Django in Ubuntu 18.04 on Azure VM gunicorn Can't connect to ('0.0.0.0', 80)

I'm trying to deploy my Django application to Azure virtual machine with Ubuntu 18.04.

I'm trying to deploy my Django application to Azure virtual machine with Ubuntu 18.04.

  1. I have set up the VM and connect to it via SSH.
  2. Then run the update and upgrade command
  3. Setup Python and Virtualenvironment
  4. Upload my code and activate the environment
  5. Allow the port 8000 using sudo ufw allow 8000 for testing
  6. After installing all the requirements, when I run the command:
python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

The application runs, but when I open the URL as: :8000/

It doesn't return anything not any errors in the console

Update: It's just fixed by manually adding the port 8000 in azure portal under Inbound port rules. But: when I try to run it via gunicorn as:
gunicorn --pythonpath PROJECT PROJECT.wsgi:application --log-file - --bind 0.0.0.0:80

it returns another error as below:

[30007] [ERROR] Can't connect to ('0.0.0.0', 80)

What can be wrong here?

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How To Install the Django Web Framework on Ubuntu 18.04

How To Install the Django Web Framework on Ubuntu 18.04

In this guide, you will get Django up and running on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. After installation, you will start a new project to use as the basis for your site.

In this guide, you will get Django up and running on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. After installation, you will start a new project to use as the basis for your site.

Introduction

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.

Different Methods

There are different ways to install Django, depending upon your needs and how you want to configure your development environment. These have different advantages and one method may lend itself better to your specific situation than others.

Some of the different methods include:

  • Global install from packages: The official Ubuntu repositories contain Django packages that can be installed with the conventional apt package manager. This is simple, but not as flexible as some other methods. Also, the version contained in the repositories may lag behind the official versions available from the project.
  • Install with **pip** in a virtual environment: You can create a self-contained environment for your projects using tools like venv and virtualenv. A virtual environment allows you to install Django in a project directory without affecting the larger system, along with other per-project customizations and packages. This is typically the most practical and recommended approach to working with Django.
  • Development version install with **git**: If you wish to install the latest development version instead of the stable release, you can acquire the code from the Git repo. This is necessary to get the latest features/fixes and can be done within your virtual environment. Development versions do not have the same stability guarantees as more stable versions, however.
Prerequisites

Before you begin, you should have a non-root user with sudo privileges available on your Ubuntu 18.04 server.

Global Install from Packages

If you wish to install Django using the Ubuntu repositories, the process is very straightforward.

First, update your local package index with apt:

sudo apt update

Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

python3 -V

You should see output like this:

Output
Python 3.6.5 

Next, install Django:

sudo apt install python3-django

You can test that the installation was successful by typing:

django-admin --version
Output
1.11.11 

This means that the software was successfully installed. You may also notice that the Django version is not the latest stable version.

Install with pip in a Virtual Environment

The most flexible way to install Django on your system is within a virtual environment. We will show you how to install Django in a virtual environment that we will create with the venv module, part of the standard Python 3 library. This tool allows you to create virtual Python environments and install Python packages without affecting the rest of the system. You can therefore select Python packages on a per-project basis, regardless of conflicts with other projects' requirements.

Let's begin by refreshing the local package index:

sudo apt update

Check the version of Python you have installed:

python3 -V
Output
Python 3.6.5 

Next, let's install pip from the Ubuntu repositories:

sudo apt install python3-pip

Once pip is installed, you can use it to install the venv package:

sudo apt install python3-venv

Now, whenever you start a new project, you can create a virtual environment for it. Start by creating and moving into a new project directory:

mkdir ~/newproject
cd ~/newproject

Next, create a virtual environment within the project directory using the python command that's compatible with your version of Python. We will call our virtual environment my_env, but you should name it something descriptive:

python3.6 -m venv my_env

This will install standalone versions of Python and pip into an isolated directory structure within your project directory. A directory will be created with the name you select, which will hold the file hierarchy where your packages will be installed.

