How to create API authentication using JWT's and Passport ✌️

How to create API authentication using JWT's and Passport ✌️

Every web application and API uses a form of authentication to protect resources and restrict them to only verified users. We'll be going through how to create authentication for an API using JWT's (JSON Web Tokens) and a package passport. Let's take a brief introduction into how they work.

Every web application and API uses a form of authentication to protect resources and restrict them to only verified users. We'll be going through how to create authentication for an API using JWT's (JSON Web Tokens) and a package passport. Let's take a brief introduction into how they work.

Table of Contents

  • JSON Web Token
  • Passport
  • Setting up the Project
  • Setting up the database
  • Registration and log-in middleware
  • Creating the routes
  • Signing the JWT
  • Verifying the user token
  • Creating secure routes
  • Testing with Postman
  • Conclusion 

JSON Web Token (JWT's)

According to JWT.IO

JSON Web Token (JWT) is an open standard (RFC 7519) that defines a compact and self-contained way for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object.

Now JWT's are secure because they are digitally signed and if the information contained within is tampered in any way, it renders that token invalid. We'll look at how this is made possible later on. JWT'S consist of three parts seperated by dots.

Header : this contains the type of algorithm used to verify the token and the type of token e.g

        "type" : "JWT",
        "alg" : "HS256"

*Payload *: contains the claims. Claims are information about the user together with other additional metadata e.g

        id : 1
        name : 'devgson'
        iat : 1421211952

Note : iat is a metadata indicating the date and time the token was signed. More information about metadata can be found here.

Signature : The signature encodes the information in the header and payload in base64 format together with a secret key. All this information is then signed by the algorithm specified in the header eg HMACSHA256. The signature verifies that the message being sent wasn't tampered along the way.

        base64UrlEncode(header) + "." +

Note : JWT's should not be used to transfer/store secure information cause anyone that manages to intercept the token can easily decode the header and payload within, it's just encoded inbase64 format after all. All the signature does is verify that the token hasn't been tampered in any way. It doesn't stop the token from being tampered with. However, there are extra security measures that can be put in place to achieve a higher level of security. For a broad and in-depth explanation of JWT's, read this book


Passport is an authentication middleware, it is used to authenticate requests, It makes use of strategies eg Local strategy or with the rise of social networking, single sign-on using an OAuth provider such as facebook or twitter. Applications can choose which strategies they want to employ and there are individual packages for each strategy.We'll be using the local(email/password) strategy in this tutorial. More info about passport and it's available strategies could be found here. Now let's get started.

Setting up the Project

Lets create a folder structure for the files we'll be using :


Install the necessary packages

$ npm install --save bcrypt body-parser express jsonwebtoken mongoose passport passport-local passport-jwt

bcrypt : for hashing user passwords, jsonwebtoken : for signing tokens, passport-local : package for implementing local strategy, passport-jwt : middleware for getting and verifying JWT's. Here's how our application is going to work :

  • The user signs up and then logs in, after the user logs in, a JSON web token would be given to the user.
  • The user is expected to store this token locally.
  • This token is to be sent by the user when trying to access certain secure routes, once the token has been verified, the user is then allowed to access the route.Now Let's get to coding.

Setting up the database

First of all, let's create the user schema. A user should only provide email and password, that would be enough information.


const mongoose = require('mongoose')
const bcrypt = require('bcrypt');
const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

const UserSchema = new Schema({
  email : {
    type : String,
    required : true,
    unique : true
  password : {
    type : String,
    required : true 

Now we don't want to store passwords in plain text because if an attacker manages to get access to the database, the password can be easily read so we want to avoid this. We'll make use of a package called 'bcrypt' to hash user passwords and store them safely.

//This is called a pre-hook, before the user information is saved in the database
//this function will be called, we'll get the plain text password, hash it and store it.
UserSchema.pre('save', async function(next){
  //'this' refers to the current document about to be saved
  const user = this;
  //Hash the password with a salt round of 10, the higher the rounds the more secure, but the slower
  //your application becomes.
  const hash = await bcrypt.hash(this.password, 10);
  //Replace the plain text password with the hash and then store it
  this.password = hash;
  //Indicates we're done and moves on to the next middleware

//We'll use this later on to make sure that the user trying to log in has the correct credentials
UserSchema.methods.isValidPassword = async function(password){
  const user = this;
  //Hashes the password sent by the user for login and checks if the hashed password stored in the 
  //database matches the one sent. Returns true if it does else false.
  const compare = await, user.password);
  return compare;

const UserModel = mongoose.model('user',UserSchema);

module.exports = UserModel;

Registration and log-in middleware

We'll use the passport local strategy to create middleware that will handle user registration and login. This will then be plugged into certain routes and be used for authentication.


const passport = require('passport');
const localStrategy = require('passport-local').Strategy;
const UserModel = require('../model/model');

//Create a passport middleware to handle user registration
passport.use('signup', new localStrategy({
  usernameField : 'email',
  passwordField : 'password'
}, async (email, password, done) => {
    try {
      //Save the information provided by the user to the the database
      const user = await UserModel.create({ email, password });
      //Send the user information to the next middleware
      return done(null, user);
    } catch (error) {

