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Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie WEB-DL This is a file losslessly ripped from a streaming service, such as Netflix, Amazon

Video, Hulu, Crunchyroll, Discovery GO, BBC iPlayer, etc. This is also a movie or TV show downloaded via an online distribution website, such as iTunes. The quality is quite good since they are not re-encoded. The video (H.264 or H.265) and audio (AC3/Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 C) streams are usually extracted from the iTunes or Amazon Video and then remuxed into a MKV container without sacrificing quality.

Download Movie Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 One of the movie streaming industry’s largest impacts has been on the DVD industry, which

effectively met its demise with the mass popularization of online content. The rise of media streaming has caused the downfall of many DVD rental companies such as Blockbuster. In July 2015 an article from the New York Times published an article about Netflix’s DVD

services. It stated that Netflix is continuing their DVD services with 5.3 million subscribers, which is a significant drop from the

previous year. On the other hand, their streaming services have 65 million members. In a March 2016 study assessing the “Impact of Movie

Streaming over traditional DVD Movie Rental” it was found that respondents do not purchase DVD movies nearly as much anymore, if ever, as streaming has taken over the market. Watch Movie Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 , viewers did not find movie quality to be

significantly different between DVD and online streaming. Issues that respondents believed needed improvement with movie streaming

included functions of fast forwarding or rewinding, as well as search functions. The article highlights that the quality of movie

streaming as an industry will only increase in time, as advertising revenue continues to soar on a yearly basis throughout the industry, providing incentive for quality content production.

Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie Online Blu-ray or Bluray rips are encoded directly from the Blu-ray disc to 1080p or 720p (depending on disc source), and use the x264 codec. They can be ripped from BD25 or BD50 discs (or UHD Blu-ray at higher resolutions). BDRips are from a Blu-ray disc and encoded to a lower resolution from its source (i.e. 1080p to 720p/576p/480p). A BRRip is an already encoded video at an HD resolution (usually 1080p) that is then transcoded to a SD resolution. Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie BD/BRRip in DVDRip resolution looks better, regardless, because the encode is from a higher quality source. BRRips are only from an HD resolution to a SD resolution whereas BDRips can go from 2160p to 1080p, etc as long as they go downward in resolution of the source

disc. Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie FullBDRip is not a transcode and can fluxate downward for encoding, but BRRip can only go down to SD resolutions as they are transcoded. BD/BRRips in DVDRip resolutions can vary between XviD or x264 codecs (commonly 700 MB and 1.5 GB in size as well as larger DVD5 or DVD9: 4.5 GB or 8.4GB), size fluctuates depending on length and quality of releases, but the higher the size the more likely they use the x264 codec. Download Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie HDRip

Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 is a 2021 American drama film directed by Fisher Stevens and written by Cheryl Guerriero. It stars Justin Timberlake as a former college football star, now an ex-convict, who starts to mentor a young boy (Ryder Allen); Alisha Wainwright, June Squibb, and Juno Temple also star. It was digitally released by Apple TV+ on January 29, 2021. The film received mixed reviews from critics, who praised the performances while noting its familiarity.

◇ STREAMING MEDIA ◇
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb to stream refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner.[clarification needed] Streaming refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs). There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. For example, users whose Internet connection lacks sufficient bandwidth may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content. And users lacking compatible hardware or software systems may be unable to stream certain content. Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media (e.g. a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it frequently is. Streaming is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. Through streaming, an end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. The term streaming media can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, and real-time text, which are all considered streaming text. Elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. Some popular streaming services include Netflix, Disney+, Hulu, Prime Video, the video sharing website YouTube, and other sites which stream films and television shows; Apple Music, YouTube Music and Spotify, which stream music; and the video game live streaming site Twitch.

◇ COPYRIGHT ◇
Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself. A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States. Some jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. [better source needed] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered territorial rights. This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works cross national borders or national rights are inconsistent. Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without a formal registration. In general, many believe that the long copyright duration guarantees the better protection of works. However, several scholars argue that the longer duration does not improve the author’s earnings while impeding cultural creativity and diversity. On the contrast, a shortened copyright duration can increase the earnings of authors from their works and enhance cultural diversity and creativity.

◇ MOVIES / FILM ◇
Movies, or films, are a type of visual communication which uses moving pictures and sound to tell stories or teach people something. Most people watch (view) movies as a type of entertainment or a way to have fun. For some people, fun movies can mean movies that make them laugh, while for others it can mean movies that make them cry, or feel afraid. It is widely believed that copyrights are a must to foster cultural diversity and creativity. However, Parc argues that contrary to prevailing beliefs, imitation and copying do not restrict cultural creativity or diversity but in fact support them further. This argument has been supported by many examples such as Millet and Van Gogh, Picasso, Manet, and Monet, etc. Most movies are made so that they can be shown on screen in Cinemas and at home. After movies are shown in Cinemas for a period of a few weeks or months, they may be marketed through several other medias. They are shown on pay television or cable television, and sold or rented on DVD disks or videocassette tapes, so that people can watch the movies at home. You can also download or stream movies. Older movies are shown on television broadcasting stations. A movie camera or video camera takes pictures very quickly, usually at 24 or 25 pictures (frames) every second. When a movie projector, a computer, or a television shows the pictures at that rate, it looks like the things shown in the set of pictures are really moving. Sound is either recorded at the same time, or added later. The sounds in a movie usually include the sounds of people talking (which is called dialogue), music (which is called the soundtrack), and sound effects, the sounds of activities that are happening in the movie (such as doors opening or guns being fired).
In the 20th century the camera used photographic film. The product is still often called a film even though there usually is no film. A genre is a word for a type of movie or a style of movie. Movies can be fictional (made up), or documentary (showing ‘real life’), or a mix of the two. Although hundreds of movies are made every year, there are very few that do not follow a small number of set plots, or stories. Some movies mix together two or more genres.

Action movies have a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve ‘goodies’ and ‘baddies’, so war and crime are common subjects. Action movies usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple. For example, in Die Hard, terrorists take control of a skyscraper and ask for a big ransom in exchange for not killing the hostage workers. One hero somehow manages to save everyone. Action movies do not usually make people cry, but if the action movie is also a drama, emotion will be involved. Adventure Movies usually involve a hero who sets out on a quest to save the world or loved ones.

