Guide To Association Rule Mining From Scratch

Let’s learn about the Apriori algorithm & Association Rule works and How Permutation & Combination are useful in mining rule.

#probability #permutation #numpy #pandas #data-science #machine-learning

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Guide To Association Rule Mining From Scratch
Rusty  Shanahan

Rusty Shanahan


Orange Data Mining Tool and Association Rules

In this article, association analysis will be studied using the Orange Data Mining tool. The Apriori algorithm will be utilized for creating association rules. Algorithm steps will be shown on a small set of market shopping data.

Association Rules

Association analyses are studies that try to uncover if-else rules hidden within the dataset. It usually yields good results with categorical data. The most common example on association analysis is basket analysis. In addition, it has a wide range of uses such as bioinformatics, disease diagnosis, web mining and text mining.

Basket Analysis

In basket analysis, we keep products bought by shoppers in a list, and wonder which products are sold more together.

The Data

Let’s say we have a data consisting 5 transactions in a market like:

1 Bread, Milk

2 Bread, Tea, Coffee, Eggs

3 Milk, Tea, Coffee, Coke

4 Bread, Milk, Tea, Coffee

5 Bread, Milk, Tea, Coke

We can see that most shoppers who buy Tea also buy Coffee in the dataset. Now, let’s show the dataset using one-hot encoding. The dataset can be downloaded from here.

One-hot encoding

Some Definitions on Association Rules

**Product list: **List of all products in the basket, i.e {Bread, Milk, Eggs}.

**Support count (σ): **The number of items passed on purchases, i.e. σ({Milk, Tea, Coffee}) = 2

Support rate(s): The proportion of the product list in the exchange, i.e. s({Milk, Tea, Coffee}) = 2/5

**Product list frequency: **Support rate list of products above a specific value.

There is more information here on association rules. In this blog, I will show how to utilize association rules using Orange tool.

Apriori Algorithm

The Apriori Algorithm is the most used algorithm in basket analysis. The algorithm starts by specifying a threshold value. For example, let’s take the minimum support threshold to 60%.

Step 1: Type product lists in frequency and identify the product with maximum frequency. Multiply the number of products by threshold value and remove products below the value you find.

Step 2: Multiply the number of products by threshold value and remove products below the value you find.

#associate-rules #apriori #orange-data-mining #data-mining #association #data analysis

How Do I Pass the AWS Solutions Architect Associate Exam? Careerera

The AWS solutions architect associate exam is one of the most difficult certification exams in the world. There are many certifications for various things such as the PMP certification and the CISSP certification, but it is the AWS solutions architect associate exam which takes the crown when it comes to difficulty.

How to Qualify an AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate Exam?

Naturally, given the difficulty of the exam many people wonder, “How Do I Pass the AWS Solutions Architect Associate Exam?” on the first attempt. This is a very valid question and, in this article, we will discuss all the ways in which one can maximize his chances of passing the AWS solutions architect associate exam in the first attempt.

Before starting we must remember one thing – the AWS platform is a beast of a platform and is vast beyond comprehension. So, for a beginner looking to take the AWS solutions architect associate exam it will not be possible to cover all the topics and services related to the AWS platform.

However, one can make one’s best attempt to cover all the core concepts and topics which are most relevant and pertinent to the AWS platform. A candidate for the AWS solutions architect associate exam in particular should keep himself updated on all the most recent advances and developments in the field of AWS.

Which services are tested most frequently on the exam?

  1. Amazon EC2 -

This service is used to create virtual machines which are offsite. It is also used to manage things such as ports, security, and storage because of its many features. It allows the users to utilize AWS’ vast computing capabilities on-demand. With a ‘scale as you grow’ philosophy the user is not trapped into an agreement in which they will have to purchase excessive resources from Amazon.
They only have to make use of as many resources as they need. The Amazon EC2 web interface allows the software developers to configure and resize the compute machines to their heart’s content with minimal friction and absolutely no confusion whatsoever. All decent AWS Solutions Architect Associate Certification courses teach how to make use of this service.

