Hertha  Mayer

Hertha Mayer


How to Add Responsive Images in HTML

In this tutorial, we’ll look into how to add responsive images in HTML. Speed up your page load times and serve browser-sensitive images with tips from this tutorial on HTML responsive images..

Improving Performance with HTML Responsive Images

When speaking about responsive images, we usually focus on CSS techniques that make an image adapt to different viewport sizes, such as setting the max-width property to 100 percent. However, using solely CSS to make images responsive won’t improve performance and page load times, as you’re still serving the same size image for all devices. For instance, loading a 2000px image on mobile comes with a huge (and unnecessary) overhead.

Luckily, HTML also has its own syntax, elements, and attributes for responsive images that let you serve different images for different viewport sizes, resolutions, and other conditions. In this guide, we’ll look into how to add responsive images in HTML and discuss the following features:

  • the <img> element
  • the srcset and sizes attributes
  • x and w descriptors
  • the <picture> and <source> elements
  • the media and type attributes

The standard image syntax

To add responsive images in HTML, your starting point is always the standard image syntax, consisting of the <img> element and the src and alt attributes:

<img src="images/myimage.jpg alt="my image">

For the src attribute, you can use either an absolute (starting with the http:// or https:// protocol) or a relative path — I’ve used the latter above.

You always need to “build” the responsive image syntax on top of this standard <img> definition; this also ensures backward compatibility.

The srcset attribute

The srcset attribute is an optional attribute of image-related HTML elements, including the <img> tag. You can use it to assign different image sources to certain features of the user’s device, such as viewport size or pixel density. The user’s browser will only load the image that’s the most suitable for the user’s device — which can mean a significant performance gain.

When using the srcset attribute, you’re supposed to add the same image in different sizes. This is because this attribute only gives hints to the user’s browser that it can still load a different image as it also considers other things, such as the bandwidth of the network. If you use srcset, the browser will assume that all of the image sources are visually identical. If you want to serve different-looking images, you’ll need to use the <picture> and <source> elements — we’ll look into them later on.

There are two ways to serve different size images with the srcset attribute:

  • using x descriptors:
    • you can specify different image sources based on the pixel density of the user’s device
    • you can serve different images for low-resolution vs. high-resolution devices
  • using w descriptors and the sizes attribute:
    • the term “w descriptor” stands for “width descriptor”
    • you can specify different image sources based on the width of the images
    • the browser considers both pixel density and layout dimensions (the space it needs to allocate for the image)

Now, let’s have a look at the respective syntaxes.

The srcset attribute with x descriptor(s)

Using the following HTML, you can serve images for both low-resolution and high-resolution displays:

<img src="images/myimage.jpg" srcset="images/myimage-2x.jpg 2x" alt="my image">

The second image, myimage-2x.jpg is twice as big as the default one (e.g. 1280x960px compared to 640x480px), but it will only be loaded on high-resolution screens. It will be the user’s browser that decides which image to serve, mostly based on the pixel density of the display.

Note that you are supposed to add the smaller image to the src attribute because this will be the default. For the srcset attribute, you also need to use the 2x descriptor so that the browser will know that this is the image intended for high-resolution screens.

You can add more than one value to the srcset attribute, too. For instance, with the following code, you can serve images for 4K monitors:

<img src="images/myimage.jpg" srcset="images/myimage-2x.jpg 2x, images/myimage-4x.jpg 4x" alt="my image">

To add more than one image source to srcset, you need to use the respective x descriptors (2x, 3x, 4x, etc.) and separate the value pairs by commas.

The srcset attribute with w descriptor(s) and the sizes attribute

If you want to target both the pixel density and the layout size of the user’s device, you’ll need to use the srcset attribute together with one or more width descriptors and the sizes attribute.

A w descriptor defines the width of a source image. For instance, 600w indicates that the image is 600px wide. As long as you separate them with commas, you can add as many image sources to the srcset attribute as you want, like so:

<img  src="images/myimage-small.jpg" 
    srcset="images/myimage-small.jpg 300w,
    images/myimage-medium.jpg 600w,
    images/myimage.jpg 1200w,
    images/myimage.jpg 1800w" 
    sizes="(max-width: 500px) 100vw,
    (max-width: 1000px) 90vw,
    calc(60vw - 20px)" 
    alt="my image">

If you use width descriptors, you’ll need to use the sizes attribute, too — otherwise, the browser won’t be able to find out which image source to choose. The sizes attribute is frequently misunderstood because people tend to assume that the width values used in the media conditions of the sizes attribute are related to the w values (300w, 600w, etc.) used in the srcset attribute — however, they are independent of each other.

