1624604640

# Chaos Engineering Make Disciplined Microservices

#### Chaos Engineering is a technique by which you can measure the resilience of your architecture. We will inject Fault and then we will check how the services react.

Chaos and discipline, These two words are an oxymoron, you might be thinking, how can chaos make disciplined microservices?

But the universal truth is discipline means the absence of chaos, so until you have not experienced chaos you can not be disciplined.

If we think about the Law of Entropy, then chaos is the high entropy state, and discipline is the low entropy state. Always disciplined services degrade to chaotic ones to make the system in equilibrium, as the flow of the direction is from high (chaos) to low entropy (discipline) state. So chaos is inevitable.

Now, If we want to make sure our services remain in a low entropy state (discipline) throughout, we need to adopt a few special techniques. As per the laws of physics, this is an irreversible process (flow from low to high entropy state), it is going against entropy we called it reverse entropy (watch Christopher Nolan Masterpiece TNET!!!)

A refrigerator is a reverse entropy object (doing cooling), the crux is to maintain discipline in your services we need to adopt a Resilience strategy but the question is how to determine what resilience strategy needs to be adopted? For that, we have to experience chaos in production and act accordingly.

This is the essence of chaos engineering, by injecting mild fault into the system to experience the chaos and take preventive measures and self-healing against it.

Today I am talking about implementing chaos in production!!!

After hearing this you might think what I am saying? Am I insane? I am encouraging implement chaos in production, which is the most emotional and sensitive area of a developer, we are all praying whatever the error comes, please those come before production. In production, if something goes wrong your organization’s reputation at stake, your organization loses user base, revenue, etc., and I am encouraging you to implement Fault/Chaos.

But the irony is we have the wrong mindset, our mindset should be ‘Failure is inevitable and we must prepare for it’. In this tutorial, I am advocating for this culture.

### A Simple Microservice Definition

Microservice Architecture is distributed in nature and it consists of suites of small services which can be scaled and deployed independently.

If we deduce the above statement we will find 3 important things:

1. As Microservice is distributed, it is communicated over the network, and the network is unreliable so how come your Microservice will be reliable?
2. Over the network, Microservices are communicated to each other so they are dependent on each other, so they can fail if their dependent services fail.
3. Microservices Scaled and deployed on infrastructure so if infrastructure fails your Microservices will fail.

These points justify the ‘Failure is inevitable and we must prepare for it’ statement.

But the question is how do we prepare for it?

#microservice #chaos-engineering

1594958400

## The Principles of Chaos Engineering

Resilience is something those who use Kubernetes to run apps and microservices in containers aim for. When a system is resilient, it can handle losing a portion of its microservices and components without the entire system becoming inaccessible.

Resilience is achieved by integrating loosely coupled microservices. When a system is resilient, microservices can be updated or taken down without having to bring the entire system down. Scaling becomes easier too, since you don’t have to scale the whole cloud environment at once.

That said, resilience is not without its challenges. Building microservices that are independent yet work well together is not easy. You also have to create and maintain a reliable system with high fault tolerance. This is where Chaos Engineering comes into play.

## What Is Chaos Engineering?

Chaos Engineering has been around for almost a decade now but it is still a relevent and useful concept to incorporate into improving your whole systems architecture. In essence, Chaos Engineering is the process of triggering and injecting faults into a system deliberately. Instead of waiting for errors to occur, engineers can take deliberate steps to cause (or simulate) errors in a controlled environment.

Chaos Engineering allows for better, more advanced resilience testing. Developers can now experiment in cloud-native distributed systems. Experiments involve testing both the physical infrastructure and the cloud ecosystem.

Chaos Engineering is not a new approach. In fact, companies like Netflix have been using resilience testing through Chaos Monkey, an in-house Chaos Engineering framework designed to improve the strength of cloud infrastructure for years now.

When dealing with a large-scale distributed system, Chaos Engineering provides an empirical way of building confidence by anticipating faults instead of reacting to them. The chaotic condition is triggered intentionally for this purpose.

There are a lot of analogies depicting how Chaos Engineering works, but the traffic light analogy represents the concept best. Conventional testing is similar to testing traffic lights individually to make sure that they work.

Chaos Engineering, on the other hand, means closing out a busy array of intersections to see how traffic reacts to the chaos of losing traffic lights. Since the test is run deliberately, more insights can be collected from the process.

#devops #chaos engineering #high fault tolerance #microservice-based architecture #microservices #microservices architecture #resilience engineering

1624604640

## Chaos Engineering Make Disciplined Microservices

#### Chaos Engineering is a technique by which you can measure the resilience of your architecture. We will inject Fault and then we will check how the services react.

Chaos and discipline, These two words are an oxymoron, you might be thinking, how can chaos make disciplined microservices?

But the universal truth is discipline means the absence of chaos, so until you have not experienced chaos you can not be disciplined.

If we think about the Law of Entropy, then chaos is the high entropy state, and discipline is the low entropy state. Always disciplined services degrade to chaotic ones to make the system in equilibrium, as the flow of the direction is from high (chaos) to low entropy (discipline) state. So chaos is inevitable.

Now, If we want to make sure our services remain in a low entropy state (discipline) throughout, we need to adopt a few special techniques. As per the laws of physics, this is an irreversible process (flow from low to high entropy state), it is going against entropy we called it reverse entropy (watch Christopher Nolan Masterpiece TNET!!!)

