The Continuous Bag Of Words (CBOW) Model in NLP - Hands-On Implementation With Codes

Word2vec is considered one of the biggest breakthroughs in the development of natural language processing. The reason behind this is because it is easy to understand and use. Word2vec is basically a word embedding technique that is used to convert the words in the dataset to vectors so that the machine understands. Each unique word in your data is assigned to a vector and these vectors vary in dimensions depending on the length of the word.

Read more: https://analyticsindiamag.com/the-continuous-bag-of-words-cbow-model-in-nlp-hands-on-implementation-with-codes/

#word2vec #nlp #machine-learning

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The Continuous Bag Of Words (CBOW) Model in NLP - Hands-On Implementation With Codes

The Continuous Bag Of Words (CBOW) Model in NLP - Hands-On Implementation With Codes

Word2vec is considered one of the biggest breakthroughs in the development of natural language processing. The reason behind this is because it is easy to understand and use. Word2vec is basically a word embedding technique that is used to convert the words in the dataset to vectors so that the machine understands. Each unique word in your data is assigned to a vector and these vectors vary in dimensions depending on the length of the word.

Read more: https://analyticsindiamag.com/the-continuous-bag-of-words-cbow-model-in-nlp-hands-on-implementation-with-codes/

#word2vec #nlp #machine-learning

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

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import io

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import tokenize

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code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

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for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

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    print(token)

Python

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TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

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TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

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TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

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TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

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TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

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TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

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TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

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TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

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TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

8 Open-Source Tools To Start Your NLP Journey

Teaching machines to understand human context can be a daunting task. With the current evolving landscape, Natural Language Processing (NLP) has turned out to be an extraordinary breakthrough with its advancements in semantic and linguistic knowledge. NLP is vastly leveraged by businesses to build customised chatbots and voice assistants using its optical character and speed recognition techniques along with text simplification.

To address the current requirements of NLP, there are many open-source NLP tools, which are free and flexible enough for developers to customise it according to their needs. Not only these tools will help businesses analyse the required information from the unstructured text but also help in dealing with text analysis problems like classification, word ambiguity, sentiment analysis etc.

Here are eight NLP toolkits, in no particular order, that can help any enthusiast start their journey with Natural language Processing.


Also Read: Deep Learning-Based Text Analysis Tools NLP Enthusiasts Can Use To Parse Text

1| Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK)

About: Natural Language Toolkit aka NLTK is an open-source platform primarily used for Python programming which analyses human language. The platform has been trained on more than 50 corpora and lexical resources, including multilingual WordNet. Along with that, NLTK also includes many text processing libraries which can be used for text classification tokenisation, parsing, and semantic reasoning, to name a few. The platform is vastly used by students, linguists, educators as well as researchers to analyse text and make meaning out of it.


#developers corner #learning nlp #natural language processing #natural language processing tools #nlp #nlp career #nlp tools #open source nlp tools #opensource nlp tools

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604023200

Effective Code Reviews: A Primer

Peer code reviews as a process have increasingly been adopted by engineering teams around the world. And for good reason — code reviews have been proven to improve software quality and save developers’ time in the long run. A lot has been written about how code reviews help engineering teams by leading software engineering practitioners. My favorite is this quote by Karl Wiegers, author of the seminal paper on this topic, Humanizing Peer Reviews:

Peer review – an activity in which people other than the author of a software deliverable examine it for defects and improvement opportunities – is one of the most powerful software quality tools available. Peer review methods include inspections, walkthroughs, peer deskchecks, and other similar activities. After experiencing the benefits of peer reviews for nearly fifteen years, I would never work in a team that did not perform them.

It is worth the time and effort to put together a code review strategy and consistently follow it in the team. In essence, this has a two-pronged benefit: more pair of eyes looking at the code decreases the chances of bugs and bad design patterns entering your codebase, and embracing the process fosters knowledge sharing and positive collaboration culture in the team.