The sizes attribute serves two purposes:

  1. informs the browser about the space it needs to allocate for the image, depending on the layout
  2. allows the browser to pick the best-fitting image using the width of the available images (defined by the w descriptors) and the pixel density of the screen:
    1. Example: for a smaller, full-HD screen — say, 13.3” — the browser can pick the same image, such as the 1200w one, as it does for a larger, low-res screen — let’s say 17.3”. The browser’s choice also depends on the size distribution of the available images and other conditions because, as I’ve mentioned above, the srcset and sizes attributes are optional but not obligatory for the browser (as opposed to the <picture> and <sources> elements)

In the above code example, I’ve defined three layouts within the sizes attribute. On viewports smaller than 500px, the image will span across 100 percent of the viewport width (100vw). On medium viewports that are smaller than 1000px, the image will need 90 percent of the viewport width (90vw). And, on viewports larger than 1000px, the browser will need to allocate 60 percent of the viewport width, minus 20px for the left and right margins (calc(60vw - 20px)). The latter is also the default value, so I haven’t used any media conditions here.

Using media conditions

You can use any number of media conditions to define different layouts and the space the image will need in each, but it is important to note that adding media conditions to the sizes attribute is optional. It only has to include one default value, and if your layout looks the same at all viewport sizes, you don’t need to use any media conditions. For instance, the above example could alternatively look like this:

<img  src="images/myimage-small.jpg" 
    srcset="images/myimage-small.jpg 300w,
    images/myimage-medium.jpg 600w,
    images/myimage.jpg 1200w,
    images/myimage.jpg 1800w" 
    alt="my image">

Beware: you’ll find some tutorials saying that you can use the x and w descriptors together, but according to the docs, these two shouldn’t be used together. This does make sense when you think about it, as when you use w descriptors, the browser also considers pixel density, too.

So, if you just want to target pixel density, use x descriptors. If you want to target both pixel density and layout, use w descriptors.

The <picture> and <source> elements

While the <img> element used with the srcset attribute and x or w descriptors is an excellent solution if you want to serve the same image in different sizes, sometimes you’ll want to load visually different images for different user agents.

There are two main use cases that cover why you might want to do that:

  • using different art directions for different media conditions, for example, zoomed-in and zoomed-out versions of the same image
  • using different image formats so that you can serve next-generation images for modern browsers

HTML has two elements for these situations: <picture> and <source>. The latter can be used to specify different media resources for the <picture>, <audio>, and <video> elements.

Now, let’s see what the syntax looks like.

Image sources with different art directions

Let’s say you have the following image:

Large flamingos sample


This is a perfect image for large screens, but for medium-sized screens you might want to serve a closer shot that’s also smaller in size:

Medium sized flamingos sample, zoomed in

And on small screens, you just want to show one of the flamingos in a much smaller image:

Small, profile flamingos sample

You can define these three image sources using the following HTML code:

  <source srcset="images/flamingos-closer.jpg" media="(min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 1199px)">
  <source srcset="images/flamingos-far.jpg" media="(min-width: 1200px)">
  <img src="images/flamingo-profile-small.jpg" alt="flamingo">

As you can see above, we added the smallest, closest image as the default and defined a relevant media condition for each image source.

If you want, you can also specify more than one image within each srcset attribute using the aforementioned x or w descriptors, for example:

    <source srcset="images/flamingos-closer.jpg, images/flamingos-closer-2x.jpg 2x" media="(min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 1199px)">
  <source srcset="images/flamingos-far.jpg, images/flamingos-far-2x.jpg 2x" media="(min-width: 1200px)">
  <img src="images/flamingo-profile-small.jpg" srcset="images/flamingo-profile-small-2x.jpg 2x" alt="flamingo">

Note that with the media attribute, you can target both width and any other media features, such as orientation, aspect ratio, and more.

If you use the <picture> element with the <source> tag, the user’s browser will still load only one image — the most suitable one — but now, the media condition is not a hint or an option like before. Instead, it’s a rule that the browser has to follow in any case. In other words, the browser will assume that the image sources are visually different from each other and treat them accordingly.

Image sources in different formats

Besides media conditions, you can also serve an image in different formats. This can be especially useful if you want to use next-generation image formats, such as AVIF or WebP, that are smaller in size (which can improve performance on their own) but are not supported by older browsers.

Here, you’ll need to define the MIME type of each image source using the type attribute:

  <source srcset="images/myimage.avif" type="image/avif">
  <source srcset="images/myimage.webp" type="image/webp">
  <img src="images/myimage.jpg" alt="my image">

If you use the code above, the user’s browser will check the consecutive MIME types one by one — so, add the one that you want to have checked first (I used AVIF in the example above).