Animated movies use artificial images like talking cartoons to tell a story. These movies used to be drawn by hand, one frame at a time, but are now made on computers. Buddy movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other, both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because of the close friendship between the ‘buddies’. Comedies are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things or being in silly or unusual situations that make the audience laugh. Documentaries are movies that are (or claim to be) about real people and real events.

They are nearly always serious and may involve strongly emotional subjects, for example cruelty. Dramas are serious, and often about people falling in love or needing to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to ‘overcome’ (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want. Tragedies are always dramas, and are about people in trouble. For example, a husband and wife who are divorcing must each try to prove to a court of law that they are the best person to take care of their child. Emotion (feelings) are a big part of the movie and the audience (people watching the movie) may get upset and even cry.

Film noir movies are 1940s-era detective dramas about crime and violence. Family movies are made to be good for the entire family. They are mainly made for children but often entertaining for adults as well. Disney is famous for their family movies. Horror movies use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in movie studios where the movie is made) are all designed to add to the feeling. Romantic Comedies (Rom-Coms) are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. Rom-Coms are usually light-hearten, but may include some emotion. Comedy horror movies blend horror and comic motifs in its plots. Movies in this genre sometimes use black comedy as the main form of humor. Science fiction movies are set in the future or in outer space. Some use their future or alien settings to ask questions about the meaning of life or how we should think about life. Science fiction movies often use special effects to create images of alien worlds, outer space, alien creatures, and spaceships. Fantasy movies include magical and impossible things that any real human being cannot do. Thrillers are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until the final minutes, when there are usually ‘twists’ in the plot (surprises). Suspense movies keep you on the edge of your seat. They usually have multiple twists that confuse the watcher. Western movies tell stories about cowboys in the western United States in the 1870s and 1880s. They are usually action movies, but with historical costumes. Some involve Native Americans. Not all films that are set in the American West are made there. For example, Western films made in Italy are called Spaghetti Westerns. Some films can also use Western plots even if they are set in other places.

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Blindspotting - Season 1 Episode 4 : The Four Hustlateers HD free TV Show

polo ya

1625312600

Blindspotting - Season 1 Episode 4 : The Four Hustlateers HD free TV Show

17 sec ago !~M-O-B-A-MOVIEFLIX~+]~SOUND.Cloud++!~JWPLayer*GoogleDrive/4K.Downloads-! How to watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 online Free? HQ Reddit Video [DVD-ENGLISH] Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Full Movie Watch online free Dailymotion [#Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 ] [GOOGLE-DRIVE]-[DVD-ENGLISH] F9 Fast and Furious 9 (2021) Full Movie Watch online free HQ [DvdRip-USA eng subs]] Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4! (2021) Full Movie Watch #Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 online free 123 Movies Online !! Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 | Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Online (2021) Full Movie Free HD| Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Online (2021) Full Movies Free HD !! Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 | Watch Streaming Hd Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Full Movies for download,Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 720p, 1080p, BrRip, DvdRip, High Qualit Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4.

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Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie WEB-DL This is a file losslessly ripped from a streaming service, such as Netflix, Amazon

Video, Hulu, Crunchyroll, Discovery GO, BBC iPlayer, etc. This is also a movie or TV show downloaded via an online distribution website, such as iTunes. The quality is quite good since they are not re-encoded. The video (H.264 or H.265) and audio (AC3/Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 C) streams are usually extracted from the iTunes or Amazon Video and then remuxed into a MKV container without sacrificing quality.

Download Movie Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 One of the movie streaming industry’s largest impacts has been on the DVD industry, which

effectively met its demise with the mass popularization of online content. The rise of media streaming has caused the downfall of many DVD rental companies such as Blockbuster. In July 2015 an article from the New York Times published an article about Netflix’s DVD

services. It stated that Netflix is continuing their DVD services with 5.3 million subscribers, which is a significant drop from the

previous year. On the other hand, their streaming services have 65 million members. In a March 2016 study assessing the “Impact of Movie

Streaming over traditional DVD Movie Rental” it was found that respondents do not purchase DVD movies nearly as much anymore, if ever, as streaming has taken over the market. Watch Movie Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 , viewers did not find movie quality to be

significantly different between DVD and online streaming. Issues that respondents believed needed improvement with movie streaming

included functions of fast forwarding or rewinding, as well as search functions. The article highlights that the quality of movie

streaming as an industry will only increase in time, as advertising revenue continues to soar on a yearly basis throughout the industry, providing incentive for quality content production.

Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie Online Blu-ray or Bluray rips are encoded directly from the Blu-ray disc to 1080p or 720p (depending on disc source), and use the x264 codec. They can be ripped from BD25 or BD50 discs (or UHD Blu-ray at higher resolutions). BDRips are from a Blu-ray disc and encoded to a lower resolution from its source (i.e. 1080p to 720p/576p/480p). A BRRip is an already encoded video at an HD resolution (usually 1080p) that is then transcoded to a SD resolution. Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie BD/BRRip in DVDRip resolution looks better, regardless, because the encode is from a higher quality source. BRRips are only from an HD resolution to a SD resolution whereas BDRips can go from 2160p to 1080p, etc as long as they go downward in resolution of the source

disc. Watch Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie FullBDRip is not a transcode and can fluxate downward for encoding, but BRRip can only go down to SD resolutions as they are transcoded. BD/BRRips in DVDRip resolutions can vary between XviD or x264 codecs (commonly 700 MB and 1.5 GB in size as well as larger DVD5 or DVD9: 4.5 GB or 8.4GB), size fluctuates depending on length and quality of releases, but the higher the size the more likely they use the x264 codec. Download Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 Movie HDRip

Blindspotting Season 1 Episode 4 is a 2021 American drama film directed by Fisher Stevens and written by Cheryl Guerriero. It stars Justin Timberlake as a former college football star, now an ex-convict, who starts to mentor a young boy (Ryder Allen); Alisha Wainwright, June Squibb, and Juno Temple also star. It was digitally released by Apple TV+ on January 29, 2021. The film received mixed reviews from critics, who praised the performances while noting its familiarity.

