in many aspects, and it continues to enjoy increasing popularity compared to other frameworks.

The framework is only 20 kilobytes in size, making it easy for you to download files instantly. Vue.js easily beats other frameworks when it comes to loading times and usage.

Take a look at the compelling advantages of using Vue.Js for web app development.

#1 Simple Integration

Vue.Js is popular because it allows you to integrate Vue.js into other frameworks such as React, enabling you to customize the project as per your needs and requirements.

It helps you build apps with Vue.js from scratch and introduce Vue.js elements into their existing apps. Due to its ease of integration, Vue.js is becoming a popular choice for web development as it can be used with various existing web applications.

You can feel free to include Vue.js CDN and start using it. Most third-party Vue components and libraries are additionally accessible and supported with the Vue.js CDN.

You don't need to set up node and npm to start using Vue.js. This implies that it helps develop new web applications, just like modifying previous applications.

The diversity of components allows you to create different types of web applications and replace existing frameworks. In addition, you can also choose to hire Vue js developers to use the technology to experiment with many other JavaScript applications.

#2 Easy to Understand

One of the main reasons for the growing popularity of Vue.Js is that the framework is straightforward to understand for individuals. This means that you can easily add Vue.Js to your web projects.

Also, Vue.Js has a well-defined architecture for storing your data with life-cycle and custom methods. Vue.Js also provides additional features such as watchers, directives, and computed properties, making it extremely easy to build modern apps and web applications with ease.

Another significant advantage of using the Vue.Js framework is that it makes it easy to build small and large-scale web applications in the shortest amount of time.

#3 Well-defined Ecosystem

The VueJS ecosystem is vibrant and well-defined, allowing Vue.Js development company to switch users to VueJS over other frameworks for web app development.

Without spending hours, you can easily find solutions to your problems. Furthermore, VueJs lets you choose only the building blocks you need.

Although the main focus of Vue is the view layer, with the help of Vue Router, Vue Test Utils, Vuex, and Vue CLI, you can find solutions and recommendations for frequently occurring problems.

The problems fall into these categories, and hence it becomes easy for programmers to get started with coding right away and not waste time figuring out how to use these tools.

The Vue ecosystem is easy to customize and scales between a library and a framework. Compared to other frameworks, its development speed is excellent, and it can also integrate different projects. This is the reason why most website development companies also prefer the Vue.Js ecosystem over others.

#4 Flexibility

Another benefit of going with Vue.Js for web app development needs is flexibility. Vue.Js provides an excellent level of flexibility. And makes it easier for web app development companies to write their templates in HTML, JavaScript, or pure JavaScript using virtual nodes.

Another significant benefit of using Vue.Js is that it makes it easier for developers to work with tools like templating engines, CSS preprocessors, and type checking tools like TypeScript.

#5 Two-Way Communication

Vue.Js is an excellent option for you because it encourages two-way communication. This has become possible with the MVVM architecture to handle HTML blocks. In this way, Vue.Js is very similar to Angular.Js, making it easier to handle HTML blocks as well.

With Vue.Js, two-way data binding is straightforward. This means that any changes made by the developer to the UI are passed to the data, and the changes made to the data are reflected in the UI.

This is also one reason why Vue.Js is also known as reactive because it can react to changes made to the data. This sets it apart from other libraries such as React.Js, which are designed to support only one-way communication.

#6 Detailed Documentation

One essential thing is well-defined documentation that helps you understand the required mechanism and build your application with ease. It shows all the options offered by the framework and related best practice examples.

Vue has excellent docs, and its API references are one of the best in the industry. They are well written, clear, and accessible in dealing with everything you need to know to build a Vue application.

Besides, the documentation at Vue.js is constantly improved and updated. It also includes a simple introductory guide and an excellent overview of the API. Perhaps, this is one of the most detailed documentation available for this type of language.

#7 Large Community Support

Support for the platform is impressive. In 2018, support continued to impress as every question was answered diligently. Over 6,200 problems were solved with an average resolution time of just six hours.

To support the community, there are frequent release cycles of updated information. Furthermore, the community continues to grow and develop with backend support from developers.



Wrapping Up

VueJS is an incredible choice for responsive web app development. Since it is lightweight and user-friendly, it builds a fast and integrated web application. The capabilities and potential of VueJS for web app development are extensive.

While Vuejs is simple to get started with, using it to build scalable web apps requires professionalism. Hence, you can approach a top Vue js development company in India to develop high-performing web apps.

Equipped with all the above features, it doesn't matter whether you want to build a small concept app or a full-fledged web app; Vue.Js is the most performant you can rely on.

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