Technically, you could also use the type and media attributes together within each <source> element — however, note that this can add a lot of extra complexity:

  <source srcset="images/flamingos-closer.webp" media="(min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/webp">
  <source srcset="images/flamingos-closer.jpg" media="(min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg">
  <source srcset="images/flamingos-far.webp" media="(min-width: 1200px)" type="image/webp">
  <source srcset="images/flamingos-far.jpg" media="(min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg">
  <source srcset="images/flamingo-profile-small.webp" type="image/webp">
  <img src="images/flamingo-profile-small.jpg" alt="flamingo">

Browser support

Browser support for the HTML syntax related to responsive images is relatively good:

  • The srcset and sizes attributes are supported by Edge 16+, Firefox 38+, Chrome 38+, and Safari 9+, but they’re not supported by any version of Internet Explorer
  • The <picture> element is supported by Edge 13+, Firefox 38+, Chrome 38+, and Safari 9.1+, but it’s not supported by any version of Internet Explorer
  • The <source> element is supported by Internet Explorer 9+, Edge 12+, Firefox 15+, Chrome 90+, and Safari 14.1+

As Chrome and Safari began to support the <source> element relatively late, it comes with the lowest level of browser support out of these four HTML features related to responsive images.

Plus, the responsive image syntax degrades gracefully. If a browser doesn’t support one or more elements or attributes, it will simply use the default image added to the very well-supported <img> element.

Wrapping up

Adding different image sources in HTML to serve the most performant image for each user agent can result in a huge performance gain, especially on mobile devices. However, a complex syntax can make your coding workflow overly complicated and your code harder to read.

Essentially, the trade-off is between complexity and performance, so you need to decide whether it’s worth the hassle for you or not. Obviously, image performance is more important on image-heavy websites, and may not be as important if you have just one or two images on the screen at any given time.

You can also automate the process. CDNs such as Netlify and Cloudflare and CMSs such as WordPress already come with built-in image optimization capabilities — they generate several versions of the same image, add the <picture> element, apply media conditions, and more. There are also open-source solutions that can help you with automation, such as the Image Responsiver or Get Sizes tools.

Finally, don’t forget that this guide only discusses how to serve responsive images in HTML. You’ll still need to use CSS to adapt the image added by HTML to the design, such as adjusting the width and max-width attributes or using a responsive image grid.

Original article source at https://blog.logrocket.com

#html #webdevelopment #webdev #programming 

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How to Add Responsive Images in HTML
Queenie  Davis

Queenie Davis


EasyMDE: Simple, Beautiful and Embeddable JavaScript Markdown Editor

EasyMDE - Markdown Editor 

This repository is a fork of SimpleMDE, made by Sparksuite. Go to the dedicated section for more information.

A drop-in JavaScript text area replacement for writing beautiful and understandable Markdown. EasyMDE allows users who may be less experienced with Markdown to use familiar toolbar buttons and shortcuts.

In addition, the syntax is rendered while editing to clearly show the expected result. Headings are larger, emphasized words are italicized, links are underlined, etc.

EasyMDE also features both built-in auto saving and spell checking. The editor is entirely customizable, from theming to toolbar buttons and javascript hooks.

Try the demo


Quick access

Install EasyMDE

Via npm:

npm install easymde

Via the UNPKG CDN:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://unpkg.com/easymde/dist/easymde.min.css">
<script src="https://unpkg.com/easymde/dist/easymde.min.js"></script>

Or jsDelivr:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/easymde/dist/easymde.min.css">
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/easymde/dist/easymde.min.js"></script>

How to use

Loading the editor

After installing and/or importing the module, you can load EasyMDE onto the first textarea element on the web page:

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE();

Alternatively you can select a specific textarea, via JavaScript:

<textarea id="my-text-area"></textarea>
const easyMDE = new EasyMDE({element: document.getElementById('my-text-area')});

Editor functions

Use easyMDE.value() to get the content of the editor:


Use easyMDE.value(val) to set the content of the editor:

easyMDE.value('New input for **EasyMDE**');