◇ STREAMING MEDIA ◇
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb to stream refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner.[clarification needed] Streaming refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs). There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. For example, users whose Internet connection lacks sufficient bandwidth may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content. And users lacking compatible hardware or software systems may be unable to stream certain content. Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media (e.g. a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it frequently is. Streaming is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. Through streaming, an end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. The term streaming media can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, and real-time text, which are all considered streaming text. Elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. Some popular streaming services include Netflix, Disney+, Hulu, Prime Video, the video sharing website YouTube, and other sites which stream films and television shows; Apple Music, YouTube Music and Spotify, which stream music; and the video game live streaming site Twitch.

◇ COPYRIGHT ◇
Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself. A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States. Some jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. [better source needed] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered territorial rights. This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works cross national borders or national rights are inconsistent. Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without a formal registration. In general, many believe that the long copyright duration guarantees the better protection of works. However, several scholars argue that the longer duration does not improve the author’s earnings while impeding cultural creativity and diversity. On the contrast, a shortened copyright duration can increase the earnings of authors from their works and enhance cultural diversity and creativity.

◇ MOVIES / FILM ◇
Movies, or films, are a type of visual communication which uses moving pictures and sound to tell stories or teach people something. Most people watch (view) movies as a type of entertainment or a way to have fun. For some people, fun movies can mean movies that make them laugh, while for others it can mean movies that make them cry, or feel afraid. It is widely believed that copyrights are a must to foster cultural diversity and creativity. However, Parc argues that contrary to prevailing beliefs, imitation and copying do not restrict cultural creativity or diversity but in fact support them further. This argument has been supported by many examples such as Millet and Van Gogh, Picasso, Manet, and Monet, etc. Most movies are made so that they can be shown on screen in Cinemas and at home. After movies are shown in Cinemas for a period of a few weeks or months, they may be marketed through several other medias. They are shown on pay television or cable television, and sold or rented on DVD disks or videocassette tapes, so that people can watch the movies at home. You can also download or stream movies. Older movies are shown on television broadcasting stations. A movie camera or video camera takes pictures very quickly, usually at 24 or 25 pictures (frames) every second. When a movie projector, a computer, or a television shows the pictures at that rate, it looks like the things shown in the set of pictures are really moving. Sound is either recorded at the same time, or added later. The sounds in a movie usually include the sounds of people talking (which is called dialogue), music (which is called the soundtrack), and sound effects, the sounds of activities that are happening in the movie (such as doors opening or guns being fired).
In the 20th century the camera used photographic film. The product is still often called a film even though there usually is no film. A genre is a word for a type of movie or a style of movie. Movies can be fictional (made up), or documentary (showing ‘real life’), or a mix of the two. Although hundreds of movies are made every year, there are very few that do not follow a small number of set plots, or stories. Some movies mix together two or more genres.

Action movies have a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve ‘goodies’ and ‘baddies’, so war and crime are common subjects. Action movies usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple. For example, in Die Hard, terrorists take control of a skyscraper and ask for a big ransom in exchange for not killing the hostage workers. One hero somehow manages to save everyone. Action movies do not usually make people cry, but if the action movie is also a drama, emotion will be involved. Adventure Movies usually involve a hero who sets out on a quest to save the world or loved ones.

Animated movies use artificial images like talking cartoons to tell a story. These movies used to be drawn by hand, one frame at a time, but are now made on computers. Buddy movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other, both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because of the close friendship between the ‘buddies’. Comedies are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things or being in silly or unusual situations that make the audience laugh. Documentaries are movies that are (or claim to be) about real people and real events.

They are nearly always serious and may involve strongly emotional subjects, for example cruelty. Dramas are serious, and often about people falling in love or needing to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to ‘overcome’ (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want. Tragedies are always dramas, and are about people in trouble. For example, a husband and wife who are divorcing must each try to prove to a court of law that they are the best person to take care of their child. Emotion (feelings) are a big part of the movie and the audience (people watching the movie) may get upset and even cry.

Film noir movies are 1940s-era detective dramas about crime and violence. Family movies are made to be good for the entire family. They are mainly made for children but often entertaining for adults as well. Disney is famous for their family movies. Horror movies use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in movie studios where the movie is made) are all designed to add to the feeling. Romantic Comedies (Rom-Coms) are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. Rom-Coms are usually light-hearten, but may include some emotion. Comedy horror movies blend horror and comic motifs in its plots. Movies in this genre sometimes use black comedy as the main form of humor. Science fiction movies are set in the future or in outer space. Some use their future or alien settings to ask questions about the meaning of life or how we should think about life. Science fiction movies often use special effects to create images of alien worlds, outer space, alien creatures, and spaceships. Fantasy movies include magical and impossible things that any real human being cannot do. Thrillers are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until the final minutes, when there are usually ‘twists’ in the plot (surprises). Suspense movies keep you on the edge of your seat. They usually have multiple twists that confuse the watcher. Western movies tell stories about cowboys in the western United States in the 1870s and 1880s. They are usually action movies, but with historical costumes. Some involve Native Americans. Not all films that are set in the American West are made there. For example, Western films made in Italy are called Spaghetti Westerns. Some films can also use Western plots even if they are set in other places.

#blindspotting season 1 episode 4 #series #tv

A Wrapper for Sembast and SQFlite to Enable Easy

FHIR_DB

This is really just a wrapper around Sembast_SQFLite - so all of the heavy lifting was done by Alex Tekartik. I highly recommend that if you have any questions about working with this package that you take a look at Sembast. He's also just a super nice guy, and even answered a question for me when I was deciding which sembast version to use. As usual, ResoCoder also has a good tutorial.

I have an interest in low-resource settings and thus a specific reason to be able to store data offline. To encourage this use, there are a number of other packages I have created based around the data format FHIR. FHIR® is the registered trademark of HL7 and is used with the permission of HL7. Use of the FHIR trademark does not constitute endorsement of this product by HL7.