A refrigerator is a reverse entropy object (doing cooling), the crux is to maintain discipline in your services we need to adopt a Resilience strategy but the question is how to determine what resilience strategy needs to be adopted? For that, we have to experience chaos in production and act accordingly.

This is the essence of chaos engineering, by injecting mild fault into the system to experience the chaos and take preventive measures and self-healing against it.

Today I am talking about implementing chaos in production!!!

After hearing this you might think what I am saying? Am I insane? I am encouraging implement chaos in production, which is the most emotional and sensitive area of a developer, we are all praying whatever the error comes, please those come before production. In production, if something goes wrong your organization’s reputation at stake, your organization loses user base, revenue, etc., and I am encouraging you to implement Fault/Chaos.

But the irony is we have the wrong mindset, our mindset should be ‘Failure is inevitable and we must prepare for it’. In this tutorial, I am advocating for this culture.

### A Simple Microservice Definition

Microservice Architecture is distributed in nature and it consists of suites of small services which can be scaled and deployed independently.

If we deduce the above statement we will find 3 important things:

1. As Microservice is distributed, it is communicated over the network, and the network is unreliable so how come your Microservice will be reliable?
2. Over the network, Microservices are communicated to each other so they are dependent on each other, so they can fail if their dependent services fail.
3. Microservices Scaled and deployed on infrastructure so if infrastructure fails your Microservices will fail.

These points justify the ‘Failure is inevitable and we must prepare for it’ statement.

But the question is how do we prepare for it?

#microservice #chaos-engineering

1597315320

## The Principles of Chaos Engineering

Resilience is something those who use Kubernetes to run apps and microservices in containers aim for. When a system is resilient, it can handle losing a portion of its microservices and components without the entire system becoming inaccessible.

Resilience is achieved by integrating loosely coupled microservices. When a system is resilient, microservices can be updated or taken down without having to bring the entire system down. Scaling becomes easier too, since you don’t have to scale the whole cloud environment at once.

That said, resilience is not without its challenges. Building microservices that are independent yet work well together is not easy.

### What Is Chaos Engineering?

Chaos Engineering has been around for almost a decade now but it is still a relevent and useful concept to incorporate into improving your whole systems architecture. In essence, Chaos Engineering is the process of triggering and injecting faults into a system deliberately. Instead of waiting for errors to occur, engineers can take deliberate steps to cause (or simulate) errors in a controlled environment.

Chaos Engineering allows for better, more advanced resilience testing. Developers can now experiment in cloud-native distributed systems. Experiments involve testing both the physical infrastructure and the cloud ecosystem.

Chaos Engineering is not a new approach. In fact, companies like Netflix have been using resilience testing through Chaos Monkey, an in-house Chaos Engineering framework designed to improve the strength of cloud infrastructure for years now.

When dealing with a large-scale distributed system, Chaos Engineering provides an empirical way of building confidence by anticipating faults instead of reacting to them. The chaotic condition is triggered intentionally for this purpose.

There are a lot of analogies depicting how Chaos Engineering works, but the traffic light analogy represents the concept best. Conventional testing is similar to testing traffic lights individually to make sure that they work.

Chaos Engineering, on the other hand, means closing out a busy array of intersections to see how traffic reacts to the chaos of losing traffic lights. Since the test is run deliberately, more insights can be collected from the process.

#devops #chaos engineering #chaos monkey #chaos #chaos testing

1599055326

## Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

### A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

• Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
• Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
• While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

### Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

#testing #software testing #test automation #microservice architecture #microservice #test #software test automation #microservice best practices #microservice deployment #microservice components

1641430440

## Bokeh Plotting Backend for Pandas and GeoPandas

Pandas-Bokeh provides a Bokeh plotting backend for Pandas, GeoPandas and Pyspark DataFrames, similar to the already existing Visualization feature of Pandas. Importing the library adds a complementary plotting method plot_bokeh() on DataFrames and Series.

With Pandas-Bokeh, creating stunning, interactive, HTML-based visualization is as easy as calling:

df.plot_bokeh()

Pandas-Bokeh also provides native support as a Pandas Plotting backend for Pandas >= 0.25. When Pandas-Bokeh is installed, switchting the default Pandas plotting backend to Bokeh can be done via:

pd.set_option('plotting.backend', 'pandas_bokeh')


More details about the new Pandas backend can be found below.

## Interactive Documentation

https://patrikhlobil.github.io/Pandas-Bokeh/

for an interactive version of the documentation below, where you can play with the dynamic Bokeh plots.

For more information have a look at the Examples below or at notebooks on the Github Repository of this project.

## Installation

You can install Pandas-Bokeh from PyPI via pip

pip install pandas-bokeh


or conda:

conda install -c patrikhlobil pandas-bokeh


With the current release 0.5.5, Pandas-Bokeh officially supports Python 3.6 and newer. For more details, see Release Notes.

## How To Use

### Classical Use

The Pandas-Bokeh library should be imported after Pandas, GeoPandas and/or Pyspark. After the import, one should define the plotting output, which can be:

pandas_bokeh.output_notebook(): Embeds the Plots in the cell outputs of the notebook. Ideal when working in Jupyter Notebooks.

pandas_bokeh.output_file(filename): Exports the plot to the provided filename as an HTML.