Options list

  • autoDownloadFontAwesome: If set to true, force downloads Font Awesome (used for icons). If set to false, prevents downloading. Defaults to undefined, which will intelligently check whether Font Awesome has already been included, then download accordingly.
  • autofocus: If set to true, focuses the editor automatically. Defaults to false.
  • autosave: Saves the text that's being written and will load it back in the future. It will forget the text when the form it's contained in is submitted.
    • enabled: If set to true, saves the text automatically. Defaults to false.
    • delay: Delay between saves, in milliseconds. Defaults to 10000 (10 seconds).
    • submit_delay: Delay before assuming that submit of the form failed and saving the text, in milliseconds. Defaults to autosave.delay or 10000 (10 seconds).
    • uniqueId: You must set a unique string identifier so that EasyMDE can autosave. Something that separates this from other instances of EasyMDE elsewhere on your website.
    • timeFormat: Set DateTimeFormat. More information see DateTimeFormat instances. Default locale: en-US, format: hour:minute.
    • text: Set text for autosave.
  • autoRefresh: Useful, when initializing the editor in a hidden DOM node. If set to { delay: 300 }, it will check every 300 ms if the editor is visible and if positive, call CodeMirror's refresh().
  • blockStyles: Customize how certain buttons that style blocks of text behave.
    • bold: Can be set to ** or __. Defaults to **.
    • code: Can be set to ``` or ~~~. Defaults to ```.
    • italic: Can be set to * or _. Defaults to *.
  • unorderedListStyle: can be *, - or +. Defaults to *.
  • scrollbarStyle: Chooses a scrollbar implementation. The default is "native", showing native scrollbars. The core library also provides the "null" style, which completely hides the scrollbars. Addons can implement additional scrollbar models.
  • element: The DOM element for the textarea element to use. Defaults to the first textarea element on the page.
  • forceSync: If set to true, force text changes made in EasyMDE to be immediately stored in original text area. Defaults to false.
  • hideIcons: An array of icon names to hide. Can be used to hide specific icons shown by default without completely customizing the toolbar.
  • indentWithTabs: If set to false, indent using spaces instead of tabs. Defaults to true.
  • initialValue: If set, will customize the initial value of the editor.
  • previewImagesInEditor: - EasyMDE will show preview of images, false by default, preview for images will appear only for images on separate lines.
  • imagesPreviewHandler: - A custom function for handling the preview of images. Takes the parsed string between the parantheses of the image markdown ![]( ) as argument and returns a string that serves as the src attribute of the <img> tag in the preview. Enables dynamic previewing of images in the frontend without having to upload them to a server, allows copy-pasting of images to the editor with preview.
  • insertTexts: Customize how certain buttons that insert text behave. Takes an array with two elements. The first element will be the text inserted before the cursor or highlight, and the second element will be inserted after. For example, this is the default link value: ["[", "](http://)"].
    • horizontalRule
    • image
    • link
    • table
  • lineNumbers: If set to true, enables line numbers in the editor.
  • lineWrapping: If set to false, disable line wrapping. Defaults to true.
  • minHeight: Sets the minimum height for the composition area, before it starts auto-growing. Should be a string containing a valid CSS value like "500px". Defaults to "300px".
  • maxHeight: Sets fixed height for the composition area. minHeight option will be ignored. Should be a string containing a valid CSS value like "500px". Defaults to undefined.
  • onToggleFullScreen: A function that gets called when the editor's full screen mode is toggled. The function will be passed a boolean as parameter, true when the editor is currently going into full screen mode, or false.
  • parsingConfig: Adjust settings for parsing the Markdown during editing (not previewing).
    • allowAtxHeaderWithoutSpace: If set to true, will render headers without a space after the #. Defaults to false.
    • strikethrough: If set to false, will not process GFM strikethrough syntax. Defaults to true.
    • underscoresBreakWords: If set to true, let underscores be a delimiter for separating words. Defaults to false.
  • overlayMode: Pass a custom codemirror overlay mode to parse and style the Markdown during editing.
    • mode: A codemirror mode object.
    • combine: If set to false, will replace CSS classes returned by the default Markdown mode. Otherwise the classes returned by the custom mode will be combined with the classes returned by the default mode. Defaults to true.
  • placeholder: If set, displays a custom placeholder message.
  • previewClass: A string or array of strings that will be applied to the preview screen when activated. Defaults to "editor-preview".
  • previewRender: Custom function for parsing the plaintext Markdown and returning HTML. Used when user previews.
  • promptURLs: If set to true, a JS alert window appears asking for the link or image URL. Defaults to false.
  • promptTexts: Customize the text used to prompt for URLs.
    • image: The text to use when prompting for an image's URL. Defaults to URL of the image:.
    • link: The text to use when prompting for a link's URL. Defaults to URL for the link:.
  • uploadImage: If set to true, enables the image upload functionality, which can be triggered by drag and drop, copy-paste and through the browse-file window (opened when the user click on the upload-image icon). Defaults to false.
  • imageMaxSize: Maximum image size in bytes, checked before upload (note: never trust client, always check the image size at server-side). Defaults to 1024 * 1024 * 2 (2 MB).
  • imageAccept: A comma-separated list of mime-types used to check image type before upload (note: never trust client, always check file types at server-side). Defaults to image/png, image/jpeg.
  • imageUploadFunction: A custom function for handling the image upload. Using this function will render the options imageMaxSize, imageAccept, imageUploadEndpoint and imageCSRFToken ineffective.