To install packages into the isolated environment, you must activate it by typing:

source my_env/bin/activate

Your prompt should change to reflect that you are now in your virtual environment. It will look something like (my_env)[email protected]:~/newproject$.

In your new environment, you can use pip to install Django. Regardless of your Python version, pip should just be called pip when you are in your virtual environment. Also note that you do not need to use sudo since you are installing locally:

pip install django

You can verify the installation by typing:

django-admin --version
Output
2.1 

Note that your version may differ from the version shown here.

To leave your virtual environment, you need to issue the deactivate command from anywhere on the system:

deactivate

Your prompt should revert to the conventional display. When you wish to work on your project again, re-activate your virtual environment by moving back into your project directory and activating:

cd ~/newproject
source my_env/bin/activate

Development Version Install with Git

If you need a development version of Django, you can download and install Django from its Git repository. Let's do this from within a virtual environment.

First, let's update the local package index:

sudo apt update

Check the version of Python you have installed:

python3 -V
Output
Python 3.6.5 

Next, install pip from the official repositories:

sudo apt install python3-pip

Install the venv package to create your virtual environment:

sudo apt install python3-venv

The next step is cloning the Django repository. Between releases, this repository will have more up-to-date features and bug fixes at the possible expense of stability. You can clone the repository to a directory called ~/django-dev within your home directory by typing:

git clone git://github.com/django/django ~/django-dev

Change to this directory:

cd ~/django-dev

Create a virtual environment using the python command that's compatible with your installed version of Python:

python3.6 -m venv my_env

Activate it:

source my_env/bin/activate

Next, you can install the repository using pip. The -e option will install in "editable" mode, which is necessary when installing from version control:

pip install -e ~/django-dev

You can verify that the installation was successful by typing:

django-admin --version
Output
2.2.dev20180802155335 

Again, the version you see displayed may not match what is shown here.

You now have the latest version of Django in your virtual environment.

Creating a Sample Project

With Django installed, you can begin building your project. We will go over how to create a project and test it on your development server using a virtual environment.

First, create a directory for your project and change into it:

mkdir ~/django-test
cd ~/django-test

Next, create your virtual environment:

python3.6 -m venv my_env

Activate the environment:

source my_env/bin/activate

Install Django:

pip install django

To build your project, you can use django-admin with the startproject command. We will call our project djangoproject, but you can replace this with a different name. startproject will create a directory within your current working directory that includes:

  • A management script, manage.py, which you can use to administer various Django-specific tasks.
  • A directory (with the same name as the project) that includes the actual project code.

To avoid having too many nested directories, however, let's tell Django to place the management script and inner directory in the current directory (notice the ending dot):

django-admin startproject djangoproject .

To migrate the database (this example uses SQLite by default), let's use the migrate command with manage.py. Migrations apply any changes you've made to your Django models to your database schema.

To migrate the database, type:

python manage.py migrate

You will see output like the following:

Output
Operations to perform: Apply all migrations: admin, auth, contenttypes, sessions Running migrations: Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK Applying auth.0001_initial... OK Applying admin.0001_initial... OK Applying admin.0002_logentry_remove_auto_add... OK Applying admin.0003_logentry_add_action_flag_choices... OK Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK Applying auth.0002_alter_permission_name_max_length... OK Applying auth.0003_alter_user_email_max_length... OK Applying auth.0004_alter_user_username_opts... OK Applying auth.0005_alter_user_last_login_null... OK Applying auth.0006_require_contenttypes_0002... OK Applying auth.0007_alter_validators_add_error_messages... OK Applying auth.0008_alter_user_username_max_length... OK Applying auth.0009_alter_user_last_name_max_length... OK Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK 

Finally, let's create an administrative user so that you can use the Djano admin interface. Let's do this with the createsuperuser command:

python manage.py createsuperuser

You will be prompted for a username, an email address, and a password for your user.