Here are 6 tips to ensure effective peer reviews in your team.

1. Keep the Changes Small and Focused

Code reviews require developers to look at someone else’s code, most of which is completely new most of the times. Too many lines of code to review at once requires a huge amount of cognitive effort, and the quality of review diminishes as the size of changes increases. While there’s no golden number of LOCs, it is recommended to create small pull-requests which can be managed easily. If there are a lot of changes going in a release, it is better to chunk it down into a number of small pull-requests.

2. Ensure Logical Coherence of Changes

Code reviews are the most effective when the changes are focused and have logical coherence. When doing refactoring, refrain from making behavioral changes. Similarly, behavioral changes should not include refactoring and style violation fixes. Following this convention prevents unintended changes creeping in unnoticed in the code base.

3. Have Automated Tests, and Track Coverage

Automated tests of your preferred flavor — units, integration tests, end-to-end tests, etc. help automatically ensure correctness. Consistently ensuring that changes proposed are covered by some kind of automated frees up time for more qualitative review; allowing for a more insightful and in-depth conversation on deeper issues.

4. Self-Review Changes Before Submitting for Peer Review

A change can implement a new feature or fix an existing issue. It is recommended that the requester submits only those changes that are complete, and tested for correctness manually. Before creating the pull-request, a quick glance on what changes are being proposed helps ensure that no extraneous files are added in the changeset. This saves tons of time for the reviewers.

5. Automate What Can Be Automated

Human review time is expensive, and the best use of a developer’s time is reviewing qualitative aspects of code — logic, design patterns, software architecture, and so on. Linting tools can help automatically take care of style and formatting conventions. Continuous Quality tools can help catch potential bugs, anti-patterns and security issues which can be fixed by the developer before they make a change request. Most of these tools integrate well with code hosting platforms as well.

6. Be Positive, Polite, and Respectful

Finally, be cognizant of the fact that people on both sides of the review are but human. Offer positive feedback, and accept criticism humbly. Instead of beating oneself upon the literal meaning of words, it really pays off to look at reviews as people trying to achieve what’s best for the team, albeit in possibly different ways. Being cognizant of this aspect can save a lot of resentment and unmitigated negativity.

#agile #code quality #code review #static analysis #code analysis #code reviews #static analysis tools #code review tips #continuous quality #static analyzer

Hand Sanitizer in bulk - Get your effective hand sanitizer here

With the spread of various harmful virus globally causing immense distress and fatalities to human mankind, it has become absolutely essential for people to ensure proper and acute hygiene and cleanliness is maintained. To further add to the perennial hardship to save lives of people the recent pandemic of Covid-19 affected globally created the worst nightmare for people of all walks of life. Looking at the present crisis, it has become imperative for human beings to be encouraged to tackle this challenge with an everlasting strength to help protect oneself and their loved ones against the devastating effects of the virus. One thing that stands up between keeping all safe and vulnerable is by making sure that everybody attentively Hand wash periodically to help physically remove germs from the skin and getting rid of the live microbes.

The essence of apposite handwashing is based around time invested in washing and the amount of soap and water used. Technically, washing hands without soap is much less effective anyway. But incase a proper handwashing support system doesn’t become possible around, the usage of Effective Hand Sanitizer will certainly help fight to reduce the number of microbes on the surface of hands efficiently, eliminating most variants of harmful bacteria to settle.

The need has come about for Hand Sanitizer in bulk to save your daily life aptly maintaining a minimum of 60% alcohol - as per the CDC recommendations and approved by USFDA for its greater effectiveness. With the growing demand of people on the move the demand for easy to carry, small, and travel size worthy pouches that are also refillable once the product runs out is the need of the hour. To further make sure that human lives are well protected from these external viruses, it is mandatory for producer of effective Hand Sanitizer to evolve products circumspectly with ingredients that produce not just saving lives but with multiple benefits for people of all ages.

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