Using the Db

So, while not absolutely necessary, I highly recommend that you use some sort of interface class. This adds the benefit of more easily handling errors, plus if you change to a different database in the future, you don't have to change the rest of your app, just the interface.

I've used something like this in my projects:

class IFhirDb {
  IFhirDb();
  final ResourceDao resourceDao = ResourceDao();

  Future<Either<DbFailure, Resource>> save(Resource resource) async {
    Resource resultResource;
    try {
      resultResource = await resourceDao.save(resource);
    } catch (error) {
      return left(DbFailure.unableToSave(error: error.toString()));
    }
    return right(resultResource);
  }

  Future<Either<DbFailure, List<Resource>>> returnListOfSingleResourceType(
      String resourceType) async {
    List<Resource> resultList;
    try {
      resultList =
          await resourceDao.getAllSortedById(resourceType: resourceType);
    } catch (error) {
      return left(DbFailure.unableToObtainList(error: error.toString()));
    }
    return right(resultList);
  }

  Future<Either<DbFailure, List<Resource>>> searchFunction(
      String resourceType, String searchString, String reference) async {
    List<Resource> resultList;
    try {
      resultList =
          await resourceDao.searchFor(resourceType, searchString, reference);
    } catch (error) {
      return left(DbFailure.unableToObtainList(error: error.toString()));
    }
    return right(resultList);
  }
}

I like this because in case there's an i/o error or something, it won't crash your app. Then, you can call this interface in your app like the following:

final patient = Patient(
    resourceType: 'Patient',
    name: [HumanName(text: 'New Patient Name')],
    birthDate: Date(DateTime.now()),
);

final saveResult = await IFhirDb().save(patient);

This will save your newly created patient to the locally embedded database.

IMPORTANT: this database will expect that all previously created resources have an id. When you save a resource, it will check to see if that resource type has already been stored. (Each resource type is saved in it's own store in the database). It will then check if there is an ID. If there's no ID, it will create a new one for that resource (along with metadata on version number and creation time). It will save it, and return the resource. If it already has an ID, it will copy the the old version of the resource into a _history store. It will then update the metadata of the new resource and save that version into the appropriate store for that resource. If, for instance, we have a previously created patient:

{
    "resourceType": "Patient",
    "id": "fhirfli-294057507-6811107",
    "meta": {
        "versionId": "1",
        "lastUpdated": "2020-10-16T19:41:28.054369Z"
    },
    "name": [
        {
            "given": ["New"],
            "family": "Patient"
        }
    ],
    "birthDate": "2020-10-16"
}

And we update the last name to 'Provider'. The above version of the patient will be kept in _history, while in the 'Patient' store in the db, we will have the updated version:

{
    "resourceType": "Patient",
    "id": "fhirfli-294057507-6811107",
    "meta": {
        "versionId": "2",
        "lastUpdated": "2020-10-16T19:45:07.316698Z"
    },
    "name": [
        {
            "given": ["New"],
            "family": "Provider"
        }
    ],
    "birthDate": "2020-10-16"
}

This way we can keep track of all previous version of all resources (which is obviously important in medicine).

For most of the interactions (saving, deleting, etc), they work the way you'd expect. The only difference is search. Because Sembast is NoSQL, we can search on any of the fields in a resource. If in our interface class, we have the following function:

  Future<Either<DbFailure, List<Resource>>> searchFunction(
      String resourceType, String searchString, String reference) async {
    List<Resource> resultList;
    try {
      resultList =
          await resourceDao.searchFor(resourceType, searchString, reference);
    } catch (error) {
      return left(DbFailure.unableToObtainList(error: error.toString()));
    }
    return right(resultList);
  }

You can search for all immunizations of a certain patient:

searchFunction(
        'Immunization', 'patient.reference', 'Patient/$patientId');

This function will search through all entries in the 'Immunization' store. It will look at all 'patient.reference' fields, and return any that match 'Patient/$patientId'.

The last thing I'll mention is that this is a password protected db, using AES-256 encryption (although it can also use Salsa20). Anytime you use the db, you have the option of using a password for encryption/decryption. Remember, if you setup the database using encryption, you will only be able to access it using that same password. When you're ready to change the password, you will need to call the update password function. If we again assume we created a change password method in our interface, it might look something like this:

class IFhirDb {
  IFhirDb();
  final ResourceDao resourceDao = ResourceDao();
  ...
    Future<Either<DbFailure, Unit>> updatePassword(String oldPassword, String newPassword) async {
    try {
      await resourceDao.updatePw(oldPassword, newPassword);
    } catch (error) {
      return left(DbFailure.unableToUpdatePassword(error: error.toString()));
    }
    return right(Unit);
  }

You don't have to use a password, and in that case, it will save the db file as plain text. If you want to add a password later, it will encrypt it at that time.

General Store

After using this for a while in an app, I've realized that it needs to be able to store data apart from just FHIR resources, at least on occasion. For this, I've added a second class for all versions of the database called GeneralDao. This is similar to the ResourceDao, but fewer options. So, in order to save something, it would look like this:

await GeneralDao().save('password', {'new':'map'});
await GeneralDao().save('password', {'new':'map'}, 'key');

The difference between these two options is that the first one will generate a key for the map being stored, while the second will store the map using the key provided. Both will return the key after successfully storing the map.

Other functions available include:

// deletes everything in the general store
await GeneralDao().deleteAllGeneral('password'); 

// delete specific entry
await GeneralDao().delete('password','key'); 

// returns map with that key
await GeneralDao().find('password', 'key'); 

FHIR® is a registered trademark of Health Level Seven International (HL7) and its use does not constitute an endorsement of products by HL7®

Use this package as a library

Depend on it

Run this command:

With Flutter:

 $ flutter pub add fhir_db

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

dependencies:
  fhir_db: ^0.4.3

Alternatively, your editor might support or flutter pub get. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:fhir_db/dstu2.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/dstu2/fhir_db.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/dstu2/general_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/dstu2/resource_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/encrypt/aes.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/encrypt/salsa.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r4.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r4/fhir_db.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r4/general_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r4/resource_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r5.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r5/fhir_db.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r5/general_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r5/resource_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/stu3.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/stu3/fhir_db.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/stu3/general_dao.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/stu3/resource_dao.dart'; 

example/lib/main.dart

import 'package:fhir/r4.dart';
import 'package:fhir_db/r4.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:test/test.dart';

