Operating System — Process Management

Operating System — Process Management

The basic, intermediate and advanced knowledge about process. Process management in operating system is an important concept as we generate hundreds.

Process management in operating system is an important concept as we generate hundreds and thousands of processes when we execute different programs in a day. In order to make it easier for you to understand process management, I’m gonna break it down to three levels, from easiest to hardest:

  1. Basic (Process, PCB, Process Lifecycle)
  2. Intermediate (Process in user space)
  3. Advanced (Process in kernel space)

Level 1 — Essential Concepts You Must Know

What’s a process?

process is a program in execution. It contains every information of that running program:

  • Current program counter
  • Accumulated running time
  • List of files that are currently opened by that program
  • Page table

What’s Process Control Block(PCB)?

Every process is represented by a data structure called Process Control Block(PCB). A PCB keeps all the important information of a process.

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Process Control Block

  • Pointer: A pointer to the parent process.
  • Process ID: Unique ID number representing a process.
  • Process State: The state any process currently is in (Ready, Wait, Exit, etc).
  • Process Priority: Numeric value which states how urgent a process is. Process with the highest priority will be allocated to the CPU first.
  • Program Counter: Address of the next instruction in line of the processes.
  • Accounting Information: The amount of CPU used, time limits, job or process numbers, etc.
  • CPU Registers: Accumulators, index registers, general-purpose registers, etc.
  • I/O Information: An array of open files and I/O devices allocated to the process.

operating-systems process software-development computer-science process-management data science

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