  1. Amazon RDS -

The full form of Amazon RDS is Amazon Relational Database Service. It is an extremely useful service launched by Amazon. It is used by software developers to create a database with all the features of a full-fledged offline database in a matter of minutes.

The main purpose of Amazon RDS is to set up relational databases in the cloud. These databases can be set up, operated, and scaled very easily and very smoothly. Amazon provides a very seamless and slick interface which is ideal for operating the databases thus created.

The databases are very cost-effective and can be resized very easily. They provide all facilities to carry out administrative tasks such as hardware provisioning, database setup, patching and backups. With the help of these databases, one will be able to give their applications fast performance, high availability, security and compatibility.

  1. Amazon S3 -

The full form of Amazon S3 is Amazon Simple Storage Service. It is a service which provides a lot of expediency to software developers in the matter of storage. Software developers can create objects through programming and they can then store those objects which they have coded into the Amazon S3 service.

This service is responsible in a large part for having made AWS the leading cloud services provider in the world. Truly Jeff Bezos must have been inspired by a divine vision when he conceived of this service. This service leads the industry in terms of scalability, data availability, security, and performance.

How difficult is the AWS solutions architect associate exam?

As we have mentioned before, the AWS platform is vast beyond comprehension. It contains multitudes of services and all of them have their own various configuration options and switches. This means that for a candidate who is just starting his journey of becoming a AWS certified solution architect associate it is not possible to master the whole platform immediately.

It will take many years and a lot of practical and hands-on experience before he is able to do so. But the AWS solutions architect associate exam has a very extensive syllabus and is thus prohibitively difficult for the candidates. Its syllabus contains the following domains of knowledge -

• Design Resilient Architectures - 34%
• Define Performant Architecture – 24%
• Specify Secure Applications and Architectures – 24%
• Design Cost-Optimized Architectures – 10%
• Define Operationally Excellent Architectures – 8%

Some tips which will help to clear the exam -

  1. Read as many AWS whitepapers as possible -

The AWS whitepapers explain many core concepts of the AWS platform in very technical, precise, and accurate language. For a candidate preparing for the AWS solutions architect associate exam, it is very beneficial to read the whitepapers as they will illuminate many technical and hard to grasp concepts of the AWS platform in a detailed and scientific way.

  1. Make use of the process of elimination for multiple correct answers -

On the AWS solutions architect associate exam there will be many questions which will have multiple options. For those questions the candidate should first try to identify and eliminate the incorrect options so that they have to contemplate a fewer number of options while trying to find the correct answer.

  1. Try to spot questions which have hints and details about other questions -

Many times, there will be questions on the exam which will contain hints and details pertinent to other questions on the exam. So, the candidate should keep a weather eye out for such questions and read all questions carefully with this aspect of the exam kept in mind firmly. This trick is taught in many AWS Solutions Architect Associate Certification courses.

  1. Take an AWS solution architect associate course -

The best way to pass the AWS solutions architect associate exam is to take an AWS solution architect associate course. This will help the candidate because they will be studying under the guidance of seasoned and experienced instructors who will be able to bring their world-class teaching skills and subject matter expertise to bear to make the learners fully prepared for the exam.

#how do i pass the aws solutions architect associate exam #how to qualify an aws certified solutions architect associate exam #aws solutions architect associate exam #aws solutions architect associate certification courses #aws certified solution architect associate #aws solution architect associate course


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Guide To Association Rule Mining From Scratch

Let’s learn about the Apriori algorithm & Association Rule works and How Permutation & Combination are useful in mining rule.

#probability #permutation #numpy #pandas #data-science #machine-learning

Brooke  Giles

Brooke Giles


Scratch Card with HTML, CSS and JavaScript

This tutorial shows how to create a scratch card with HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Basic knowledge of Canvas might come in handy for this project, but it isn’t necessary.