Future<void> main() async {
  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized();

  final resourceDao = ResourceDao();

  // await resourceDao.updatePw('newPw', null);
  await resourceDao.deleteAllResources(null);

  group('Playing with passwords', () {
    test('Playing with Passwords', () async {
      final patient = Patient(id: Id('1'));

      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, patient);

      await resourceDao.updatePw(null, 'newPw');
      final search1 = await resourceDao.find('newPw',
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Patient, id: Id('1'));
      expect(saved, search1[0]);

      await resourceDao.updatePw('newPw', 'newerPw');
      final search2 = await resourceDao.find('newerPw',
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Patient, id: Id('1'));
      expect(saved, search2[0]);

      await resourceDao.updatePw('newerPw', null);
      final search3 = await resourceDao.find(null,
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Patient, id: Id('1'));
      expect(saved, search3[0]);

      await resourceDao.deleteAllResources(null);
    });
  });

  final id = Id('12345');
  group('Saving Things:', () {
    test('Save Patient', () async {
      final humanName = HumanName(family: 'Atreides', given: ['Duke']);
      final patient = Patient(id: id, name: [humanName]);
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, patient);

      expect(saved.id, id);

      expect((saved as Patient).name?[0], humanName);
    });

    test('Save Organization', () async {
      final organization = Organization(id: id, name: 'FhirFli');
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, organization);

      expect(saved.id, id);

      expect((saved as Organization).name, 'FhirFli');
    });

    test('Save Observation1', () async {
      final observation1 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs1'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #1'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, observation1);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs1'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #1');
    });

    test('Save Observation1 Again', () async {
      final observation1 = Observation(
          id: Id('obs1'),
          code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #1 - Updated'));
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, observation1);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs1'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #1 - Updated');

      expect(saved.meta?.versionId, Id('2'));
    });

    test('Save Observation2', () async {
      final observation2 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs2'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #2'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, observation2);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs2'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #2');
    });

    test('Save Observation3', () async {
      final observation3 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs3'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #3'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save(null, observation3);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs3'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #3');
    });
  });

  group('Finding Things:', () {
    test('Find 1st Patient', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.find(null,
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Patient, id: id);
      final humanName = HumanName(family: 'Atreides', given: ['Duke']);

      expect(search.length, 1);

      expect((search[0] as Patient).name?[0], humanName);
    });

    test('Find 3rd Observation', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.find(null,
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Observation, id: Id('obs3'));

      expect(search.length, 1);

      expect(search[0].id, Id('obs3'));

      expect((search[0] as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #3');
    });

    test('Find All Observations', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.getResourceType(
        null,
        resourceTypes: [R4ResourceType.Observation],
      );

      expect(search.length, 3);

      final idList = [];
      for (final obs in search) {
        idList.add(obs.id.toString());
      }

      expect(idList.contains('obs1'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs2'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs3'), true);
    });

    test('Find All (non-historical) Resources', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.getAll(null);

      expect(search.length, 5);
      final patList = search.toList();
      final orgList = search.toList();
      final obsList = search.toList();
      patList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Patient);
      orgList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Organization);
      obsList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Observation);

      expect(patList.length, 1);

      expect(orgList.length, 1);

      expect(obsList.length, 3);
    });
  });

  group('Deleting Things:', () {
    test('Delete 2nd Observation', () async {
      await resourceDao.delete(
          null, null, R4ResourceType.Observation, Id('obs2'), null, null);

      final search = await resourceDao.getResourceType(
        null,
        resourceTypes: [R4ResourceType.Observation],
      );

      expect(search.length, 2);

      final idList = [];
      for (final obs in search) {
        idList.add(obs.id.toString());
      }

      expect(idList.contains('obs1'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs2'), false);

      expect(idList.contains('obs3'), true);
    });

    test('Delete All Observations', () async {
      await resourceDao.deleteSingleType(null,
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Observation);

      final search = await resourceDao.getAll(null);

      expect(search.length, 2);

      final patList = search.toList();
      final orgList = search.toList();
      patList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Patient);
      orgList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Organization);

      expect(patList.length, 1);

      expect(patList.length, 1);
    });

    test('Delete All Resources', () async {
      await resourceDao.deleteAllResources(null);

      final search = await resourceDao.getAll(null);

      expect(search.length, 0);
    });
  });

  group('Password - Saving Things:', () {
    test('Save Patient', () async {
      await resourceDao.updatePw(null, 'newPw');
      final humanName = HumanName(family: 'Atreides', given: ['Duke']);
      final patient = Patient(id: id, name: [humanName]);
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', patient);

      expect(saved.id, id);

      expect((saved as Patient).name?[0], humanName);
    });

    test('Save Organization', () async {
      final organization = Organization(id: id, name: 'FhirFli');
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', organization);

      expect(saved.id, id);

      expect((saved as Organization).name, 'FhirFli');
    });

    test('Save Observation1', () async {
      final observation1 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs1'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #1'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', observation1);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs1'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #1');
    });

    test('Save Observation1 Again', () async {
      final observation1 = Observation(
          id: Id('obs1'),
          code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #1 - Updated'));
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', observation1);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs1'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #1 - Updated');

      expect(saved.meta?.versionId, Id('2'));
    });

    test('Save Observation2', () async {
      final observation2 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs2'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #2'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', observation2);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs2'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #2');
    });

    test('Save Observation3', () async {
      final observation3 = Observation(
        id: Id('obs3'),
        code: CodeableConcept(text: 'Observation #3'),
        effectiveDateTime: FhirDateTime(DateTime(1981, 09, 18)),
      );
      final saved = await resourceDao.save('newPw', observation3);

      expect(saved.id, Id('obs3'));

      expect((saved as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #3');
    });
  });

  group('Password - Finding Things:', () {
    test('Find 1st Patient', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.find('newPw',
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Patient, id: id);
      final humanName = HumanName(family: 'Atreides', given: ['Duke']);

      expect(search.length, 1);