For more details about the plotting outputs, see the reference here or the Bokeh documentation.

import pandas as pd import pandas_bokeh pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

import pandas as pd import pandas_bokeh pandas_bokeh.output_file("Interactive Plot.html")

### Pandas-Bokeh as native Pandas plotting backend

For pandas >= 0.25, a plotting backend switch is natively supported. It can be achievied by calling:

import pandas as pd
pd.set_option('plotting.backend', 'pandas_bokeh')


Now, the plotting API is accessible for a Pandas DataFrame via:

df.plot(...)


All additional functionalities of Pandas-Bokeh are then accessible at pd.plotting. So, setting the output to notebook is:

pd.plotting.output_notebook()


or calling the grid layout functionality:

pd.plotting.plot_grid(...)


Note: Backwards compatibility is kept since there will still be the df.plot_bokeh(...) methods for a DataFrame.

### Plot types

Supported plottypes are at the moment:

Also, check out the complementary chapter Outputs, Formatting & Layouts about:

## Lineplot

### Basic Lineplot

This simple lineplot in Pandas-Bokeh already contains various interactive elements:

• a pannable and zoomable (zoom in plotarea and zoom on axis) plot
• by clicking on the legend elements, one can hide and show the individual lines
• a Hovertool for the plotted lines

Consider the following simple example:

import numpy as np

np.random.seed(42)
"Apple": np.random.randn(1000)+0.17},
index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = df.cumsum()
df = df + 50
df.plot_bokeh(kind="line")       #equivalent to df.plot_bokeh.line()

Note, that similar to the regular pandas.DataFrame.plot method, there are also additional accessors to directly access the different plotting types like:

• df.plot_bokeh(kind="line", ...)df.plot_bokeh.line(...)
• df.plot_bokeh(kind="bar", ...)df.plot_bokeh.bar(...)
• df.plot_bokeh(kind="hist", ...)df.plot_bokeh.hist(...)
• ...

There are various optional parameters to tune the plots, for example:

kind: Which kind of plot should be produced. Currently supported are: "line", "point", "scatter", "bar" and "histogram". In the near future many more will be implemented as horizontal barplot, boxplots, pie-charts, etc.

x: Name of the column to use for the horizontal x-axis. If the x parameter is not specified, the index is used for the x-values of the plot. Alternative, also an array of values can be passed that has the same number of elements as the DataFrame.

y: Name of column or list of names of columns to use for the vertical y-axis.

figsize: Choose width & height of the plot

title: Sets title of the plot

xlim/ylim: Set visibler range of plot for x- and y-axis (also works for datetime x-axis)

xlabel/ylabel: Set x- and y-labels

logx/logy: Set log-scale on x-/y-axis

xticks/yticks: Explicitly set the ticks on the axes

color: Defines a single color for a plot.

colormap: Can be used to specify multiple colors to plot. Can be either a list of colors or the name of a Bokeh color palette

hovertool: If True a Hovertool is active, else if False no Hovertool is drawn.

hovertool_string: If specified, this string will be used for the hovertool (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation and here)

toolbar_location: Specify the position of the toolbar location (None, "above", "below", "left" or "right"). Default: "right"

zooming: Enables/Disables zooming. Default: True

panning: Enables/Disables panning. Default: True

fontsize_label/fontsize_ticks/fontsize_title/fontsize_legend: Set fontsize of labels, ticks, title or legend (int or string of form "15pt")

rangetool Enables a range tool scroller. Default False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.line

Try them out to get a feeling for the effects. Let us consider now:

df.plot_bokeh.line(
figsize=(800, 450),
y="Apple",
xlabel="Date",
ylabel="Stock price [$]", yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400], ylim=(0, 400), toolbar_location=None, colormap=["red", "blue"], hovertool_string=r"""<img src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Apple_logo_black.svg/170px-Apple_logo_black.svg.png' height="42" alt="@imgs" width="42" style="float: left; margin: 0px 15px 15px 0px;" border="2"></img> Apple <h4> Stock Price: </h4> @{Apple}""", panning=False, zooming=False) #### Lineplot with data points For lineplots, as for many other plot-kinds, there are some special keyword arguments that only work for this plotting type. For lineplots, these are: plot_data_points: Plot also the data points on the lines plot_data_points_size: Determines the size of the data points marker: Defines the point type (Default: "circle"). Possible values are: 'circle', 'square', 'triangle', 'asterisk', 'circle_x', 'square_x', 'inverted_triangle', 'x', 'circle_cross', 'square_cross', 'diamond', 'cross' kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.line Let us use this information to have another version of the same plot: df.plot_bokeh.line( figsize=(800, 450), title="Apple vs Google", xlabel="Date", ylabel="Stock price [$]",
yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
ylim=(100, 200),
xlim=("2001-01-01", "2001-02-01"),
colormap=["red", "blue"],
plot_data_points=True,
plot_data_points_size=10,
marker="asterisk")

#### Lineplot with rangetool

ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(1000), index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(1000, 4), index=ts.index, columns=list('ABCD'))
df = df.cumsum()

df.plot_bokeh(rangetool=True)

Pointplot

If you just wish to draw the date points for curves, the pointplot option is the right choice. It also accepts the kwargs of bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter like marker or size:

import numpy as np

x = np.arange(-3, 3, 0.1)
y2 = x**2
y3 = x**3
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "Parabula": y2, "Cube": y3})
df.plot_bokeh.point(
x="x",
xticks=range(-3, 4),
size=5,
colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
marker="x")