00:00 Intro
00:05 Project Preview
00:53 HTML & CSS
06:07 Step 1: Create Initial References
06:36 Step 2: Implement The init()
08:32 Step 3: Detect If The Device Is A Touch Device
12:16 Step 4: Get Position Of Mouse/Touch
14:40 Step 5: Add Event Listeners To Canvas
15:41 Step 6: Function To Draw Scratch


We start with the HTML code. The HTML code creates elements necessary to build the structure of our scratch card. First, copy the code below and paste it into your HTML document.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
    <title>Scratch Card</title>
    <!-- Google Fonts -->
    <!-- Stylesheet -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />
    <div class="container">
      <div class="base">
        <h4>You Won</h4>
      <canvas id="scratch" width="200" height="200"></canvas>
    <!-- Script -->
    <script src="script.js"></script>


With CSS, we style the scratch card according to our desired theme. For this copy, the code provided to you below and paste it into your stylesheet.

* {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
body {
  height: 100vh;
  background: linear-gradient(135deg, #c3a3f1, #6414e9);
.container {
  width: 31em;
  height: 31em;
  background-color: #f5f5f5;
  position: absolute;
  transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
  top: 50%;
  left: 50%;
  border-radius: 0.6em;
#scratch {
  height: 200px;
  width: 200px;
  position: absolute;
  transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
  top: 50%;
  left: 50%;
  text-align: center;
  cursor: grabbing;
  border-radius: 0.3em;
.base {
  background-color: #ffffff;
  font-family: "Poppins", sans-serif;
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  box-shadow: 0 1.2em 2.5em rgba(16, 2, 96, 0.15);
.base h3 {
  font-weight: 600;
  font-size: 1.5em;
  color: #17013b;
.base h4 {
  font-weight: 400;
  color: #746e7e;
#scratch {
  -webkit-tap-highlight-color: transparent;
  -webkit-touch-callout: none;
  -webkit-user-select: none;
  user-select: none;


Finally, we implement the logic of this code. To do that, copy the code below and paste it into your script file.

let canvas = document.getElementById("scratch");
let context = canvas.getContext("2d");

const init = () => {
  let gradientColor = context.createLinearGradient(0, 0, 135, 135);
  gradientColor.addColorStop(0, "#c3a3f1");
  gradientColor.addColorStop(1, "#6414e9");
  context.fillStyle = gradientColor;
  context.fillRect(0, 0, 200, 200);

//initially mouse X and mouse Y positions are 0
let mouseX = 0;
let mouseY = 0;
let isDragged = false;

//Events for touch and mouse
let events = {
  mouse: {
    down: "mousedown",
    move: "mousemove",
    up: "mouseup",
  touch: {
    down: "touchstart",
    move: "touchmove",
    up: "touchend",

let deviceType = "";

//Detech touch device
const isTouchDevice = () => {
  try {
    //We try to create TouchEvent. It would fail for desktops and throw error.
    deviceType = "touch";
    return true;
  } catch (e) {
    deviceType = "mouse";
    return false;

//Get left and top of canvas
let rectLeft = canvas.getBoundingClientRect().left;
let rectTop = canvas.getBoundingClientRect().top;

//Exact x and y position of mouse/touch
const getXY = (e) => {
  mouseX = (!isTouchDevice() ? e.pageX : e.touches[0].pageX) - rectLeft;
  mouseY = (!isTouchDevice() ? e.pageY : e.touches[0].pageY) - rectTop;

//Start Scratch
canvas.addEventListener(events[deviceType].down, (event) => {
  isDragged = true;
  //Get x and y position
  scratch(mouseX, mouseY);

canvas.addEventListener(events[deviceType].move, (event) => {
  if (!isTouchDevice()) {
  if (isDragged) {
    scratch(mouseX, mouseY);

//stop drawing
canvas.addEventListener(events[deviceType].up, () => {
  isDragged = false;

//If mouse leaves the square
canvas.addEventListener("mouseleave", () => {
  isDragged = false;

const scratch = (x, y) => {
  //destination-out draws new shapes behind the existing canvas content
  context.globalCompositeOperation = "destination-out";
  //arc makes circle - x,y,radius,start angle,end angle
  context.arc(x, y, 12, 0, 2 * Math.PI);

window.onload = init();

📁 Download Source Code :

#html #css #js #javascript