Modifying ALLOWED_HOSTS in the Django Settings

To successfully test your application, you will need to modify one of the directives in the Django settings.

Open the settings file by typing:

nano ~/django-test/djangoproject/settings.py

Inside, locate the ALLOWED_HOSTS directive. This defines a whitelist of addresses or domain names that may be used to connect to the Django instance. An incoming request with a Host header that is not in this list will raise an exception. Django requires that you set this to prevent a certain class of security vulnerability.

In the square brackets, list the IP addresses or domain names that are associated with your Django server. Each item should be listed in quotations, with separate entries separated by a comma. If you want requests for an entire domain and any subdomains, prepend a period to the beginning of the entry:

~/django-test/djangoproject/settings.py

. . . ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['your_server_ip_or_domain', 'your_second_ip_or_domain', . . .] 

When you are finished, save the file and exit your editor.

Testing the Development Server

Once you have a user, you can start up the Django development server to see what a fresh Django project looks like. You should only use this for development purposes. When you are ready to deploy, be sure to follow Django's guidelines on deployment carefully.

Before you try the development server, make sure you open the appropriate port in your firewall. If you followed the initial server setup guide and are using UFW, you can open port 8000 by typing:

sudo ufw allow 8000

Start the development server:

python manage.py runserver your_server_ip:8000

Visit your server's IP address followed by :8000 in your web browser:

http://your_server_ip:8000 

You should see something that looks like this:

To access the admin interface, add /admin/ to the end of your URL:

http://your_server_ip:8000/admin/ 

This will take you to a log in screen:

If you enter the admin username and password that you just created, you will have access to the main admin section of the site:

When you are finished looking through the default site, you can stop the development server by typing CTRL-C in your terminal.

The Django project you've created provides the structural basis for designing a more complete site. Check out the Django documentation for more information about how to build your applications and customize your site.

Conclusion

You should now have Django installed on your Ubuntu 18.04 server, providing the main tools you need to create powerful web applications. You should also know how to start a new project and launch the developer server. Leveraging a complete web framework like Django can help make development faster, allowing you to concentrate only on the unique aspects of your applications.

How To Set Up Django with Postgres, Nginx, and Gunicorn on Ubuntu 16.04

How To Set Up Django with Postgres, Nginx, and Gunicorn on Ubuntu 16.04

In this guide, we will demonstrate how to install and configure some components on Ubuntu 16.04 to support and serve Django applications. We will be setting up a PostgreSQL database instead of using the default SQLite database. We will configure the Gunicorn application server to interface with our applications. We will then set up Nginx to reverse proxy to Gunicorn, giving us access to its security and performance features to serve our apps.

In this guide, we will demonstrate how to install and configure some components on Ubuntu 16.04 to support and serve Django applications. We will be setting up a PostgreSQL database instead of using the default SQLite database. We will configure the Gunicorn application server to interface with our applications. We will then set up Nginx to reverse proxy to Gunicorn, giving us access to its security and performance features to serve our apps.

Introduction

Django is a powerful web framework that can help you get your Python application or website off the ground. Django includes a simplified development server for testing your code locally, but for anything even slightly production related, a more secure and powerful web server is required.

Prerequisites and Goals

In order to complete this guide, you should have a fresh Ubuntu 16.04 server instance with a non-root user with sudo privileges configured. You can learn how to set this up by running through our initial server setup guide.

We will be installing Django within a virtual environment. Installing Django into an environment specific to your project will allow your projects and their requirements to be handled separately.

Once we have our database and application up and running, we will install and configure the Gunicorn application server. This will serve as an interface to our application, translating client requests in HTTP to Python calls that our application can process. We will then set up Nginx in front of Gunicorn to take advantage of its high performance connection handling mechanisms and its easy-to-implement security features.

Let’s get started.