## Stepplot

With a similar API as the line- & pointplots, one can generate a stepplot. Additional keyword arguments for this plot type are passes to bokeh.plotting.figure.step, e.g. mode (before, after, center), see the following example

import numpy as np

x = np.arange(-3, 3, 1)
y2 = x**2
y3 = x**3
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "Parabula": y2, "Cube": y3})
df.plot_bokeh.step(
x="x",
xticks=range(-1, 1),
colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
figsize=(800,300),
fontsize_title=30,
fontsize_label=25,
fontsize_ticks=15,
fontsize_legend=5,
)

df.plot_bokeh.step(
x="x",
xticks=range(-1, 1),
colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
mode="after",
figsize=(800,300)
)

Note that the step-plot API of Bokeh does so far not support a hovertool functionality.

## Scatterplot

A basic scatterplot can be created using the kind="scatter" option. For scatterplots, the x and y parameters have to be specified and the following optional keyword argument is allowed:

category: Determines the category column to use for coloring the scatter points

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter

Note, that the pandas.DataFrame.plot_bokeh() method return per default a Bokeh figure, which can be embedded in Dashboard layouts with other figures and Bokeh objects (for more details about (sub)plot layouts and embedding the resulting Bokeh plots as HTML click here).

In the example below, we use the building grid layout support of Pandas-Bokeh to display both the DataFrame (using a Bokeh DataTable) and the resulting scatterplot:

# Load Iris Dataset:
r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/iris/iris.csv"
)
df = df.sample(frac=1)

# Create Bokeh-Table with DataFrame:
from bokeh.models.widgets import DataTable, TableColumn
from bokeh.models import ColumnDataSource

data_table = DataTable(
columns=[TableColumn(field=Ci, title=Ci) for Ci in df.columns],
source=ColumnDataSource(df),
height=300,
)

# Create Scatterplot:
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh.scatter(
x="petal length (cm)",
y="sepal width (cm)",
category="species",
title="Iris DataSet Visualization",
show_figure=False,
)

# Combine Table and Scatterplot via grid layout:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[data_table, p_scatter]], plot_width=400, plot_height=350)

A possible optional keyword parameters that can be passed to bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter is size. Below, we use the sepal length of the Iris data as reference for the size:

#Change one value to clearly see the effect of the size keyword
df.loc[13, "sepal length (cm)"] = 15

#Make scatterplot:
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh.scatter(
x="petal length (cm)",
y="sepal width (cm)",
category="species",
title="Iris DataSet Visualization with Size Keyword",
size="sepal length (cm)")

In this example you can see, that the additional dimension sepal length cannot be used to clearly differentiate between the virginica and versicolor species.

## Barplot

The barplot API has no special keyword arguments, but accepts optional kwargs of bokeh.plotting.figure.vbar like alpha. It uses per default the index for the bar categories (however, also columns can be used as x-axis category using the x argument).

data = {
'fruits':
['Apples', 'Pears', 'Nectarines', 'Plums', 'Grapes', 'Strawberries'],
'2015': [2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4],
'2016': [5, 3, 3, 2, 4, 6],
'2017': [3, 2, 4, 4, 5, 3]
}
df = pd.DataFrame(data).set_index("fruits")

p_bar = df.plot_bokeh.bar(
ylabel="Price per Unit [€]",
title="Fruit prices per Year",
alpha=0.6)

Using the stacked keyword argument you also maked stacked barplots:

p_stacked_bar = df.plot_bokeh.bar(
ylabel="Price per Unit [€]",
title="Fruit prices per Year",
stacked=True,
alpha=0.6)

Also horizontal versions of the above barplot are supported with the keyword kind="barh" or the accessor plot_bokeh.barh. You can still specify a column of the DataFrame as the bar category via the x argument if you do not wish to use the index.

#Reset index, such that "fruits" is now a column of the DataFrame:
df.reset_index(inplace=True)

#Create horizontal bar (via kind keyword):
p_hbar = df.plot_bokeh(
kind="barh",
x="fruits",
xlabel="Price per Unit [€]",
title="Fruit prices per Year",
alpha=0.6,
legend = "bottom_right",
show_figure=False)

#Create stacked horizontal bar (via barh accessor):
p_stacked_hbar = df.plot_bokeh.barh(
x="fruits",
stacked=True,
xlabel="Price per Unit [€]",
title="Fruit prices per Year",
alpha=0.6,
legend = "bottom_right",
show_figure=False)

#Plot all barplot examples in a grid:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_bar, p_stacked_bar],
[p_hbar, p_stacked_hbar]],
plot_width=450)

## Histogram

For drawing histograms (kind="hist"), Pandas-Bokeh has a lot of customization features. Optional keyword arguments for histogram plots are:

bins: Determines bins to use for the histogram. If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range (10, by default). If bins is a sequence, it defines the bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. If bins is a string, it defines the method used to calculate the optimal bin width, as defined by histogram_bin_edges.

histogram_type: Either "sidebyside", "topontop" or "stacked". Default: "topontop"

stacked: Boolean that overrides the histogram_type as "stacked" if given. Default: False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.quad