    • The function gets a file and onSuccess and onError callback functions as parameters. onSuccess(imageUrl: string) and onError(errorMessage: string)
  • imageUploadEndpoint: The endpoint where the images data will be sent, via an asynchronous POST request. The server is supposed to save this image, and return a JSON response.
    • if the request was successfully processed (HTTP 200 OK): {"data": {"filePath": "<filePath>"}} where filePath is the path of the image (absolute if imagePathAbsolute is set to true, relative if otherwise);
    • otherwise: {"error": "<errorCode>"}, where errorCode can be noFileGiven (HTTP 400 Bad Request), typeNotAllowed (HTTP 415 Unsupported Media Type), fileTooLarge (HTTP 413 Payload Too Large) or importError (see errorMessages below). If errorCode is not one of the errorMessages, it is alerted unchanged to the user. This allows for server-side error messages. No default value.
  • imagePathAbsolute: If set to true, will treat imageUrl from imageUploadFunction and filePath returned from imageUploadEndpoint as an absolute rather than relative path, i.e. not prepend window.location.origin to it.
  • imageCSRFToken: CSRF token to include with AJAX call to upload image. For various instances like Django, Spring and Laravel.
  • imageCSRFName: CSRF token filed name to include with AJAX call to upload image, applied when imageCSRFToken has value, defaults to csrfmiddlewaretoken.
  • imageCSRFHeader: If set to true, passing CSRF token via header. Defaults to false, which pass CSRF through request body.
  • imageTexts: Texts displayed to the user (mainly on the status bar) for the import image feature, where #image_name#, #image_size# and #image_max_size# will replaced by their respective values, that can be used for customization or internationalization:
    • sbInit: Status message displayed initially if uploadImage is set to true. Defaults to Attach files by drag and dropping or pasting from clipboard..
    • sbOnDragEnter: Status message displayed when the user drags a file to the text area. Defaults to Drop image to upload it..
    • sbOnDrop: Status message displayed when the user drops a file in the text area. Defaults to Uploading images #images_names#.
    • sbProgress: Status message displayed to show uploading progress. Defaults to Uploading #file_name#: #progress#%.
    • sbOnUploaded: Status message displayed when the image has been uploaded. Defaults to Uploaded #image_name#.
    • sizeUnits: A comma-separated list of units used to display messages with human-readable file sizes. Defaults to B, KB, MB (example: 218 KB). You can use B,KB,MB instead if you prefer without whitespaces (218KB).
  • errorMessages: Errors displayed to the user, using the errorCallback option, where #image_name#, #image_size# and #image_max_size# will replaced by their respective values, that can be used for customization or internationalization:
    • noFileGiven: The server did not receive any file from the user. Defaults to You must select a file..
    • typeNotAllowed: The user send a file type which doesn't match the imageAccept list, or the server returned this error code. Defaults to This image type is not allowed..
    • fileTooLarge: The size of the image being imported is bigger than the imageMaxSize, or if the server returned this error code. Defaults to Image #image_name# is too big (#image_size#).\nMaximum file size is #image_max_size#..
    • importError: An unexpected error occurred when uploading the image. Defaults to Something went wrong when uploading the image #image_name#..
  • errorCallback: A callback function used to define how to display an error message. Defaults to (errorMessage) => alert(errorMessage).
  • renderingConfig: Adjust settings for parsing the Markdown during previewing (not editing).
    • codeSyntaxHighlighting: If set to true, will highlight using highlight.js. Defaults to false. To use this feature you must include highlight.js on your page or pass in using the hljs option. For example, include the script and the CSS files like:
      <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/highlight.js/latest/highlight.min.js"></script>
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/highlight.js/latest/styles/github.min.css">
    • hljs: An injectible instance of highlight.js. If you don't want to rely on the global namespace (window.hljs), you can provide an instance here. Defaults to undefined.
    • markedOptions: Set the internal Markdown renderer's options. Other renderingConfig options will take precedence.
    • singleLineBreaks: If set to false, disable parsing GitHub Flavored Markdown (GFM) single line breaks. Defaults to true.
    • sanitizerFunction: Custom function for sanitizing the HTML output of Markdown renderer.
  • shortcuts: Keyboard shortcuts associated with this instance. Defaults to the array of shortcuts.
  • showIcons: An array of icon names to show. Can be used to show specific icons hidden by default without completely customizing the toolbar.
  • spellChecker: If set to false, disable the spell checker. Defaults to true. Optionally pass a CodeMirrorSpellChecker-compliant function.
  • inputStyle: textarea or contenteditable. Defaults to textarea for desktop and contenteditable for mobile. contenteditable option is necessary to enable nativeSpellcheck.
  • nativeSpellcheck: If set to false, disable native spell checker. Defaults to true.
  • sideBySideFullscreen: If set to false, allows side-by-side editing without going into fullscreen. Defaults to true.
  • status: If set to false, hide the status bar. Defaults to the array of built-in status bar items.
    • Optionally, you can set an array of status bar items to include, and in what order. You can even define your own custom status bar items.
  • styleSelectedText: If set to false, remove the CodeMirror-selectedtext class from selected lines. Defaults to true.
  • syncSideBySidePreviewScroll: If set to false, disable syncing scroll in side by side mode. Defaults to true.
  • tabSize: If set, customize the tab size. Defaults to 2.
  • theme: Override the theme. Defaults to easymde.
  • toolbar: If set to false, hide the toolbar. Defaults to the array of icons.
  • toolbarTips: If set to false, disable toolbar button tips. Defaults to true.
  • direction: rtl or ltr. Changes text direction to support right-to-left languages. Defaults to ltr.