Install the Packages from the Ubuntu Repositories

To begin the process, we’ll download and install all of the items we need from the Ubuntu repositories. We will use the Python package manager pip to install additional components a bit later.

We need to update the local apt package index and then download and install the packages. The packages we install depend on which version of Python your project will use.

If you are using Python 2, type:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install python-pip python-dev libpq-dev postgresql postgresql-contrib nginx


If you are using Django with Python 3, type:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install python3-pip python3-dev libpq-dev postgresql postgresql-contrib nginx


This will install pip, the Python development files needed to build Gunicorn later, the Postgres database system and the libraries needed to interact with it, and the Nginx web server.

Create the PostgreSQL Database and User

We’re going to jump right in and create a database and database user for our Django application.

By default, Postgres uses an authentication scheme called “peer authentication” for local connections. Basically, this means that if the user’s operating system username matches a valid Postgres username, that user can login with no further authentication.

During the Postgres installation, an operating system user named postgres was created to correspond to the postgres PostgreSQL administrative user. We need to use this user to perform administrative tasks. We can use sudo and pass in the username with the -u option.

Log into an interactive Postgres session by typing:

sudo -u postgres psql


You will be given a PostgreSQL prompt where we can set up our requirements.

First, create a database for your project:

CREATE DATABASE myproject;


Every Postgres statement must end with a semi-colon, so make sure that your command ends with one if you are experiencing issues.

Next, create a database user for our project. Make sure to select a secure password:

CREATE USER myprojectuser WITH PASSWORD 'password';


Afterwards, we’ll modify a few of the connection parameters for the user we just created. This will speed up database operations so that the correct values do not have to be queried and set each time a connection is established.

We are setting the default encoding to UTF-8, which Django expects. We are also setting the default transaction isolation scheme to “read committed”, which blocks reads from uncommitted transactions. Lastly, we are setting the timezone. By default, our Django projects will be set to use UTC. These are all recommendations from the Django project itself:

ALTER ROLE myprojectuser SET client_encoding TO 'utf8';
ALTER ROLE myprojectuser SET default_transaction_isolation TO 'read committed';
ALTER ROLE myprojectuser SET timezone TO 'UTC';


Now, we can give our new user access to administer our new database:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE myproject TO myprojectuser;


When you are finished, exit out of the PostgreSQL prompt by typing:

\q


Create a Python Virtual Environment for your Project

Now that we have our database, we can begin getting the rest of our project requirements ready. We will be installing our Python requirements within a virtual environment for easier management.

To do this, we first need access to the virtualenv command. We can install this with pip.

If you are using Python 2, upgrade pip and install the package by typing:

sudo -H pip install --upgrade pip
sudo -H pip install virtualenv


If you are using Python 3, upgrade pip and install the package by typing:

sudo -H pip3 install --upgrade pip
sudo -H pip3 install virtualenv


With virtualenv installed, we can start forming our project. Create and move into a directory where we can keep our project files:

mkdir ~/myproject
cd ~/myproject


Within the project directory, create a Python virtual environment by typing:

virtualenv myprojectenv


This will create a directory called myprojectenv within your myproject directory. Inside, it will install a local version of Python and a local version of pip. We can use this to install and configure an isolated Python environment for our project.

Before we install our project’s Python requirements, we need to activate the virtual environment. You can do that by typing:

source myprojectenv/bin/activate


Your prompt should change to indicate that you are now operating within a Python virtual environment. It will look something like this: (myprojectenv)[email protected]:~/myproject$.

With your virtual environment active, install Django, Gunicorn, and the psycopg2 PostgreSQL adaptor with the local instance of pip:

Note

Regardless of which version of Python you are using, when the virtual environment is activated, you should use the pip command (not pip3).

pip install django gunicorn psycopg2


You should now have all of the software needed to start a Django project.

Create and Configure a New Django Project

With our Python components installed, we can create the actual Django project files.