Below examples of the different histogram types:

import numpy as np

df_hist = pd.DataFrame({
'a': np.random.randn(1000) + 1,
'b': np.random.randn(1000),
'c': np.random.randn(1000) - 1
},
columns=['a', 'b', 'c'])

#Top-on-Top Histogram (Default):
df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
vertical_xlabel=True,
hovertool=False,
title="Normal distributions (Top-on-Top)",
line_color="black")

#Side-by-Side Histogram (multiple bars share bin side-by-side) also accessible via
#kind="hist":
df_hist.plot_bokeh(
kind="hist",
bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
histogram_type="sidebyside",
vertical_xlabel=True,
hovertool=False,
title="Normal distributions (Side-by-Side)",
line_color="black")

#Stacked histogram:
df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
histogram_type="stacked",
vertical_xlabel=True,
hovertool=False,
title="Normal distributions (Stacked)",
line_color="black")

Further, advanced keyword arguments for histograms are:

• weights: A column of the DataFrame that is used as weight for the histogramm aggregation (see also numpy.histogram)
• normed: If True, histogram values are normed to 1 (sum of histogram values=1). It is also possible to pass an integer, e.g. normed=100 would result in a histogram with percentage y-axis (sum of histogram values=100). Default: False
• cumulative: If True, a cumulative histogram is shown. Default: False
• show_average: If True, the average of the histogram is also shown. Default: False

Their usage is shown in these examples:

p_hist = df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
y=["a", "b"],
bins=np.arange(-4, 6.5, 0.5),
normed=100,
vertical_xlabel=True,
ylabel="Share[%]",
title="Normal distributions (normed)",
show_average=True,
xlim=(-4, 6),
ylim=(0, 30),
show_figure=False)

p_hist_cum = df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
y=["a", "b"],
bins=np.arange(-4, 6.5, 0.5),
normed=100,
cumulative=True,
vertical_xlabel=True,
ylabel="Share[%]",
title="Normal distributions (normed & cumulative)",
show_figure=False)

pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_hist, p_hist_cum]], plot_width=450, plot_height=300)

## Areaplot

Areaplot (kind="area") can be either drawn on top of each other or stacked. The important parameters are:

stacked: If True, the areaplots are stacked. If False, plots are drawn on top of each other. Default: False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.patch

Let us consider the energy consumption split by source that can be downloaded as DataFrame via:

df_energy = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/energy/energy.csv",
parse_dates=["Year"])
df_energy.head()

Creating the Areaplot can be achieved via:

df_energy.plot_bokeh.area(
x="Year",
stacked=True,
legend="top_left",
colormap=["brown", "orange", "black", "grey", "blue", "green"],
title="Worldwide energy consumption split by energy source",
ylabel="Million tonnes oil equivalent",
ylim=(0, 16000))

Note that the energy consumption of fossile energy is still increasing and renewable energy sources are still small in comparison 😢!!! However, when we norm the plot using the normed keyword, there is a clear trend towards renewable energies in the last decade:

df_energy.plot_bokeh.area(
x="Year",
stacked=True,
normed=100,
legend="bottom_left",
colormap=["brown", "orange", "black", "grey", "blue", "green"],
title="Worldwide energy consumption split by energy source",
ylabel="Million tonnes oil equivalent")

Pieplot

For Pieplots, let us consider a dataset showing the results of all Bundestags elections in Germany since 2002:

df_pie = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/Bundestagswahl/Bundestagswahl.csv")
df_pie

We can create a Pieplot of the last election in 2017 by specifying the "Partei" (german for party) column as the x column and the "2017" column as the y column for values:

df_pie.plot_bokeh.pie(
x="Partei",
y="2017",
colormap=["blue", "red", "yellow", "green", "purple", "orange", "grey"],
title="Results of German Bundestag Election 2017",
)

When you pass several columns to the y parameter (not providing the y-parameter assumes you plot all columns), multiple nested pieplots will be shown in one plot:

df_pie.plot_bokeh.pie(
x="Partei",
colormap=["blue", "red", "yellow", "green", "purple", "orange", "grey"],
title="Results of German Bundestag Elections [2002-2017]",
line_color="grey")

Mapplot

The mapplot method of Pandas-Bokeh allows for plotting geographic points stored in a Pandas DataFrame on an interactive map. For more advanced Geoplots for line and polygon shapes have a look at the Geoplots examples for the GeoPandas API of Pandas-Bokeh.

For mapplots, only (latitude, longitude) pairs in geographic projection (WGS84) can be plotted on a map. The basic API has the following 2 base parameters:

• x: name of the longitude column of the DataFrame
• y: name of the latitude column of the DataFrame

The other optional keyword arguments are discussed in the section about the GeoPandas API, e.g. category for coloring the points.

Below an example of plotting all cities for more than 1 million inhabitants:

df_mapplot = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/populated_places.csv")
df_mapplot.head()
df_mapplot["size"] = df_mapplot["pop_max"] / 1000000
df_mapplot.plot_bokeh.map(
x="longitude",
y="latitude",
hovertool_string="""<h2> @{name} </h2>

<h3> Population: @{pop_max} </h3>""",
tile_provider="STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA",
size="size",
figsize=(900, 600),
title="World cities with more than 1.000.000 inhabitants")

## Geoplots

Pandas-Bokeh also allows for interactive plotting of Maps using GeoPandas by providing a geopandas.GeoDataFrame.plot_bokeh() method. It allows to plot the following geodata on a map :

• Points/MultiPoints
• Lines/MultiLines
• Polygons/MultiPolygons

Note: t is not possible to mix up the objects types, i.e. a GeoDataFrame with Points and Lines is for example not allowed.