Options example

Most options demonstrate the non-default behavior:

const editor = new EasyMDE({
    autofocus: true,
    autosave: {
        enabled: true,
        uniqueId: "MyUniqueID",
        delay: 1000,
        submit_delay: 5000,
        timeFormat: {
            locale: 'en-US',
            format: {
                year: 'numeric',
                month: 'long',
                day: '2-digit',
                hour: '2-digit',
                minute: '2-digit',
        text: "Autosaved: "
    blockStyles: {
        bold: "__",
        italic: "_",
    unorderedListStyle: "-",
    element: document.getElementById("MyID"),
    forceSync: true,
    hideIcons: ["guide", "heading"],
    indentWithTabs: false,
    initialValue: "Hello world!",
    insertTexts: {
        horizontalRule: ["", "\n\n-----\n\n"],
        image: ["![](http://", ")"],
        link: ["[", "](https://)"],
        table: ["", "\n\n| Column 1 | Column 2 | Column 3 |\n| -------- | -------- | -------- |\n| Text     | Text      | Text     |\n\n"],
    lineWrapping: false,
    minHeight: "500px",
    parsingConfig: {
        allowAtxHeaderWithoutSpace: true,
        strikethrough: false,
        underscoresBreakWords: true,
    placeholder: "Type here...",

    previewClass: "my-custom-styling",
    previewClass: ["my-custom-styling", "more-custom-styling"],

    previewRender: (plainText) => customMarkdownParser(plainText), // Returns HTML from a custom parser
    previewRender: (plainText, preview) => { // Async method
        setTimeout(() => {
            preview.innerHTML = customMarkdownParser(plainText);
        }, 250);

        return "Loading...";
    promptURLs: true,
    promptTexts: {
        image: "Custom prompt for URL:",
        link: "Custom prompt for URL:",
    renderingConfig: {
        singleLineBreaks: false,
        codeSyntaxHighlighting: true,
        sanitizerFunction: (renderedHTML) => {
            // Using DOMPurify and only allowing <b> tags
            return DOMPurify.sanitize(renderedHTML, {ALLOWED_TAGS: ['b']})
    shortcuts: {
        drawTable: "Cmd-Alt-T"
    showIcons: ["code", "table"],
    spellChecker: false,
    status: false,
    status: ["autosave", "lines", "words", "cursor"], // Optional usage
    status: ["autosave", "lines", "words", "cursor", {
        className: "keystrokes",
        defaultValue: (el) => {
            el.setAttribute('data-keystrokes', 0);
        onUpdate: (el) => {
            const keystrokes = Number(el.getAttribute('data-keystrokes')) + 1;
            el.innerHTML = `${keystrokes} Keystrokes`;
            el.setAttribute('data-keystrokes', keystrokes);
    }], // Another optional usage, with a custom status bar item that counts keystrokes
    styleSelectedText: false,
    sideBySideFullscreen: false,
    syncSideBySidePreviewScroll: false,
    tabSize: 4,
    toolbar: false,
    toolbarTips: false,

Toolbar icons

Below are the built-in toolbar icons (only some of which are enabled by default), which can be reorganized however you like. "Name" is the name of the icon, referenced in the JavaScript. "Action" is either a function or a URL to open. "Class" is the class given to the icon. "Tooltip" is the small tooltip that appears via the title="" attribute. Note that shortcut hints are added automatically and reflect the specified action if it has a key bind assigned to it (i.e. with the value of action set to bold and that of tooltip set to Bold, the final text the user will see would be "Bold (Ctrl-B)").

Additionally, you can add a separator between any icons by adding "|" to the toolbar array.

fa fa-bold
fa fa-italic
fa fa-strikethrough
fa fa-header
heading-smallertoggleHeadingSmallerSmaller Heading
fa fa-header
heading-biggertoggleHeadingBiggerBigger Heading
fa fa-lg fa-header
heading-1toggleHeading1Big Heading
fa fa-header header-1
heading-2toggleHeading2Medium Heading
fa fa-header header-2
heading-3toggleHeading3Small Heading
fa fa-header header-3
fa fa-code
fa fa-quote-left
unordered-listtoggleUnorderedListGeneric List
fa fa-list-ul
ordered-listtoggleOrderedListNumbered List
fa fa-list-ol
clean-blockcleanBlockClean block
fa fa-eraser
linkdrawLinkCreate Link
fa fa-link
imagedrawImageInsert Image
fa fa-picture-o
tabledrawTableInsert Table
fa fa-table
horizontal-ruledrawHorizontalRuleInsert Horizontal Line
fa fa-minus
previewtogglePreviewToggle Preview
fa fa-eye no-disable
side-by-sidetoggleSideBySideToggle Side by Side
fa fa-columns no-disable no-mobile
fullscreentoggleFullScreenToggle Fullscreen
fa fa-arrows-alt no-disable no-mobile
guideThis linkMarkdown Guide
fa fa-question-circle
fa fa-undo
fa fa-redo

Toolbar customization

Customize the toolbar using the toolbar option.