      expect((search[0] as Patient).name?[0], humanName);
    });

    test('Find 3rd Observation', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.find('newPw',
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Observation, id: Id('obs3'));

      expect(search.length, 1);

      expect(search[0].id, Id('obs3'));

      expect((search[0] as Observation).code.text, 'Observation #3');
    });

    test('Find All Observations', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.getResourceType(
        'newPw',
        resourceTypes: [R4ResourceType.Observation],
      );

      expect(search.length, 3);

      final idList = [];
      for (final obs in search) {
        idList.add(obs.id.toString());
      }

      expect(idList.contains('obs1'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs2'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs3'), true);
    });

    test('Find All (non-historical) Resources', () async {
      final search = await resourceDao.getAll('newPw');

      expect(search.length, 5);
      final patList = search.toList();
      final orgList = search.toList();
      final obsList = search.toList();
      patList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Patient);
      orgList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Organization);
      obsList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Observation);

      expect(patList.length, 1);

      expect(orgList.length, 1);

      expect(obsList.length, 3);
    });
  });

  group('Password - Deleting Things:', () {
    test('Delete 2nd Observation', () async {
      await resourceDao.delete(
          'newPw', null, R4ResourceType.Observation, Id('obs2'), null, null);

      final search = await resourceDao.getResourceType(
        'newPw',
        resourceTypes: [R4ResourceType.Observation],
      );

      expect(search.length, 2);

      final idList = [];
      for (final obs in search) {
        idList.add(obs.id.toString());
      }

      expect(idList.contains('obs1'), true);

      expect(idList.contains('obs2'), false);

      expect(idList.contains('obs3'), true);
    });

    test('Delete All Observations', () async {
      await resourceDao.deleteSingleType('newPw',
          resourceType: R4ResourceType.Observation);

      final search = await resourceDao.getAll('newPw');

      expect(search.length, 2);

      final patList = search.toList();
      final orgList = search.toList();
      patList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Patient);
      orgList.retainWhere(
          (resource) => resource.resourceType == R4ResourceType.Organization);

      expect(patList.length, 1);

      expect(patList.length, 1);
    });

    test('Delete All Resources', () async {
      await resourceDao.deleteAllResources('newPw');

      final search = await resourceDao.getAll('newPw');

      expect(search.length, 0);

      await resourceDao.updatePw('newPw', null);
    });
  });
} 

Download Details:

Author: MayJuun

Source Code: https://github.com/MayJuun/fhir/tree/main/fhir_db

#sqflite  #dart  #flutter 

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Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself. A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States. Some jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. [better source needed] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered territorial rights. This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works cross national borders or national rights are inconsistent. Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without a formal registration. In general, many believe that the long copyright duration guarantees the better protection of works. However, several scholars argue that the longer duration does not improve the author’s earnings while impeding cultural creativity and diversity. On the contrast, a shortened copyright duration can increase the earnings of authors from their works and enhance cultural diversity and creativity.

◇ MOVIES / FILM ◇
Movies, or films, are a type of visual communication which uses moving pictures and sound to tell stories or teach people something. Most people watch (view) movies as a type of entertainment or a way to have fun. For some people, fun movies can mean movies that make them laugh, while for others it can mean movies that make them cry, or feel afraid. It is widely believed that copyrights are a must to foster cultural diversity and creativity. However, Parc argues that contrary to prevailing beliefs, imitation and copying do not restrict cultural creativity or diversity but in fact support them further. This argument has been supported by many examples such as Millet and Van Gogh, Picasso, Manet, and Monet, etc. Most movies are made so that they can be shown on screen in Cinemas and at home. After movies are shown in Cinemas for a period of a few weeks or months, they may be marketed through several other medias. They are shown on pay television or cable television, and sold or rented on DVD disks or videocassette tapes, so that people can watch the movies at home. You can also download or stream movies. Older movies are shown on television broadcasting stations. A movie camera or video camera takes pictures very quickly, usually at 24 or 25 pictures (frames) every second. When a movie projector, a computer, or a television shows the pictures at that rate, it looks like the things shown in the set of pictures are really moving. Sound is either recorded at the same time, or added later. The sounds in a movie usually include the sounds of people talking (which is called dialogue), music (which is called the soundtrack), and sound effects, the sounds of activities that are happening in the movie (such as doors opening or guns being fired).
In the 20th century the camera used photographic film. The product is still often called a film even though there usually is no film. A genre is a word for a type of movie or a style of movie. Movies can be fictional (made up), or documentary (showing ‘real life’), or a mix of the two. Although hundreds of movies are made every year, there are very few that do not follow a small number of set plots, or stories. Some movies mix together two or more genres.

Action movies have a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve ‘goodies’ and ‘baddies’, so war and crime are common subjects. Action movies usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple. For example, in Die Hard, terrorists take control of a skyscraper and ask for a big ransom in exchange for not killing the hostage workers. One hero somehow manages to save everyone. Action movies do not usually make people cry, but if the action movie is also a drama, emotion will be involved. Adventure Movies usually involve a hero who sets out on a quest to save the world or loved ones.

Animated movies use artificial images like talking cartoons to tell a story. These movies used to be drawn by hand, one frame at a time, but are now made on computers. Buddy movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other, both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because of the close friendship between the ‘buddies’. Comedies are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things or being in silly or unusual situations that make the audience laugh. Documentaries are movies that are (or claim to be) about real people and real events.

They are nearly always serious and may involve strongly emotional subjects, for example cruelty. Dramas are serious, and often about people falling in love or needing to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to ‘overcome’ (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want. Tragedies are always dramas, and are about people in trouble. For example, a husband and wife who are divorcing must each try to prove to a court of law that they are the best person to take care of their child. Emotion (feelings) are a big part of the movie and the audience (people watching the movie) may get upset and even cry.