Create the Django Project

Since we already have a project directory, we will tell Django to install the files here. It will create a second level directory with the actual code, which is normal, and place a management script in this directory. The key to this is that we are defining the directory explicitly instead of allowing Django to make decisions relative to our current directory:

django-admin.py startproject myproject ~/myproject


At this point, your project directory (~/myproject in our case) should have the following content:

  • ~/myproject/manage.py: A Django project management script.
  • ~/myproject/myproject/: The Django project package. This should contain the __init__.py, settings.py, urls.py, and wsgi.py files.
  • ~/myproject/myprojectenv/: The virtual environment directory we created earlier.

Adjust the Project Settings

The first thing we should do with our newly created project files is adjust the settings. Open the settings file in your text editor:

nano ~/myproject/myproject/settings.py


Start by locating the ALLOWED_HOSTS directive. This defines a list of the server’s addresses or domain names may be used to connect to the Django instance. Any incoming requests with a Host header that is not in this list will raise an exception. Django requires that you set this to prevent a certain class of security vulnerability.

In the square brackets, list the IP addresses or domain names that are associated with your Django server. Each item should be listed in quotations with entries separated by a comma. If you wish requests for an entire domain and any subdomains, prepend a period to the beginning of the entry. In the snippet below, there are a few commented out examples used to demonstrate:

~/myproject/myproject/settings.py

. . .
# The simplest case: just add the domain name(s) and IP addresses of your Django server
# ALLOWED_HOSTS = [ 'example.com', '203.0.113.5']
# To respond to 'example.com' and any subdomains, start the domain with a dot
# ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['.example.com', '203.0.113.5']
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['your_server_domain_or_IP', 'second_domain_or_IP', . . .]


Next, find the section that configures database access. It will start with DATABASES. The configuration in the file is for a SQLite database. We already created a PostgreSQL database for our project, so we need to adjust the settings.

Change the settings with your PostgreSQL database information. We tell Django to use the psycopg2 adaptor we installed with pip. We need to give the database name, the database username, the database user’s password, and then specify that the database is located on the local computer. You can leave the PORT setting as an empty string:

~/myproject/myproject/settings.py

. . .

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2',
        'NAME': 'myproject',
        'USER': 'myprojectuser',
        'PASSWORD': 'password',
        'HOST': 'localhost',
        'PORT': '',
    }
}

. . .


Next, move down to the bottom of the file and add a setting indicating where the static files should be placed. This is necessary so that Nginx can handle requests for these items. The following line tells Django to place them in a directory called static in the base project directory:

~/myproject/myproject/settings.py

. . .

STATIC_URL = '/static/'
STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'static/')


Save and close the file when you are finished.

Complete Initial Project Setup

Now, we can migrate the initial database schema to our PostgreSQL database using the management script:

~/myproject/manage.py makemigrations
~/myproject/manage.py migrate


Create an administrative user for the project by typing:

~/myproject/manage.py createsuperuser


You will have to select a username, provide an email address, and choose and confirm a password.

We can collect all of the static content into the directory location we configured by typing:

~/myproject/manage.py collectstatic


You will have to confirm the operation. The static files will then be placed in a directory called static within your project directory.

If you followed the initial server setup guide, you should have a UFW firewall protecting your server. In order to test the development server, we’ll have to allow access to the port we’ll be using.

Create an exception for port 8000 by typing:

sudo ufw allow 8000


Finally, you can test our your project by starting up the Django development server with this command:

~/myproject/manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000


In your web browser, visit your server’s domain name or IP address followed by :8000:

http://server_domain_or_IP:8000


You should see the default Django index page:

If you append /admin to the end of the URL in the address bar, you will be prompted for the administrative username and password you created with the createsuperuser command:

After authenticating, you can access the default Django admin interface:

When you are finished exploring, hit CTRL-C in the terminal window to shut down the development server.