Only the order of existing buttons:

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE({
    toolbar: ["bold", "italic", "heading", "|", "quote"]

All information and/or add your own icons

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE({
    toolbar: [
            name: "bold",
            action: EasyMDE.toggleBold,
            className: "fa fa-bold",
            title: "Bold",
        "italics", // shortcut to pre-made button
            name: "custom",
            action: (editor) => {
                // Add your own code
            className: "fa fa-star",
            title: "Custom Button",
            attributes: { // for custom attributes
                id: "custom-id",
                "data-value": "custom value" // HTML5 data-* attributes need to be enclosed in quotation marks ("") because of the dash (-) in its name.
        "|" // Separator
        // [, ...]

Put some buttons on dropdown menu

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE({
    toolbar: [{
                name: "heading",
                action: EasyMDE.toggleHeadingSmaller,
                className: "fa fa-header",
                title: "Headers",
                name: "others",
                className: "fa fa-blind",
                title: "others buttons",
                children: [
                        name: "image",
                        action: EasyMDE.drawImage,
                        className: "fa fa-picture-o",
                        title: "Image",
                        name: "quote",
                        action: EasyMDE.toggleBlockquote,
                        className: "fa fa-percent",
                        title: "Quote",
                        name: "link",
                        action: EasyMDE.drawLink,
                        className: "fa fa-link",
                        title: "Link",
        // [, ...]

Keyboard shortcuts

EasyMDE comes with an array of predefined keyboard shortcuts, but they can be altered with a configuration option. The list of default ones is as follows:

Shortcut (Windows / Linux)Shortcut (macOS)Action

Here is how you can change a few, while leaving others untouched:

const editor = new EasyMDE({
    shortcuts: {
        "toggleOrderedList": "Ctrl-Alt-K", // alter the shortcut for toggleOrderedList
        "toggleCodeBlock": null, // unbind Ctrl-Alt-C
        "drawTable": "Cmd-Alt-T", // bind Cmd-Alt-T to drawTable action, which doesn't come with a default shortcut

Shortcuts are automatically converted between platforms. If you define a shortcut as "Cmd-B", on PC that shortcut will be changed to "Ctrl-B". Conversely, a shortcut defined as "Ctrl-B" will become "Cmd-B" for Mac users.

The list of actions that can be bound is the same as the list of built-in actions available for toolbar buttons.

Advanced use

Event handling

You can catch the following list of events: https://codemirror.net/doc/manual.html#events

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE();
easyMDE.codemirror.on("change", () => {

Removing EasyMDE from text area

You can revert to the initial text area by calling the toTextArea method. Note that this clears up the autosave (if enabled) associated with it. The text area will retain any text from the destroyed EasyMDE instance.

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE();
// ...
easyMDE = null;

If you need to remove registered event listeners (when the editor is not needed anymore), call easyMDE.cleanup().

Useful methods

The following self-explanatory methods may be of use while developing with EasyMDE.

const easyMDE = new EasyMDE();
easyMDE.isPreviewActive(); // returns boolean
easyMDE.isSideBySideActive(); // returns boolean
easyMDE.isFullscreenActive(); // returns boolean
easyMDE.clearAutosavedValue(); // no returned value

How it works

EasyMDE is a continuation of SimpleMDE.

SimpleMDE began as an improvement of lepture's Editor project, but has now taken on an identity of its own. It is bundled with CodeMirror and depends on Font Awesome.

CodeMirror is the backbone of the project and parses much of the Markdown syntax as it's being written. This allows us to add styles to the Markdown that's being written. Additionally, a toolbar and status bar have been added to the top and bottom, respectively. Previews are rendered by Marked using GitHub Flavored Markdown (GFM).

SimpleMDE fork

I originally made this fork to implement FontAwesome 5 compatibility into SimpleMDE. When that was done I submitted a pull request, which has not been accepted yet. This, and the project being inactive since May 2017, triggered me to make more changes and try to put new life into the project.

Changes include:

  • FontAwesome 5 compatibility
  • Guide button works when editor is in preview mode
  • Links are now https:// by default
  • Small styling changes
  • Support for Node 8 and beyond
  • Lots of refactored code
  • Links in preview will open in a new tab by default
  • TypeScript support

My intention is to continue development on this project, improving it and keeping it alive.

Hacking EasyMDE

You may want to edit this library to adapt its behavior to your needs. This can be done in some quick steps:

  1. Follow the prerequisites and installation instructions in the contribution guide;
  2. Do your changes;
  3. Run gulp command, which will generate files: dist/easymde.min.css and dist/easymde.min.js;
  4. Copy-paste those files to your code base, and you are done.


Want to contribute to EasyMDE? Thank you! We have a contribution guide just for you!