Les us start with a simple example using the "World Borders Dataset" . Let us first import all neccessary libraries and read the shapefile:

import geopandas as gpd
import pandas as pd
import pandas_bokeh
pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

df_states.head()

Plotting the data on a map is as simple as calling:

df_states.plot_bokeh(simplify_shapes=10000)

We also passed the optional parameter simplify_shapes (~meter) to improve plotting performance (for a reference see shapely.object.simplify). The above geolayer thus has an accuracy of about 10km.

Many keyword arguments like xlabel, ylabel, xlim, ylim, title, colormap, hovertool, zooming, panning, ... for costumizing the plot are also available for the geoplotting API and can be uses as in the examples shown above. There are however also many other options especially for plotting geodata:

• geometry_column: Specify the column that stores the geometry-information (default: "geometry")
• hovertool_columns: Specify column names, for which values should be shown in hovertool
• hovertool_string: If specified, this string will be used for the hovertool (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation)
• colormap_uselog: If set True, the colormapper is using a logscale. Default: False
• colormap_range: Specify the value range of the colormapper via (min, max) tuple
• tile_provider: Define build-in tile provider for background maps. Possible values: None, 'CARTODBPOSITRON', 'CARTODBPOSITRON_RETINA', 'STAMEN_TERRAIN', 'STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA', 'STAMEN_TONER', 'STAMEN_TONER_BACKGROUND', 'STAMEN_TONER_LABELS'. Default: CARTODBPOSITRON_RETINA
• tile_provider_url: An arbitraty tile_provider_url of the form '/{Z}/{X}/{Y}*.png' can be passed to be used as background map.
• tile_attribution: String (also HTML accepted) for showing attribution for tile source in the lower right corner
• tile_alpha: Sets the alpha value of the background tile between [0, 1]. Default: 1

One of the most common usage of map plots are choropleth maps, where the color of a the objects is determined by the property of the object itself. There are 3 ways of drawing choropleth maps using Pandas-Bokeh, which are described below.

### Categories

This is the simplest way. Just provide the category keyword for the selection of the property column:

• category: Specifies the column of the GeoDataFrame that should be used to draw a choropleth map
• show_colorbar: Whether or not to show a colorbar for categorical plots. Default: True

Let us now draw the regions as a choropleth plot using the category keyword (at the moment, only numerical columns are supported for choropleth plots):

df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(900, 600),
simplify_shapes=5000,
category="REGION",
show_colorbar=False,
colormap=["blue", "yellow", "green", "red"],
hovertool_columns=["STATE_NAME", "REGION"],
tile_provider="STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA")

When hovering over the states, the state-name and the region are shown as specified in the hovertool_columns argument.

### Dropdown

By passing a list of column names of the GeoDataFrame as the dropdown keyword argument, a dropdown menu is shown above the map. This dropdown menu can be used to select the choropleth layer by the user. :

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(900, 600),
simplify_shapes=5000,
dropdown=["POPESTIMATE2010", "POPESTIMATE2017"],
colormap="Viridis",
hovertool_string="""
<img
src="https://www.states101.com/img/flags/gif/small/@STATE_NAME_SMALL.gif"
height="42" alt="@imgs" width="42"
style="float: left; margin: 0px 15px 15px 0px;"
border="2"></img>

<h2>  @STATE_NAME </h2>
<h3> 2010: @POPESTIMATE2010 </h3>
<h3> 2017: @POPESTIMATE2017 </h3>""",
tile_provider_url=r"http://c.tile.stamen.com/watercolor/{Z}/{X}/{Y}.jpg",
tile_attribution='Map tiles by <a href="http://stamen.com">Stamen Design</a>, under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0">CC BY 3.0</a>. Data by <a href="http://openstreetmap.org">OpenStreetMap</a>, under <a href="http://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright">ODbL</a>.'
)

Using hovertool_string, one can pass a string that can contain arbitrary HTML elements (including divs, images, ...) that is shown when hovering over the geographies (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation).

Here, we also used an OSM tile server with watercolor style via tile_provider_url and added the attribution via tile_attribution.

### Sliders

Another option for interactive choropleth maps is the slider implementation of Pandas-Bokeh. The possible keyword arguments are here:

• slider: By passing a list of column names of the GeoDataFrame, a slider can be used to . This dropdown menu can be used to select the choropleth layer by the user.
• slider_range: Pass a range (or numpy.arange) of numbers object to relate the sliders values with the slider columns. By passing range(0,10), the slider will have values [0, 1, 2, ..., 9], when passing numpy.arange(3,5,0.5), the slider will have values [3, 3.5, 4, 4.5]. Default: range(0, len(slider))
• slider_name: Specifies the title of the slider. Default is an empty string.

