Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich


How to declare/define and use functions

A function with variable number of arguments is called a variadic function, and also known as _variable argument function _[1]. Due to its flexibility in size of the list of input arguments, it is very useful especially in system programming. Its usual use cases include summing of numbers, concatenating strings, and so on. Typical examples include the printf in C programming language, execl and execlp in Unix, execl and execlp in Windows, and many others. This post introduces how to declare/define and use such functions.

How to declare a variadic function

Declaration of a variadic function is almost same as an “ordinary” function, except that its formal parameter list ends with an ellipsis. Below is an example of the declaration of a variadic function.

int sum (int x, ...);

In C programming language, at least one named formal parameter must appear before the ellipsis parameter. Whereas in C++, variadic function without any named formal parameter is allowed, although no argument passed to such function is accessible in this case [2].

The comma between the last named parameter and the ellipsis is optional [2], i.e. “, …”, in the above declaration can be replaced by “…”.

How to use a variadic function

Possibly the first example everybody would think of when discussing variadic function is the function printf. Next, we take a look at the source code of this function [3].

int __printf ( const char *format, ... )
    va_list arg;
    int done;
    va_start (arg, format);
    done = vfprintf (stdout, format, arg);
    va_end (arg);
    return done;

Clearly, the function printf calls vfprintf to implement all the “magics”. However, as the declaration of printf is enough for demonstrating how to define a variadic function, we are not going to dig deeper into the source code of vfprintf. Below the declaration of vfprintf is given.

int vfprintf ( FILE *s, const CHAR_T *format, va_list ap );

In both printf and vfprintf, three macros and one special data type are used to implement variadic functions. They are va_startva_argva_end and va_list. They are defined in the header file _stdarg.h _(cstdarg for C++). To get a glimpse of its implementation, we take a look at an early version of the header file stdarg.h (see this discussion for details on how to check the source code of the latest stdarg.h).

#c-programming-language #cpp #cplusplus #programming-c #c++

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How to declare/define and use functions

PANDAS: Most Used Functions in Data Science

Most useful functions for data preprocessing

When you get introduced to machine learning, the first step is to learn Python and the basic step of learning Python is to learn pandas library. We can install pandas library by pip install pandas. After installing we have to import pandas each time of the running session. The data used for example is from the UCI repository “

  1. Read Data

2. Head and Tail

3. Shape, Size and Info

4. isna

#pandas: most used functions in data science #pandas #data science #function #used python data #most used functions in data science

Why Use WordPress? What Can You Do With WordPress?

Can you use WordPress for anything other than blogging? To your surprise, yes. WordPress is more than just a blogging tool, and it has helped thousands of websites and web applications to thrive. The use of WordPress powers around 40% of online projects, and today in our blog, we would visit some amazing uses of WordPress other than blogging.
What Is The Use Of WordPress?

WordPress is the most popular website platform in the world. It is the first choice of businesses that want to set a feature-rich and dynamic Content Management System. So, if you ask what WordPress is used for, the answer is – everything. It is a super-flexible, feature-rich and secure platform that offers everything to build unique websites and applications. Let’s start knowing them:

1. Multiple Websites Under A Single Installation
WordPress Multisite allows you to develop multiple sites from a single WordPress installation. You can download WordPress and start building websites you want to launch under a single server. Literally speaking, you can handle hundreds of sites from one single dashboard, which now needs applause.
It is a highly efficient platform that allows you to easily run several websites under the same login credentials. One of the best things about WordPress is the themes it has to offer. You can simply download them and plugin for various sites and save space on sites without losing their speed.

2. WordPress Social Network
WordPress can be used for high-end projects such as Social Media Network. If you don’t have the money and patience to hire a coder and invest months in building a feature-rich social media site, go for WordPress. It is one of the most amazing uses of WordPress. Its stunning CMS is unbeatable. And you can build sites as good as Facebook or Reddit etc. It can just make the process a lot easier.
To set up a social media network, you would have to download a WordPress Plugin called BuddyPress. It would allow you to connect a community page with ease and would provide all the necessary features of a community or social media. It has direct messaging, activity stream, user groups, extended profiles, and so much more. You just have to download and configure it.
If BuddyPress doesn’t meet all your needs, don’t give up on your dreams. You can try out WP Symposium or PeepSo. There are also several themes you can use to build a social network.

3. Create A Forum For Your Brand’s Community
Communities are very important for your business. They help you stay in constant connection with your users and consumers. And allow you to turn them into a loyal customer base. Meanwhile, there are many good technologies that can be used for building a community page – the good old WordPress is still the best.
It is the best community development technology. If you want to build your online community, you need to consider all the amazing features you get with WordPress. Plugins such as BB Press is an open-source, template-driven PHP/ MySQL forum software. It is very simple and doesn’t hamper the experience of the website.
Other tools such as wpFoRo and Asgaros Forum are equally good for creating a community blog. They are lightweight tools that are easy to manage and integrate with your WordPress site easily. However, there is only one tiny problem; you need to have some technical knowledge to build a WordPress Community blog page.