Testing Gunicorn’s Ability to Serve the Project

The last thing we want to do before leaving our virtual environment is test Gunicorn to make sure that it can serve the application. We can do this by entering our project directory and using gunicorn to load the project’s WSGI module:

cd ~/myproject
gunicorn --bind 0.0.0.0:8000 myproject.wsgi


This will start Gunicorn on the same interface that the Django development server was running on. You can go back and test the app again.

Note: The admin interface will not have any of the styling applied since Gunicorn does not know about the static CSS content responsible for this.

We passed Gunicorn a module by specifying the relative directory path to Django’s wsgi.py file, which is the entry point to our application, using Python’s module syntax. Inside of this file, a function called application is defined, which is used to communicate with the application. To learn more about the WSGI specification, click here.

When you are finished testing, hit CTRL-C in the terminal window to stop Gunicorn.

We’re now finished configuring our Django application. We can back out of our virtual environment by typing:

deactivate


The virtual environment indicator in your prompt will be removed.

Create a Gunicorn systemd Service File

We have tested that Gunicorn can interact with our Django application, but we should implement a more robust way of starting and stopping the application server. To accomplish this, we’ll make a systemd service file.

Create and open a systemd service file for Gunicorn with sudo privileges in your text editor:

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service


Start with the [Unit] section, which is used to specify metadata and dependencies. We’ll put a description of our service here and tell the init system to only start this after the networking target has been reached:

/etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service

[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
After=network.target


Next, we’ll open up the [Service] section. We’ll specify the user and group that we want to process to run under. We will give our regular user account ownership of the process since it owns all of the relevant files. We’ll give group ownership to the www-data group so that Nginx can communicate easily with Gunicorn.

We’ll then map out the working directory and specify the command to use to start the service. In this case, we’ll have to specify the full path to the Gunicorn executable, which is installed within our virtual environment. We will bind it to a Unix socket within the project directory since Nginx is installed on the same computer. This is safer and faster than using a network port. We can also specify any optional Gunicorn tweaks here. For example, we specified 3 worker processes in this case:

/etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service

[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
After=network.target

[Service]
User=sammy
Group=www-data
WorkingDirectory=/home/sammy/myproject
ExecStart=/home/sammy/myproject/myprojectenv/bin/gunicorn --access-logfile - --workers 3 --bind unix:/home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock myproject.wsgi:application


Finally, we’ll add an [Install] section. This will tell systemd what to link this service to if we enable it to start at boot. We want this service to start when the regular multi-user system is up and running:

/etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service

[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
After=network.target

[Service]
User=sammy
Group=www-data
WorkingDirectory=/home/sammy/myproject
ExecStart=/home/sammy/myproject/myprojectenv/bin/gunicorn --access-logfile - --workers 3 --bind unix:/home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock myproject.wsgi:application

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


With that, our systemd service file is complete. Save and close it now.

We can now start the Gunicorn service we created and enable it so that it starts at boot:

sudo systemctl start gunicorn
sudo systemctl enable gunicorn


We can confirm that the operation was successful by checking for the socket file.

Check for the Gunicorn Socket File

Check the status of the process to find out whether it was able to start:

sudo systemctl status gunicorn


Next, check for the existence of the myproject.sock file within your project directory:

ls /home/sammy/myproject

Outputmanage.py  myproject  myprojectenv  myproject.sock  static


If the systemctl status command indicated that an error occurred or if you do not find the myproject.sock file in the directory, it’s an indication that Gunicorn was not able to start correctly. Check the Gunicorn process logs by typing:

sudo journalctl -u gunicorn


Take a look at the messages in the logs to find out where Gunicorn ran into problems. There are many reasons that you may have run into problems, but often, if Gunicorn was unable to create the socket file, it is for one of these reasons:

  • ~/myproject/manage.py: A Django project management script.
  • ~/myproject/myproject/: The Django project package. This should contain the __init__.py, settings.py, urls.py, and wsgi.py files.
  • ~/myproject/myprojectenv/: The virtual environment directory we created earlier.