This can be used to display the change in population relative to the year 2010:


#Calculate change of population relative to 2010:
for i in range(8):
df_states["Delta_Population_201%d"%i] = ((df_states["POPESTIMATE201%d"%i] / df_states["POPESTIMATE2010"]) -1 ) * 100

#Specify slider columns:
slider_columns = ["Delta_Population_201%d"%i for i in range(8)]

#Specify slider-range (Maps "Delta_Population_2010" -> 2010,
#                           "Delta_Population_2011" -> 2011, ...):
slider_range = range(2010, 2018)

#Make slider plot:
df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(900, 600),
simplify_shapes=5000,
slider=slider_columns,
slider_range=slider_range,
slider_name="Year",
colormap="Inferno",
hovertool_columns=["STATE_NAME"] + slider_columns,
title="Change of Population [%]")

### Plot multiple geolayers

If you wish to display multiple geolayers, you can pass the Bokeh figure of a Pandas-Bokeh plot via the figure keyword to the next plot_bokeh() call:

import geopandas as gpd
import pandas_bokeh
pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

# Read in GeoJSONs from URL:
r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/ne_10m_populated_places_simple_bigcities.geojson"
)
df_cities["size"] = df_cities.pop_max / 400000

#Plot shapes of US states (pass figure options to this initial plot):
figure = df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(800, 450),
simplify_shapes=10000,
show_figure=False,
xlim=[-170, -80],
ylim=[10, 70],
category="REGION",
colormap="Dark2",
legend="States",
show_colorbar=False,
)

#Plot cities as points on top of the US states layer by passing the figure:
df_cities.plot_bokeh(
figure=figure,         # <== pass figure here!
category="pop_max",
colormap="Viridis",
colormap_uselog=True,
size="size",
hovertool_string="""<h1>@name</h1>
<h3>Population: @pop_max </h3>""",
marker="inverted_triangle",
legend="Cities",
)

### Point & Line plots:

Below, you can see an example that use Pandas-Bokeh to plot point data on a map. The plot shows all cities with a population larger than 1.000.000. For point plots, you can select the marker as keyword argument (since it is passed to bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter). Here an overview of all available marker types:

gdf = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/ne_10m_populated_places_simple_bigcities.geojson")
gdf["size"] = gdf.pop_max / 400000

gdf.plot_bokeh(
category="pop_max",
colormap="Viridis",
colormap_uselog=True,
size="size",
hovertool_string="""<h1>@name</h1>
<h3>Population: @pop_max </h3>""",
xlim=[-15, 35],
ylim=[30,60],
marker="inverted_triangle");

In a similar way, also GeoDataFrames with (multi)line shapes can be drawn using Pandas-Bokeh.

### Colorbar formatting:

If you want to display the numerical labels on your colorbar with an alternative to the scientific format, you can pass in a one of the bokeh number string formats or an instance of one of the bokeh.models.formatters to the colorbar_tick_format argument in the geoplot

An example of using the string format argument:

df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

# pass in a string format to colorbar_tick_format to display the ticks as 10m rather than 1e7
df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(900, 600),
category="POPESTIMATE2017",
simplify_shapes=5000,
colormap="Inferno",
colormap_uselog=True,
colorbar_tick_format="0.0a")

An example of using the bokeh PrintfTickFormatter:

df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

for i in range(8):
df_states["Delta_Population_201%d"%i] = ((df_states["POPESTIMATE201%d"%i] / df_states["POPESTIMATE2010"]) -1 ) * 100

# pass in a PrintfTickFormatter instance colorbar_tick_format to display the ticks with 2 decimal places
df_states.plot_bokeh(
figsize=(900, 600),
category="Delta_Population_2017",
simplify_shapes=5000,
colormap="Inferno",
colorbar_tick_format=PrintfTickFormatter(format="%4.2f"))

## Outputs, Formatting & Layouts

### Output options

The pandas.DataFrame.plot_bokeh API has the following additional keyword arguments:

• show_figure: If True, the resulting figure is shown (either in the notebook or exported and shown as HTML file, see Basics. If False, None is returned. Default: True
• return_html: If True, the method call returns an HTML string that contains all Bokeh CSS&JS resources and the figure embedded in a div. This HTML representation of the plot can be used for embedding the plot in an HTML document. Default: False

If you have a Bokeh figure or layout, you can also use the pandas_bokeh.embedded_html function to generate an embeddable HTML representation of the plot. This can be included into any valid HTML (note that this is not possible directly with the HTML generated by the pandas_bokeh.output_file output option, because it includes an HTML header). Let us consider the following simple example:

#Import Pandas and Pandas-Bokeh (if you do not specify an output option, the standard is
#output_file):
import pandas as pd
import pandas_bokeh

#Create DataFrame to Plot:
import numpy as np
x = np.arange(-10, 10, 0.1)
sin = np.sin(x)
cos = np.cos(x)
tan = np.tan(x)
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "sin(x)": sin, "cos(x)": cos, "tan(x)": tan})

#Make Bokeh plot from DataFrame using Pandas-Bokeh. Do not show the plot, but export
#it to an embeddable HTML string:
html_plot = df.plot_bokeh(
kind="line",
x="x",
y=["sin(x)", "cos(x)", "tan(x)"],
xticks=range(-20, 20),
title="Trigonometric functions",
show_figure=False,
return_html=True,
ylim=(-1.5, 1.5))

#Write some HTML and embed the HTML plot below it. For production use, please use
#Templates and the awesome Jinja library.
html = r"""
<script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
MathJax.Hub.Config({tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\$','\$']]}});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML_HTMLorMML">
</script>

<h1> Trigonometric functions </h1>

<p> The basic trigonometric functions are:</p>

<p>$sin(x)$</p>
<p>$cos(x)$</p>
<p>$tan(x) = \frac{sin(x)}{cos(x)}$</p>

<p>Below is a plot that shows them</p>

""" + html_plot

#Export the HTML string to an external HTML file and show it:
with open("test.html" , "w") as f:
f.write(html)

import webbrowser
webbrowser.open("test.html")

This code will open up a webbrowser and show the following page. As you can see, the interactive Bokeh plot is embedded nicely into the HTML layout. The return_html option is ideal for the use in a templating engine like Jinja.