//Create a passport middleware to handle User login
passport.use('login', new localStrategy({
  usernameField : 'email',
  passwordField : 'password'
}, async (email, password, done) => {
  try {
    //Find the user associated with the email provided by the user
    const user = await UserModel.findOne({ email });
    if( !user ){
      //If the user isn't found in the database, return a message
      return done(null, false, { message : 'User not found'});
    //Validate password and make sure it matches with the corresponding hash stored in the database
    //If the passwords match, it returns a value of true.
    const validate = await user.isValidPassword(password);
    if( !validate ){
      return done(null, false, { message : 'Wrong Password'});
    //Send the user information to the next middleware
    return done(null, user, { message : 'Logged in Successfully'});
  } catch (error) {
    return done(error);

Creating the routes

Now that we have middleware for handling registration and login, let's create routes that'll use this middleware.

const express = require('express');
const passport = require('passport');
const jwt = require('jsonwebtoken');

const router = express.Router();

//When the user sends a post request to this route, passport authenticates the user based on the
//middleware created previously'/signup', passport.authenticate('signup', { session : false }) , async (req, res, next) => {
    message : 'Signup successful',
    user : req.user 


Signing the JWT

When the user logs in, the user information is passed to our custom callback which in turn creates a secure token with the information. This token is then required to be passed along as a query parameter when accessing secure routes(which we'll create later).

    ....'/login', async (req, res, next) => {
  passport.authenticate('login', async (err, user, info) => {     try {
      if(err || !user){
        const error = new Error('An Error occured')
        return next(error);
      req.login(user, { session : false }, async (error) => {
        if( error ) return next(error)
        //We don't want to store the sensitive information such as the
        //user password in the token so we pick only the email and id
        const body = { _id : user._id, email : };
        //Sign the JWT token and populate the payload with the user email and id
        const token = jwt.sign({ user : body },'top_secret');
        //Send back the token to the user
        return res.json({ token });
      });     } catch (error) {
      return next(error);
  })(req, res, next);

module.exports = router;

Note : We set { session : false } because we don't want to store the user details in a session. We expect the user to send the token on each request to the secure routes. This is especially useful for API's, it can be used to track users, block , etc... but if you plan on using sessions together with JWT's to secure a web application, that may not be a really good idea performance wise, more details about this here.

Verifying the user token

So now we've handled user signup and login, The next step is allowing users with tokens access certain secure routes, but how do we verify that the token sent by the user is valid and hasn't been manipulated in some way or just outright invalid. Let's do that next.

const JWTstrategy = require('passport-jwt').Strategy;
//We use this to extract the JWT sent by the user
const ExtractJWT = require('passport-jwt').ExtractJwt;

//This verifies that the token sent by the user is valid
passport.use(new JWTstrategy({
  //secret we used to sign our JWT
  secretOrKey : 'top_secret',
  //we expect the user to send the token as a query paramater with the name 'secret_token'
  jwtFromRequest : ExtractJWT.fromUrlQueryParameter('secret_token')
}, async (token, done) => {
  try {
    //Pass the user details to the next middleware
    return done(null, token.user);
  } catch (error) {

Note : If you'll need extra or sensitive details about the user that are not available in the token, you could use the _id available on the token to retrieve them from the database.

Creating secure routes

Now lets create some secure routes that only users with verified tokens can accces.

const express = require('express');

const router = express.Router();

//Lets say the route below is very sensitive and we want only authorized users to have access

//Displays information tailored according to the logged in user
router.get('/profile', (req, res, next) => {
  //We'll just send back the user details and the token
    message : 'You made it to the secure route',
    user : req.user,
    token : req.query.secret_token

module.exports = router;

So now we're all done with creating the routes and authentication middleware, let's put everything together and then test it out.


const express = require('express');
const mongoose = require('mongoose');
const bodyParser = require('body-parser');
const passport = require('passport');
const app = express();
const UserModel = require('./model/model');

mongoose.connect('mongodb://', { useMongoClient : true });
mongoose.connection.on('error', error => console.log(error) );
mongoose.Promise = global.Promise;


app.use( bodyParser.urlencoded({ extended : false }) );

const routes = require('./routes/routes');
const secureRoute = require('./routes/secure-route');

app.use('/', routes);
//We plugin our jwt strategy as a middleware so only verified users can access this route
app.use('/user', passport.authenticate('jwt', { session : false }), secureRoute );

//Handle errors
app.use(function(err, req, res, next) {
  res.status(err.status || 500);
  res.json({ error : err });

app.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server started')

Testing with Postman

Now that we've put everything together, let's use postman to test our API authentication. First of all we'll have to signup with an email and password. We can send over these details through the Body of our request. When that's done, click the send button to initiate the POST request.

How to create API authentication for an API using JWT's and Passport ✌️

We can see the password is encrypted, therefore anyone with access to the database will have access to only the hashed password, we added ten(10) salt rounds to increase the security. You can read more about this here. Let's now login with the credentials and get our token. Visit the /login route, passing the email and password you used previously and then initiate the request.

How to create API authentication for an API using JWT's and Passport ✌️

Now we have our token, we'll send over this token whenever we want to access a secure route. Let's try this by accessing a secure route user/profile, we'll pass our token in a query parameter called secret_token, The token will be collected, verified and we'll be given access to the route if it's valid.

How to create API authentication for an API using JWT's and Passport ✌️

As you can see, the valid token enables us gain access to the secure route. You could go ahead and try accessing this route but with an invalid token, the request will return an Unauthorized error.


JSON web tokens provide a secure way for creating authentication. An extra layer of security can be added by encrypting all the information within the token, thereby making it even much more secure.

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