If you make changes to the /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service file, reload the daemon to reread the service definition and restart the Gunicorn process by typing:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart gunicorn


Make sure you troubleshoot any of the above issues before continuing.

Configure Nginx to Proxy Pass to Gunicorn

Now that Gunicorn is set up, we need to configure Nginx to pass traffic to the process.

Start by creating and opening a new server block in Nginx’s sites-available directory:

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject


Inside, open up a new server block. We will start by specifying that this block should listen on the normal port 80 and that it should respond to our server’s domain name or IP address:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name server_domain_or_IP;
}


Next, we will tell Nginx to ignore any problems with finding a favicon. We will also tell it where to find the static assets that we collected in our ~/myproject/static directory. All of these files have a standard URI prefix of “/static”, so we can create a location block to match those requests:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name server_domain_or_IP;

    location = /favicon.ico { access_log off; log_not_found off; }
    location /static/ {
        root /home/sammy/myproject;
    }
}


Finally, we’ll create a location / {} block to match all other requests. Inside of this location, we’ll include the standard proxy_params file included with the Nginx installation and then we will pass the traffic to the socket that our Gunicorn process created:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name server_domain_or_IP;

    location = /favicon.ico { access_log off; log_not_found off; }
    location /static/ {
        root /home/sammy/myproject;
    }

    location / {
        include proxy_params;
        proxy_pass http://unix:/home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock;
    }
}


Save and close the file when you are finished. Now, we can enable the file by linking it to the sites-enabled directory:

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject /etc/nginx/sites-enabled


Test your Nginx configuration for syntax errors by typing:

sudo nginx -t


If no errors are reported, go ahead and restart Nginx by typing:

sudo systemctl restart nginx


Finally, we need to open up our firewall to normal traffic on port 80. Since we no longer need access to the development server, we can remove the rule to open port 8000 as well:

sudo ufw delete allow 8000
sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'


You should now be able to go to your server’s domain or IP address to view your application.

Note

After configuring Nginx, the next step should be securing traffic to the server using SSL/TLS. This is important because without it, all information, including passwords are sent over the network in plain text.

If you have a domain name, the easiest way get an SSL certificate to secure your traffic is using Let’s Encrypt. Follow this guide to set up Let’s Encrypt with Nginx on Ubuntu 16.04.

If you do not have a domain name, you can still secure your site for testing and learning with a self-signed SSL certificate.

Troubleshooting Nginx and Gunicorn

If this last step does not show your application, you will need to troubleshoot your installation.

Nginx Is Showing the Default Page Instead of the Django Application

If Nginx displays the default page instead of proxying to your application, it usually means that you need to adjust the server_name within the /etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject file to point to your server’s IP address or domain name.

Nginx uses the server_name to determine which server block to use to respond to requests. If you are seeing the default Nginx page, it is a sign that Nginx wasn’t able to match the request to a sever block explicitly, so it’s falling back on the default block defined in /etc/nginx/sites-available/default.

The server_name in your project’s server block must be more specific than the one in the default server block to be selected.

Nginx Is Displaying a 502 Bad Gateway Error Instead of the Django Application

A 502 error indicates that Nginx is unable to successfully proxy the request. A wide range of configuration problems express themselves with a 502 error, so more information is required to troubleshoot properly.

The primary place to look for more information is in Nginx’s error logs. Generally, this will tell you what conditions caused problems during the proxying event. Follow the Nginx error logs by typing:

sudo tail -F /var/log/nginx/error.log


Now, make another request in your browser to generate a fresh error (try refreshing the page). You should see a fresh error message written to the log. If you look at the message, it should help you narrow down the problem.