### Auto Scaling Plots

For single plots that have a number of x axis values or for larger monitors, you can auto scale the figure to the width of the entire jupyter cell by setting the sizing_mode parameter.

df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.rand(10, 4), columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']) df.plot_bokeh(kind="bar", figsize=(500, 200), sizing_mode="scale_width")

The figsize parameter can be used to change the height and width as well as act as a scaling multiplier against the axis that is not being scaled.

### Number formats

To change the formats of numbers in the hovertool, use the number_format keyword argument. For a documentation about the format to pass, have a look at the Bokeh documentation.Let us consider some examples for the number 3.141592653589793:

This number format will be applied to all numeric columns of the hovertool. If you want to make a very custom or complicated hovertool, you should probably use the hovertool_string keyword argument, see e.g. this example. Below, we use the number_format parameter to specify the "Stock Price" format to 2 decimal digits and an additional $sign. import numpy as np #Lineplot: np.random.seed(42) df = pd.DataFrame({ "Google": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.2, "Apple": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.17 }, index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000)) df = df.cumsum() df = df + 50 df.plot_bokeh( kind="line", title="Apple vs Google", xlabel="Date", ylabel="Stock price [$]",
yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
ylim=(0, 400),
colormap=["red", "blue"],
number_format="1.00 $") #### Suppress scientific notation for axes If you want to suppress the scientific notation for axes, you can use the disable_scientific_axes parameter, which accepts one of "x", "y", "xy": df = pd.DataFrame({"Animal": ["Mouse", "Rabbit", "Dog", "Tiger", "Elefant", "Wale"], "Weight [g]": [19, 3000, 40000, 200000, 6000000, 50000000]}) p_scientific = df.plot_bokeh(x="Animal", y="Weight [g]", show_figure=False) p_non_scientific = df.plot_bokeh(x="Animal", y="Weight [g]", disable_scientific_axes="y", show_figure=False,) pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_scientific, p_non_scientific]], plot_width = 450) ### Dashboard Layouts As shown in the Scatterplot Example, combining plots with plots or other HTML elements is straighforward in Pandas-Bokeh due to the layout capabilities of Bokeh. The easiest way to generate a dashboard layout is using the pandas_bokeh.plot_grid method (which is an extension of bokeh.layouts.gridplot): import pandas as pd import numpy as np import pandas_bokeh pandas_bokeh.output_notebook() #Barplot: data = { 'fruits': ['Apples', 'Pears', 'Nectarines', 'Plums', 'Grapes', 'Strawberries'], '2015': [2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4], '2016': [5, 3, 3, 2, 4, 6], '2017': [3, 2, 4, 4, 5, 3] } df = pd.DataFrame(data).set_index("fruits") p_bar = df.plot_bokeh( kind="bar", ylabel="Price per Unit [€]", title="Fruit prices per Year", show_figure=False) #Lineplot: np.random.seed(42) df = pd.DataFrame({ "Google": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.2, "Apple": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.17 }, index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000)) df = df.cumsum() df = df + 50 p_line = df.plot_bokeh( kind="line", title="Apple vs Google", xlabel="Date", ylabel="Stock price [$]",
yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
ylim=(0, 400),
colormap=["red", "blue"],
show_figure=False)

#Scatterplot:
df = pd.DataFrame(iris["data"])
df.columns = iris["feature_names"]
df["species"] = iris["target"]
df["species"] = df["species"].map(dict(zip(range(3), iris["target_names"])))
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh(
kind="scatter",
x="petal length (cm)",
y="sepal width (cm)",
category="species",
title="Iris DataSet Visualization",
show_figure=False)

#Histogram:
df_hist = pd.DataFrame({
'a': np.random.randn(1000) + 1,
'b': np.random.randn(1000),
'c': np.random.randn(1000) - 1
},
columns=['a', 'b', 'c'])

p_hist = df_hist.plot_bokeh(
kind="hist",
bins=np.arange(-6, 6.5, 0.5),
vertical_xlabel=True,
normed=100,
hovertool=False,
title="Normal distributions",
show_figure=False)

#Make Dashboard with Grid Layout:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_line, p_bar],
[p_scatter, p_hist]], plot_width=450)

Using a combination of row and column elements (see also Bokeh Layouts) allow for a very easy general arrangement of elements. An alternative layout to the one above is:

p_line.plot_width = 900
p_hist.plot_width = 900

layout = pandas_bokeh.column(p_line,
pandas_bokeh.row(p_scatter, p_bar),
p_hist)

pandas_bokeh.show(layout)

Release Notes

Release Notes can be found here.

Contributing to Pandas-Bokeh

If you wish to contribute to the development of Pandas-Bokeh` you can follow the instructions on the CONTRIBUTING.md.

Author: PatrikHlobil
Source Code: https://github.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh