5 Signs That Your REST API Isn't RESTful

5 Signs That Your REST API Isn't RESTful

This article is for developers who are wishing to implement a RESTful HTTP interface in its original Fieldingian meaning, thereby solving real integration problems that can be addressed only to a lesser extent with today’s colloquial interpretation of the concept.

This article is for developers who are wishing to implement a RESTful HTTP interface in its original Fieldingian meaning, thereby solving real integration problems that can be addressed only to a lesser extent with today’s colloquial interpretation of the concept.

The author provides five criteria to help you make the distinction between an API that is RESTful based on the original meaning versus the colloquial meaning of REST.

There is no doubt that the term REST has undergone significant changes since its inception by Roy Fielding. There was some resistance to this change, most notably from Mr. Fielding in his Untangled Blog. However, all those participating in this resistance have had to acknowledge defeat by now, as the industry has moved past them. We’re using the terms REST and REST API not for its original meaning, but, ironically enough, for (basically) opposing SOAP, an arguably more complex and difficult-to-use contender for integration technology.

Nowadays, everything that communicates over HTTP and uses JSON- or XML-formatted messages or the HTTP Methods (get, post, put, delete, etc.) gets called a RESTful API.

This article is not about discussing whether the term is used correctly, whether certain projects are allowed to use the term, or to argue that the currently implemented APIs are somehow defective.

This article is for developers who are wishing to implement a RESTful HTTP interface in its original Fieldingian meaning, thereby solving real integration problems that can be addressed only to a lesser extent with today’s colloquial interpretation of the concept.

Because the currently available resources (documentation and software) are ambiguous at best, this article offers a simple list of often seen attributes which can help to keep a design on the right track or to differentiate between the original and new interpretation of REST.

1. Using the Application/JSON Media Type

One of the most often seen attributes of API designs is to use the Media Type application/JSON or sometimes application/XML. With Jersey (JAX-RS), it looks often like this:

public List<Product> getProducts() {

Using generic media types such as JSON is fundamentally not RESTful because REST requires the messages to be self-descriptive. Self-descriptiveness just means that the semantics of the data should travel with the data itself.

The difference is similar to the following two options. See which one you would prefer:

Object getProducts();


List<Product> getProducts();

The first one just says it returns an Object, in which case you have to know what actual type that object is to be able to cast and use it. The second one explicitly states that it is, in fact, a list of products.

By using generic Media Types, you are relying on the client to know what is inside that JSON message and how to interpret it. This is called implicit knowledge and is primarily responsible for brittleness, the tendency for something to break because of changes made elsewhere.

To counteract brittleness, it is best if all messages define their own Media Type, just as all Types in code define their own Class. This definition should not just include syntax but also how to interpret the message, how to follow its links, how to process its forms if there are any, how to display it on screen, and so on.

2. IDs in Representations

Often, representations returned from the server (or sent to the server) contain IDs (Identifiers) in form of numbers, similar to number typed primary keys in a database table. It looks like this:

{ "products": [
  { "id": 12,
    "type": 103,
    "name": "ACME Router D12"
  { "id": 13,
    "type": 145,
    "name": "5m UTP Cable"

Again, taking an example from Java, which API would you prefer?

List<Long> getProducts();


List<Product> getProducts();

The first one gives you a list of Identifiers with which you can get a real Product from somewhere. The second one returns the explicit Object references that you can use to operate on those Products directly.

Using numerical IDs is not RESTful for two distinct reasons. First, it requires implicit knowledge from the client to know where and how those IDs can be used to get Products. This again increases brittleness and coupling. Second, it doesn’t use HTTP’s native identifiers (URIs) to identify resources.

The above example should look more like this to be more RESTful:

{ "products": [
  { "id": "/product/12",
    "type": "/type/103",
    "name": "ACME Router D12"
  { "id": "/product/13",
    "type": "/product/145",
    "name": "5m UTP Cable"

It is not a big change syntactically but it relieves the client of having to know things implicitly.

3. Documentation Is Concerned With Paths and Parameters

Very often, if any documentation is released about an API, it contains a listing of the paths, parameters, fields that are present in the request or response. Some tools like Swagger or WADL are explicitly centered around these concepts. Both the specification and the documentation generated from these tools look like this:

Path: "/products"
  - GET: Get all products
Path: "/product/{id}"
  - GET: Get the product with given id
  - DELETE: Delete the product

See the Swagger Petstore for a complete example of this.

This is not RESTful in the original sense because it assumes that the client has to know all these Paths and Parameters, and what they mean implicitly. However, if the Representations use Links and Forms, like in the previous point, none of this information is relevant to the client, since the client then just follows wherever the Representations lead.

What the Specification and Documentation should do, however, is describe all the Media Types that are defined, much like the API Documentation of Java Code. A very minimal example would look like this:

Type: "application/vnd.acme.productlist+json"
  - Represents a paged product listing in the following JSON format:
    { "products": [
      { "self": "/product/123",
        "name": "ACME Router"
      "nextPage": "/products?page=3",
      "previousPage": "/products?page=1"
  - The "self" link in Products leads to the product listed
  - The global "nextPage" link, if present, leads to the next page
    of the product listing
  - Similarly, the "previousPage" to the previous (if not on first page)

It specifically does not mention where such a representation might be; it simply describes how to deal with it once received. It also doesn’t mention how to generate the Path to the next or previous pages or how to append Parameters or Path fragments, it simply provides those links already composed for the client to use. It shouldn’t matter how those links are created, and in fact, the server can decide to change such implementation details without notice.

4. URI Templates

URI Templates are URIs with placeholders in them. With the help of named substitution variables, they can be used to generate specific URIs. They look like this:


These are usually used in specifications or documentations to describe where resources reside and it is expected that clients know these templates and can generate the full URI of a specific resource.

This is done because these resources are not referenced form (linked to) other resources, so the client needs to somehow guess a resource’s URI manually. The problem with this approach is the same as before; this makes the clients break easily if some of the rules change or if the server decides to introduce a different resource structure.

The proper solution to these problems is to link those resources from somewhere else and hide all information about the URI structure from the client. Individual products should be linked from a product listing resource. If the product listing resource is paged, then those pages are again linked. The client does not decide to construct the link for the fifth page; rather, it clicks the nextPage links until it arrives at the desired page. Or, if there is a direct link to the fifth page, it chooses that link to go to that page directly.

There are of course cases in which following links is not enough. What if the client wishes to search for a product? It certainly isn’t feasible (although it should be possible) to follow links until the desired product is reached. These cases are not that different from simply linking the desired resources, however. The server always needs to tell the client how to construct links to follow. It may actually use URI Templates to do this as long as these are communicated in the messages themselves and not out-of-band (in the documentation, for example). A search page might look like this:

  "search": "/search?q={query}"

The Media Type for this representation has to describe how to interpret the URI Template, how to fill it out, and what the query means so that this knowledge is not implicit anymore. The client then makes the search request based on the information from the search page, not because of some hard-coded rules.

5. Version Number in the URI

A lot of vendors put the version of their API in the URI (for example, Yahoo, Google, Twitter, eBay, and others). This usually looks like:


From the perspective of the original REST style, these look very suspicious because URIs identify Resources that are supposed to represent some business-relevant concept. These might include Person, Customer, Product, Product Listing, Order, etc. If you ask a business person, “What is a Customer Version 2?” he or she will probably look at you very strangely and wonder whether she will have the opportunity to sell to new, improved customers.

There are practical advantages of URIs that don’t change with a version upgrade, like more flexibility when upgrading individual services, being able to bookmark links to resources without them ever changing, etc.

It is, of course, not the Product or Customer concept that is changing, but the Representation, the format of the message, or the features that it supports. There are multiple ways these changes can be described without violating REST. One of the easiest ones is to just version the Media Types themselves:


Or, the Media Type definition coulddefine extra parameters for the Media Type identification itself:

application/vnd.acme.product+json; version=1

Or, the Media Type could define that the content itself will somehow indicate the exact version, using the XSD identifier, a JSON field, and so on.

There are certainly more ways to do versioning without changing the URI and staying REST conform. Whatever the mechanism, though, it has to be explicitly defined by the Media Type.


There are at least two meanings of the word REST in use today:

  • The original meaning in which complex integration problems are solved with rigorous constraints on the architecture.
  • The colloquial meaning in which services publish some form of (often) JSON-based interface through HTTP.

Neither is better or worse than the other in any objective sense. However, if you explicitly want to leverage the full power of the original concept, you probably face the problem of distinguishing which kind of REST some online documentation, article, or software uses.

Thanks for reading ❤

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What is REST API? | Restful Web Service

What is REST API? | Restful Web Service

In this post "Restful Web Service", you'll learn: What is Web services, what is API, What is REST API, How REST works and Implementation of REST API

What is REST API? | Restful Web Service

A REST API defines a set of functions to process requests and responses via HTTP protocol.

REST is used in mobile application as well as in web applications.

Web Development with Rust - 03/x: Create a REST API

Web Development with Rust - 03/x: Create a REST API

Since Rust is a static typed language with a strong compiler you won't face many of the common pitfalls about running a web service in production. Although there are still run time errors which you have to cover.

  1. HTTP Requests
  2. POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE are special
  3. The Job of a Framework
  4. Creating an API spec
  5. Crafting the API
  6. Input Validation
  7. Summary

APIs are the bread and butter of how a modern and fast-paced web environment. Frontend application, other web services and IoT devices need to be able to talk to your service. API endpoints are like doors to which you decide what comes in and in which format.

Since Rust is a static typed language with a strong compiler you won't face many of the common pitfalls about running a web service in production. Although there are still run time errors which you have to cover.

HTTP Requests

When we talk about creating an API we basically mean a web application which listens on certain paths and responds accordingly. But first things first. For two devices to be able to communicate with each other there has to be an established TCP connection.

TCP is a protocol which the two parties can use to establish a connection. After establishing this connection, you can receive and send messages to the other party. HTTP is another protocol, which is built on top of TCP, and it's defining the contents of the requests and responses.

So on the Rust side of things, TCP is implemented in the Rust core library, HTTP is not. Whatever framework you chose in the previous article they all implement HTTP and therefore are able to receive and send HTTP formatted messages.

An example GET requests for example looks like this:

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: api.awesomerustwebapp.com
Accept-Language: en

It includes:

  • GET: the HTTP method
  • /: The path
  • HTTP/1.1: The version of the HTTP protocol
  • HOST: The host/domain of the server we want to request data from
  • Accept-Language: Which language we prefer and understand

The most common used HTTP methods are:

  • GET
  • POST
  • PUT

We are using GET every time we browse the web. If we want to alter data however (like using POST to send data over to another server), we need to be more cautions and precise.

First, not everyone is allowed to just send a bunch of data to another server. Our API can for example say: "I just accept data from the server with the host name allowed.awesomerustapp.com.

Therefore, when you send a POST to another server, what actually happens is the CORS workflow:

We first ask the server what is allowed, where do you accept requests from and what are your accepted headers. If we fulfill all of these requirements, then we can send a POST.

Disclaimer: Not all frameworks (like rocket and tide) are implementing CORS in their core. However, in a professional environment, you handle CORS on the DevOps side of things and put it for example in your NGINX config.
The Job of a Framework

We use the hard work of other people to create web applications. Everything has to be implemented at some point, just not from you for most of the time. A framework covers the following concerns:

  • Start a web server and open a PORT
  • Listen to requests on this PORT
  • If a request comes in, look at the Path in the HTTP header
  • Route the request to the handler according to the Path
  • Help you extract the information out of the request
  • Pack the generated data and HTTP StatusCode (created from you) and form a response
  • Send the response back to the sender

The Rust web framework tide includes http-service, which provides the basic abstractions you need when working with HTTP calls. The crate http-service is built on top of hyper, which transforms TCP-Streams to valid HTTP requests and responses.

Your job is to create routes like /users/:id and add a route_handler which is a function to handle the requests on this particular path. The framework makes sure that it directs the incoming HTTP requests to this particular handler.

Creating an API spec

You have to define your resources first to get an idea what your application needs to handle and uncover relationships between them. So if you want to build a idea-up-voting site, you would have:

  • Users
  • Ideas
  • Votes

A simple spec for this scenario would look like this:

  • Users
  • POST /users
  • GET /users
  • PUT /users/:user_id
  • PATCH /users/:user_id
  • DELETE /users/:user_id
  • GET /users/:user_id

Ideas and Votes behave accordingly. A spec is helpful for two reasons:

  • It gives you guidelines not to forget a path
  • It helps to communicate to your API users what to expect

You can tools like swagger to write a full spec which also describes the structure of the data and the messages/responses for each path and route.

A more professional spec would include the return values for each route and the request and response bodies. However, the spec can be finalized once you know how your API should look like and behave. To get started, a simple list is enough.

Crafting the API

Depending on the framework you are using, your implementation will look different. You have to have the following features on your radar to look out for:

  • Creating routes for each method (like app.at("/users").post(post_users_handler))
  • Extracting information from the request (like headers, uri-params and JSON from the request body)
  • Creating responses with proper HTTP codes (200201400404 etc.)

I am using the latest version of tide for this web series. You can add it in your Cargo.toml file and use it for your web app:

tide = "0.1.0"

Our first User implementation will look like this:

async fn handle_get_users(cx: Context<Database>) -> EndpointResult {

async fn handle_get_user(cx: Context<Database>) -> EndpointResult {
let id = cx.param("id").client_err()?;
if let Some(user) = cx.app_data().get(id) {
} else {

async fn handle_update_user(mut cx: Context<Database>) -> EndpointResult<()> {
let user = await!(cx.body_json()).client_err()?;
let id = cx.param("id").client_err()?;

if cx.app_data().set(id, user) {
} else {


async fn handle_create_user(mut cx: Context<Database>) -> EndpointResult<String> {
let user = await!(cx.body_json()).client_err()?;

async fn handle_delete_user(cx: Context<Database>) -> EndpointResult<String> {
let id = cx.param("id").client_err()?;

fn main() {
// We create a new application with a basic, local database
// You can use your own implementation, or none: App::new(())
let mut app = App::new(Database::default());



You can find the full implementation of the code in the GitHub repository to this series.

We see that we first have to create a new App

let mut app = App::new(())

add routes


and for each route add the HTTP requests we want to handle


Each framework has a different method of extracting parameters and JSON bodies. Actix is using Extractors, rocket is using Query Guards.

With tide, you can access request parameters and bodies and database connections through Context. So when we want to update a User with a specific id, we send a PATCH to /users/:id. From there, we call the handle_update_user method.

Inside this method, we can access the id from the URI like this:

let id = cx.param("id").client_err()?;

Each framework is also handling its own way of sending responses back to the sender. Tide is using EndpointResult, rocket is using Response and actix HttpResponse.

Everything else is completely up to you. The framework might help you with session management and authentication, but you can also implement this yourself.

My suggestion is: Build the first skeleton of your app with the framework of your choice, figure out how to extract information out of requests and how to form responses. Once this is working, you can use your Rust skills to build small or big applications as you wish.

Input Validation

Your best friend in the Rust world will be serde. It will help you parse JSON and other formats, but will also allow you to serialize your data.

When we talk about input validation, we want to make sure the data we are getting has the right format. Lets say we are extracting the JSON body out of a request:

let user: User = serde_json::from_str(&request_body);

We are using serde_json here to transform a JSON-String into a Struct of our choice. So if we created this struct:

struct User {
name: String,
height: u32,

we want to make sure the sender is including name and height. If we just do serde_json::from_str, and the sender forgot to pass on the height, the app will panic and shut down, since we expect the response to be a user: let user: User.

We can improve the error handling like this:

let user: User = match serde_json::from_str(&request_body) {
Ok(user) => user,
Err(error) => handle_error_case(error),

We catch the error and call our handle_error_case method to handle it gracefully.

  1. Pick a framework of your choice
  2. rocket is nightly
  3. actix is stable
  4. tide is fostered close to the Rust Core and also works on Rust nightly
  5. Know that there is no common CORS handling (yet). Recommendation is to handle this on the DevOps side (NGINX for example)
  6. After picking a framework, spec out your resources (/users: GET, POST etc.)
  7. Figure out how the framework of your choice is handling extracting parameters and JSON from the request and how to form a response
  8. Validate your input via match and serde_json

Thanks For Visiting, Keep Visiting. If you liked this post, share it with all of your programming buddies!

Why you should learn the Rust programming language

☞ The Rust Programming Language

☞ Rust Vs. Haskell: Which Language is Best for API Design?

☞ An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

☞ 7 reasons why you should learn Rust programming language in 2019

Why you should move from Node.js to Rust in 2019

☞ Rust: Building Reusable Code with Rust from Scratch

☞  Programming in Rust: the good, the bad, the ugly.

☞  An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

☞ Intro to Web Development with Rust for NodeJS Developers

☞ Introducing the Rust Crash Course

3 Frameworks for Building APIs Using Rust

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What is REST? What are RESTful Web Services?

What is REST? What are RESTful Web Services?

This tutorial provides an introduction to RESTful web services and goes over what REST is as well as HTTP.

REST stands for REpresentational State Transfer. It is a popular architectural approach to create your API's in today's world.

You Will Learn
  • What is REST?
  • What are the fundamentals of REST APIs?
  • How do you make use of HTTP when building REST API?
  • What is a Resource?
  • How do you identify REST API Resources?
  • What are some of the best practices in designing REST API?
What Is REST?

The acronym REST stands for REpresentational State Transfer. It was term originally coined by Roy Fielding, who was also the inventor of the HTTP protocol. The striking feature of REST services is that they want to make the best use of HTTP. Let's now have a quick overview of HTTP.

A Relook at HTTP

Let's open up the browser and visit a web page first:

And then click on one of the result pages:

Next, we can click on the link on the page we end up in:

And land upon another page:

This is how we typically browse the web.

When we browse the internet, there are a lot of things that happen behind the scenes. The following is a simplified view of what happens between the browser, and the servers running on the visited websites:

The HTTP Protocol

When you enter a URL such as https://www.google.com in the browser, a request is sent to the server on the website identified by the URL. That server then responds with a response. The important thing is the formats of these requests and responses. These formats are defined by a protocol called HTTPHyper Text Transfer Protocol.

When you type in a URL at the browser, it sends out a GET request to the identified server. The server then replies with an HTTP response that contains data in HTMLHyper Text Markup Language. The browser then takes this HTML and displays it on your screen.

Let's say you are filling in a form present on a web page with a list of details. In such a scenario when you click the Submit button, an HTTP POST request gets sent out to the server.

HTTP and RESTful Web Services

HTTP provides the base layer for building web services. Therefore, it is important to understand HTTP. Here are a few key abstractions.


A resource is a key abstraction that HTTP centers round. A resource is anything you want to expose to the outside world through your application. For instance, if we write a todo management application, instances of resources are:

  • A specific user
  • A specific todo
  • A list of todos

Resource URIs

When you develop RESTful services, you need to focus your thinking on the resources in the application. The way we identify a resource to expose, is to assign a URIUniform Resource Identifier — to it. For example:

  • The URI for the user Ranga is /user/ranga
  • The URI for all the todos belonging to Ranga is /user/Ranga/todos
  • The URI for the first todo that Ranga has is /user/Ranga/todos/1

Resource Representation

REST does not worry about how you represent your resource. It could be XML, HTML, JSON, or something entirely different! The only important thing is you clearly define your resource and perform whatever actions that are supported on it by making use of features already provided by HTTP. Examples are:

  • Create a user: POST /users
  • Delete a user: DELETE /users/1
  • Get all users: GET /users
  • Get a single user: GET /users/1
REST and Resources

A significant point to note is that with REST, you need to think about your application in terms of resources:

  • Identify what resources you want to expose to the outside world
  • Make use of the verbs already specified by HTTP to perform operations on these resources

Here is how a REST service is generally implemented:

  • Data Exchange Format: No restriction is imposed over here. JSON is a highly popular format, although other such as XML can be used as well
  • Transport: Always HTTP. REST is completely built on top of HTTP.
  • Service Definition: There is no standard to specify this, and REST is flexible. This could be a drawback in some scenarios, as it might be necessary for the consuming application to understand the request and response formats. There are widely used ones however, such as WADL (Web Application Definition Language) and Swagger.

REST focuses on resources and how effectively you perform operations on them using HTTP.

The Components of HTTP

HTTP defines the following for a request:

For the response, HTTP defines the:

HTTP Request Methods

The method used in a HTTP request indicates what action you want to perform with that request. Important examples are:

  • GET: Retrieve details of a resource
  • POST : Create a new resource
  • PUT: Update an existing resource
  • DELETE: Delete a resource

HTTP Response Status Code

A status code is always present in a HTTP response. Common examples are:

  • 200: Success
  • 404: Page not found

In this article, we had a high-level look at REST. We stressed the fact that HTTP is the building block of REST services. HTTP is a protocol that is used to define the structure of browser requests and responses. We saw that HTTP deals mainly with resources that are exposed on web servers. Resources are identified using URIs, and operations on these resources are performed using verbs defined by HTTP.

Finally, we looked at how REST services make the best use of features offered by HTTP to expose resources to the outside world. REST does not put any restrictions on the resource representation formats or on the service definition.