You might see some of the following message:

connect() to unix:/home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock failed (2: No such file or directory)

This indicates that Nginx was unable to find the myproject.sock file at the given location. You should compare the proxy_pass location defined within /etc/nginx/sites-available/myproject file to the actual location of the myproject.sock file generated in your project directory.

If you cannot find a myproject.sock file within your project directory, it generally means that the gunicorn process was unable to create it. Go back to the section on checking for the Gunicorn socket file to step through the troubleshooting steps for Gunicorn.

connect() to unix:/home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock failed (13: Permission denied)

This indicates that Nginx was unable to connect to the Gunicorn socket because of permissions problems. Usually, this happens when the procedure is followed using the root user instead of a sudo user. While the Gunicorn process is able to create the socket file, Nginx is unable to access it.

This can happen if there are limited permissions at any point between the root directory (/) the myproject.sock file. We can see the permissions and ownership values of the socket file and each of its parent directories by passing the absolute path to our socket file to the namei command:

namei -nom /home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock

Outputf: /home/sammy/myproject/myproject.sock
 drwxr-xr-x root  root     /
 drwxr-xr-x root  root     home
 drwxr-xr-x sammy sammy    sammy
 drwxrwxr-x sammy sammy    myproject
 srwxrwxrwx sammy www-data myproject.sock


The output displays the permissions of each of the directory components. By looking at the permissions (first column), owner (second column) and group owner (third column), we can figure out what type of access is allowed to the socket file.

In the above example, the socket file and each of the directories leading up to the socket file have world read and execute permissions (the permissions column for the directories end with r-x instead of ---). The Nginx process should be able to access the socket successfully.

If any of the directories leading up to the socket do not have world read and execute permission, Nginx will not be able to access the socket without allowing world read and execute permissions or making sure group ownership is given to a group that Nginx is a part of. For sensitive locations like the /root directory, both of the above options are dangerous. It’s better to move the project files outside of the directory, where you can safely control access without compromising security.

Django Is Displaying: “could not connect to server: Connection refused”

One message that you may see from Django when attempting to access parts of the application in the web browser is:

OperationalError at /admin/login/
could not connect to server: Connection refused
    Is the server running on host "localhost" (127.0.0.1) and accepting
    TCP/IP connections on port 5432?


This indicates that Django is unable to connect to the Postgres database. Make sure that the Postgres instance is running by typing:

sudo systemctl status postgresql


If it is not, you can start it and enable it to start automatically at boot (if it is not already configured to do so) by typing:

sudo systemctl start postgresql
sudo systemctl enable postgresql


If you are still having issues, make sure the database settings defined in the ~/myproject/myproject/settings.py file are correct.

Further Troubleshooting

For additional troubleshooting, the logs can help narrow down root causes. Check each of them in turn and look for messages indicating problem areas.

The following logs may be helpful:

  • ~/myproject/manage.py: A Django project management script.
  • ~/myproject/myproject/: The Django project package. This should contain the __init__.py, settings.py, urls.py, and wsgi.py files.
  • ~/myproject/myprojectenv/: The virtual environment directory we created earlier.

As you update your configuration or application, you will likely need to restart the processes to adjust to your changes.

If you update your Django application, you can restart the Gunicorn process to pick up the changes by typing:

sudo systemctl restart gunicorn


If you change gunicorn systemd service file, reload the daemon and restart the process by typing:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart gunicorn


If you change the Nginx server block configuration, test the configuration and then Nginx by typing:

sudo nginx -t && sudo systemctl restart nginx


These commands are helpful for picking up changes as you adjust your configuration.

Conclusion

In this guide, we’ve set up a Django project in its own virtual environment. We’ve configured Gunicorn to translate client requests so that Django can handle them. Afterwards, we set up Nginx to act as a reverse proxy to handle client connections and serve the correct project depending on the client request.

Django makes creating projects and applications simple by providing many of the common pieces, allowing you to focus on the unique elements. By leveraging the general tool chain described in this article, you can easily serve the applications you create from a single server.

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