Film noir movies are 1940s-era detective dramas about crime and violence. Family movies are made to be good for the entire family. They are mainly made for children but often entertaining for adults as well. Disney is famous for their family movies. Horror movies use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in movie studios where the movie is made) are all designed to add to the feeling. Romantic Comedies (Rom-Coms) are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. Rom-Coms are usually light-hearten, but may include some emotion. Comedy horror movies blend horror and comic motifs in its plots. Movies in this genre sometimes use black comedy as the main form of humor. Science fiction movies are set in the future or in outer space. Some use their future or alien settings to ask questions about the meaning of life or how we should think about life. Science fiction movies often use special effects to create images of alien worlds, outer space, alien creatures, and spaceships. Fantasy movies include magical and impossible things that any real human being cannot do. Thrillers are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until the final minutes, when there are usually ‘twists’ in the plot (surprises). Suspense movies keep you on the edge of your seat. They usually have multiple twists that confuse the watcher. Western movies tell stories about cowboys in the western United States in the 1870s and 1880s. They are usually action movies, but with historical costumes. Some involve Native Americans. Not all films that are set in the American West are made there. For example, Western films made in Italy are called Spaghetti Westerns. Some films can also use Western plots even if they are set in other places.

#kevin can f**k himself season 1 episode 4 #tv

伊藤  直子

伊藤 直子

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【 初心者向け】C言語でのマルチスレッド の概要

ニューヨークで働き、ウォール街中のプログラマーと話をしていると、ほとんどのリアルタイムプログラミングアプリケーションで期待される共通の知識の糸に気づきました。その知識はマルチスレッドとして知られています。私はプログラミングの世界を移動し、潜在的なプログラミング候補者にインタビューを行ったので、マルチスレッドについてほとんど知られていないことや、スレッドが適用される理由や方法に驚かされることは決してありません。Vance Morrisonによって書かれた一連の優れた記事で、MSDNはこの問題に対処しようとしました:(MSDNの8月号、すべての開発者がマルチスレッドアプリについて知っておくべきこと、および10月号はマルチスレッドでのローロック技術の影響を理解するを参照してください)。アプリ

この記事では、スレッド化、スレッド化が使用される理由、および.NETでのスレッド化の使用方法について紹介します。マルチスレッドの背後にある謎を完全に明らかにし、それを説明する際に、コード内の潜在的なスレッド障害を回避するのに役立つことを願っています。

スレッドとは何ですか?

すべてのアプリケーションは、少なくとも1つのスレッドで実行されます。では、スレッドとは何ですか?スレッドはプロセスにすぎません。私の推測では、糸という言葉は、織機で糸を織り上げる超自然的なミューズのギリシャ神話に由来していると思います。各糸は、誰かの人生の時間の道を表しています。あなたがその糸をいじると、あなたは人生の構造を乱したり、人生のプロセスを変えたりします。コンピューターでは、スレッドは時間の経過とともに移動するプロセスです。プロセスは一連の順次ステップを実行し、各ステップはコード行を実行します。ステップは連続しているため、各ステップには一定の時間がかかります。一連のステップを完了するのにかかる時間は、各プログラミングステップの実行にかかる時間の合計です。

マルチスレッドアプリケーションとは何ですか?

長い間、ほとんどのプログラミングアプリケーション(組み込みシステムプログラムを除く)はシングルスレッドでした。これは、アプリケーション全体でスレッドが1つしかないことを意味します。計算Bが完了するまで、計算Aを実行することはできません。プログラムはステップ1から始まり、最後のステップ(ステップ10と呼びます)に到達するまで順次続行します(ステップ2、ステップ3、ステップ4)。マルチスレッドアプリケーションを使用すると、複数のスレッドを実行できます。各スレッドは独自のプロセスで実行されます。したがって、理論的には、あるスレッドでステップ1を実行し、同時に別のスレッドでステップ2を実行できます。同時に、ステップ3を独自のスレッドで実行し、ステップ4を独自のスレッドで実行することもできます。したがって、ステップ1、ステップ2、ステップ3、およびステップ4は同時に実行されます。理論的には、4つのステップすべてがほぼ同時にかかった場合、シングルスレッドの実行にかかる時間の4分の1でプログラムを終了できます(4プロセッサマシンを使用していると仮定)。では、なぜすべてのプログラムがマルチスレッド化されていないのでしょうか。スピードとともに、あなたは複雑さに直面するからです。ステップ1がステップ2の情報に何らかの形で依存している場合を想像してみてください。ステップ1がステップ2の前に計算を終了した場合、またはその逆の場合、プログラムが正しく実行されない可能性があります。

珍しいアナロジー

マルチスレッドを考える別の方法は、人体を考慮することです。体の各器官(心臓、肺、肝臓、脳)はすべてプロセスに関与しています。各プロセスは同時に実行されています。各臓器がプロセスのステップとして実行された場合を想像してみてください。最初に心臓、次に脳、次に肝臓、次に肺です。私たちはおそらく死んでしまうでしょう。つまり、人体は1つの大きなマルチスレッドアプリケーションのようなものです。すべての臓器は同時に実行されるプロセスであり、これらのプロセスはすべて相互に依存しています。これらのプロセスはすべて、神経信号、血流、化学的トリガーを介して通信します。すべてのマルチスレッドアプリケーションと同様に、人体は非常に複雑です。一部のプロセスが他のプロセスから情報を取得しない場合、または特定のプロセスが遅くなったり速くなったりすると、医学的な問題が発生します。それか'