Author: Ionaru
Source Code: https://github.com/Ionaru/easy-markdown-editor
License: MIT license

#react-native #react 

Ahebwe  Oscar

Ahebwe Oscar


how to integrate CKEditor in Django

how to integrate CKEditor in Django

Welcome to my Blog, in this article we learn about how to integrate CKEditor in Django and inside this, we enable the image upload button to add an image in the blog from local. When I add a CKEditor first time in my project then it was very difficult for me but now I can easily implement it in my project so you can learn and implement CKEditor in your project easily.

how to integrate CKEditor in Django

#django #add image upload in ckeditor #add image upload option ckeditor #ckeditor image upload #ckeditor image upload from local #how to add ckeditor in django #how to add image upload plugin in ckeditor #how to install ckeditor in django #how to integrate ckeditor in django #image upload in ckeditor #image upload option in ckeditor

anita maity

anita maity


Responsive Footer Design using HTML, CSS & Bootstrap

Hello Readers, welcome to my other blog, today in this blog I’m going to create a Responsive Footer by using HTML & CSS only. Earlier I have shared How to create a Responsive Navigation Menu and now it’s time to create a footer section.

As you can see on the image which is given on the webpage. There are various important topics there like About us, Our services and subscribes, some social media icons, and a contact section for easy connection. I want to tell you that it is fully responsive. Responsive means this program is fit in all screen devices like tablet, small screen laptop, or mobile devices.

Live Demo

#responsive footer html css template #footer design in html #simple footer html css code #simple responsive footer codepen #responsive footer code in html and css #responsive footer html css codepen

Angela  Dickens

Angela Dickens


Commonly Used HTML Tags with Examples

HTML tags are keywords used in HTML to display web-pages with certain properties. They are further used for defining HTML elements. An HTML element consists of a starting tag, some content, and an ending tag. The web browser reads the HTML document from top to bottom, left to right. Each HTML tag defines a new property that helps in rendering the website.



The ‘<>’ brackets contain an HTML tag. There are two types of HTML tags- empty tags or singleton tags and container tags. Singleton tags or empty tags do not contain any content such as an image or a paragraph and hence do not need to be closed, whereas container tags should be closed.


  1. Some Content

Examples of:

Empty tag: 


Container tags: 



  1. <!DOCTYPE>
  2. Paragraph

  3. Heading

  4. Bold
  5. Italic
  6. Underline


HTML Tags example

Head tags:

,<style>,<script>,<link>,<meta> and <base>. <p>Text-formatting tags:</p> <p><h>,<b>,<strong>,<small>,<pre>,<i>,<em>,<sub>,<sup>,<ins>,<dfn>,<del>,<div> and <span>.</p> <p>Link tags:</p> <p><a>, <base>.</p> <p>List tags:</p> <ul>, <ol>, <li>, <dl>, <dd> <p>Table tags:</p> <table> ,<tr> , <td>, <th>, <thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>. <p>Form tags:</p> <form>, <input>, <select>, <option>, <button>, <label>, <fieldset>, <textarea>. <p>Scripting tags:</p> <script>, <noscript> Image and Object tags: <img>, <figure>, <figcaption>, <area>, <map>, <object>. Here is an alphabetical list of tags used in HTML.

#html tutorials #html image tags #html link tags #html list tags #html tags #html

Ava Watson

Ava Watson


Know Everything About HTML With HTML Experts

HTML stands for a hypertext markup language. For the designs to be displayed in web browser HTML is the markup language. Technologies like Cascading style sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript assist HTML. With the help of HTML websites and the web, designs are created. Html has a wide range of academic applications. HTML has a series of elements. HTML helps to display web content. Its elements tell the web how to display the contents.

The document component of HTML is known as an HTML element. HTML element helps in displaying the web pages. An HTML document is a mixture of text nodes and HTML elements.

Basics of HTML are-

The simple fundamental components oh HTML is

  1. Head- the setup information for the program and web pages is carried in the head
  2. Body- the actual substance that is to be shown on the web page is carried in the body
  3. HTML- information starts and ends with and labels.
  4. Comments- come up in between

Html versions timeline

  1. HTML was created in 1990. Html is a program that is updated regularly. the timeline for the HTML versions is
  2. HTML 2- November, 1995
  3. HTML 3- January, 1997
  4. HTML 4- December, 1997; April, 1998; December, 1999; May, 2000
  5. HTML 5- October, 2014; November, 2016; December, 2017

HTML draft version timelines are

  1. October 1991
  2. June 1992
  3. November 1992
  4. June 1993
  5. November 1993
  6. November 1994
  7. April 1995
  8. January 2008
  9. HTML 5-
    2011, last call
    2012 candidate recommendation
    2014 proposed recommendation and recommendation

HTML helps in creating web pages. In web pages, there are texts, pictures, colouring schemes, tables, and a variety of other things. HTML allows all these on a web page.
There are a lot of attributes in HTML. It may get difficult to memorize these attributes. HTML is a tricky concept. Sometimes it gets difficult to find a single mistake that doesn’t let the web page function properly.

Many minor things are to be kept in mind in HTML. To complete an HTML assignment, it is always advisable to seek help from online experts. These experts are well trained and acknowledged with the subject. They provide quality content within the prescribed deadline. With several positive reviews, the online expert help for HTML assignment is highly recommended.

#html assignment help #html assignment writing help #online html assignment writing help #html assignment help service online #what is html #about html