4. Shortcodes
Since we gave you a problem in the previous section, we would also give you a perfect solution for it. You might not know to code, but you have shortcodes. Shortcodes help you execute functions without having to code. It is an easy way to build an amazing website, add new features, customize plugins easily. They are short lines of code, and rather than memorizing multiple lines; you can have zero technical knowledge and start building a feature-rich website or application.
There are also plugins like Shortcoder, Shortcodes Ultimate, and the Basics available on WordPress that can be used, and you would not even have to remember the shortcodes.

5. Build Online Stores
If you still think about why to use WordPress, use it to build an online store. You can start selling your goods online and start selling. It is an affordable technology that helps you build a feature-rich eCommerce store with WordPress.
WooCommerce is an extension of WordPress and is one of the most used eCommerce solutions. WooCommerce holds a 28% share of the global market and is one of the best ways to set up an online store. It allows you to build user-friendly and professional online stores and has thousands of free and paid extensions. Moreover as an open-source platform, and you don’t have to pay for the license.
Apart from WooCommerce, there are Easy Digital Downloads, iThemes Exchange, Shopify eCommerce plugin, and so much more available.

6. Security Features
WordPress takes security very seriously. It offers tons of external solutions that help you in safeguarding your WordPress site. While there is no way to ensure 100% security, it provides regular updates with security patches and provides several plugins to help with backups, two-factor authorization, and more.
By choosing hosting providers like WP Engine, you can improve the security of the website. It helps in threat detection, manage patching and updates, and internal security audits for the customers, and so much more.

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#use of wordpress #use wordpress for business website #use wordpress for website #what is use of wordpress #why use wordpress #why use wordpress to build a website

Vincent Lab

Vincent Lab


The Difference Between Regular Functions and Arrow Functions in JavaScript

Other then the syntactical differences. The main difference is the way the this keyword behaves? In an arrow function, the this keyword remains the same throughout the life-cycle of the function and is always bound to the value of this in the closest non-arrow parent function. Arrow functions can never be constructor functions so they can never be invoked with the new keyword. And they can never have duplicate named parameters like a regular function not using strict mode.

Here are a few code examples to show you some of the differences = "Bob";

const person = {
name: “Jon”,

<span style="color: #008000">// Regular function</span>
func1: <span style="color: #0000ff">function</span> () {
    console.log(<span style="color: #0000ff">this</span>);

<span style="color: #008000">// Arrow function</span>
func2: () =&gt; {
    console.log(<span style="color: #0000ff">this</span>);


person.func1(); // Call the Regular function
// Output: {name:“Jon”, func1:[Function: func1], func2:[Function: func2]}

person.func2(); // Call the Arrow function
// Output: {name:“Bob”}

The new keyword with an arrow function
const person = (name) => console.log("Your name is " + name);
const bob = new person("Bob");
// Uncaught TypeError: person is not a constructor

If you want to see a visual presentation on the differences, then you can see the video below:

#arrow functions #javascript #regular functions #arrow functions vs normal functions #difference between functions and arrow functions

Madyson  Reilly

Madyson Reilly


Function Expression vs Function Declaration in JavaScript

Function Expression vs Function Declaration in JavaScript.

It was until during one of the JavaScript mock interviews did I came across the term function expression.

The question was: What is the difference between these two syntax?

function x(){


let x = function(){


I was clueless for a moment. After thinking a little, I could only come up with: the second syntax invokes an _anonymous _function and is assigned to a variable.

I was alien to the term hoisting.

In this article, we will acquaint ourselves with three simple terms: function declaration,_ function expression, _and hoisting.

What is function declaration?

Function declaration is also known as _function statement. _It contains the name of the function, parameters, and a return statement. **Naming the function **is what sets function declaration apart. Parameters and return statement is optional.

Image for post

Function Declaration

What is function expression?

Function expression also has a name, parameters, and return statement. All of which are optional. The important thing to bear in mind is: the function here is _assigned _to a JavaScript variable.

Image for post

Function Expression

#function-expression #function-declaration #functions-in-javascript #coding #javascript #express

Tia  Gottlieb

Tia Gottlieb


Types Of Activation Functions used in Neural Network?


In this article I have discussed the various types of activation functions and what are the types of problems one might encounter while using each of them.

I would suggest to begin with a ReLU function and explore other functions as you move further. You can also design your own activation functions giving a non-linearity component to your network.

Recall that inputs x0,x1,x2,x3……xn and weights w0,w1,w2,w3………wn are multiplied and added with bias term to form our input.

Recall that inputs x0,x1,x2,x3……xn and weights w0,w1,w2,w3……..wn are multiplied and added with bias term to form our input.

Clearly W implies how much weight or strength we want to give our incoming input and we can think** b** as an offset value, making x*w have to reach an offset value before having an effect.

As far we have seen the inputs so now what is activation function?

Activation function is used to set the boundaries for the overall output value.For Example:-let **z=X*w+b **be the output of the previous layer then it will be sent to the activation function for limit it’svalue between 0 and 1(if binary classification problem).

Finally, the output from the activation function moves to the next hidden layer and the same process is repeated. This forward movement of information is known as the forward propagation.

What if the output generated is far away from the actual value? Using the output from the forward propagation, error is calculated. Based on this error value, the weights and biases of the neurons are updated. This process is known as back-propagation.

#activation-functions #softmax #sigmoid-function #neural-networks #relu #function