いつスレッド化するか

マルチスレッドは、プログラムをより効率的に実行したい状況で最もよく使用されます。たとえば、ウィンドウフォームプログラムの中に、実行に1秒以上かかり、繰り返し実行する必要のあるメソッド(method_Aと呼びます)が含まれているとします。プログラム全体が単一のスレッドで実行された場合、ボタンの押下が正しく機能しなかったり、入力が少し遅くなったりすることがあります。method_Aの計算量が多すぎると、ウィンドウフォームの特定の部分がまったく機能しないことに気付くかもしれません。この許容できないプログラムの動作は、プログラムにマルチスレッドが必要であることを示しています。スレッド化が必要になるもう1つの一般的なシナリオは、メッセージングシステムです。アプリケーションに多数のメッセージが送信されている場合は、メインの処理プログラムの実行と同時にそれらをキャプチャし、適切に配布する必要があります。重い処理を実行しているときに一連のメッセージを効率的にキャプチャすることはできません。そうしないと、メッセージを見逃す可能性があります。複数のスレッドは、複数のプロセスが同時に実行される組立ライン方式で使用することもできます。たとえば、プロセスがスレッドでデータを収集すると、1つのプロセスがデータをフィルタリングし、1つのプロセスがデータをデータベースと照合します。これらの各シナリオはマルチスレッドの一般的な使用法であり、シングルスレッドで実行されている同様のアプリケーションのパフォーマンスを大幅に向上させます。そうしないと、メッセージを見逃す可能性があるためです。複数のスレッドは、複数のプロセスが同時に実行される組立ライン方式で使用することもできます。たとえば、プロセスがスレッドでデータを収集すると、1つのプロセスがデータをフィルタリングし、1つのプロセスがデータをデータベースと照合します。これらの各シナリオはマルチスレッドの一般的な使用法であり、シングルスレッドで実行されている同様のアプリケーションのパフォーマンスを大幅に向上させます。そうしないと、メッセージを見逃す可能性があるためです。複数のスレッドは、複数のプロセスが同時に実行される組立ライン方式で使用することもできます。たとえば、プロセスがスレッドでデータを収集すると、1つのプロセスがデータをフィルタリングし、1つのプロセスがデータをデータベースと照合します。これらの各シナリオはマルチスレッドの一般的な使用法であり、シングルスレッドで実行されている同様のアプリケーションのパフォーマンスを大幅に向上させます。

スレッドしない場合

初心者のプログラマーが最初にスレッド化を学ぶとき、彼らはプログラムでスレッド化を使用する可能性に魅了される可能性があります。彼らは実際にスレッドハッピーになるかもしれません  詳しく説明させてください、

1日目)プログラマーは、スレッドを生成できることを学び、プログラムで1つの新しいスレッドCool!の作成を開始します 。

2日目)プログラマーは、「プログラムの一部で他のスレッドを生成することで、これをさらに効率的にすることができます!」と言います。

3日目)P:「わあ、スレッド内でスレッドをフォークすることもでき、本当に効率が向上します!!」

4日目)P:「奇妙な結果が出ているようですが、それは問題ありません。今は無視します。」

5日目)「うーん、widgetX変数に値がある場合もありますが、まったく設定されていないように見える場合もあります。コンピューターが機能していないため、デバッガーを実行するだけです」。

9日目)「このくそったれ(より強い言語)プログラムはあちこちでジャンプしています!!何が起こっているのか理解できません!」

2週目)時々、プログラムはただそこに座って、まったく何もしません!ヘルプ!!!!!

おなじみですか?マルチスレッドプログラムを初めて設計しようとしたほとんどの人は、スレッドの設計知識が豊富であっても、おそらくこれらの毎日の箇条書きの少なくとも1つまたは2つを経験したことがあります。スレッド化が悪いことだとほのめかしているわけではありません。プログラムでスレッド化の効率を上げるプロセスでは、非常に注意してください。  シングルスレッドプログラムとは異なり、同時に多くのプロセスを処理しているため、複数の従属変数を持つ複数のプロセスを追跡するのは非常に難しい場合があります。ジャグリングと同じようにマルチスレッドを考えてください。手で1つのボールをジャグリングするのは(退屈ではありますが)かなり簡単です。ただし、これらのボールのうち2つを空中に置くように挑戦された場合、その作業は少し難しくなります。3、4、および5の場合、ボールは次第に難しくなります。ボールの数が増えると、実際にボールを落とす可能性が高くなります。 一度にたくさんのボールをジャグリングするには、知識、スキル、正確なタイミングが必要です。マルチスレッドもそうです。 

マルチスレッド

図1-マルチスレッドはジャグリングプロセスのようなものです

 
スレッディングの問題

プログラム内のすべてのプロセスが相互に排他的である場合、つまり、プロセスが他のプロセスにまったく依存していない場合、複数のスレッド化は非常に簡単で、問題はほとんど発生しません。各プロセスは、他のプロセスに煩わされることなく、独自のハッピーコースで実行されます。ただし、複数のプロセスが他のプロセスによって使用されているメモリの読み取りまたは書き込みを行う必要がある場合、問題が発生する可能性があります。たとえば、プロセス#1とプロセス#2の2つのプロセスがあるとします。両方のプロセスが変数Xを共有します。スレッドプロセス#1が最初に値5の変数Xを書き込み、スレッドプロセス#2が次に値-3の変数Xを書き込む場合、Xの最終値は-3です。ただし、プロセス#2が最初に値-3の変数Xを書き込み、次にプロセス#1が値5の変数Xを書き込む場合、Xの最終値は5です。Xを設定できるプロセスがプロセス#1またはプロセス#2の知識を持っていない場合、Xは、最初にXに到達したスレッドに応じて異なる最終値になる可能性があります。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、すべてが順番に続くため、これが発生する可能性はありません。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、並列に実行されているプロセスがないため、Xは常に最初にメソッド#1によって設定され(最初に呼び出された場合)、次にメソッド#2によって設定されます。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。Xは、どのスレッドが最初にXに到達したかによって、最終的に異なる最終値になる可能性があります。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、すべてが順番に続くため、これが発生する可能性はありません。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、並列に実行されているプロセスがないため、Xは常に最初にメソッド#1によって設定され(最初に呼び出された場合)、次にメソッド#2によって設定されます。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。Xは、どのスレッドが最初にXに到達したかによって、最終的に異なる最終値になる可能性があります。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、すべてが順番に続くため、これが発生する可能性はありません。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、並列に実行されているプロセスがないため、Xは常に最初にメソッド#1によって設定され(最初に呼び出された場合)、次にメソッド#2によって設定されます。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。すべてが順番に続くため、これが発生する可能性はありません。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、並列に実行されているプロセスがないため、Xは常に最初にメソッド#1によって設定され(最初に呼び出された場合)、次にメソッド#2によって設定されます。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。すべてが順番に続くため、これが発生する可能性はありません。シングルスレッドプログラムでは、並列に実行されているプロセスがないため、Xは常に最初にメソッド#1によって設定され(最初に呼び出された場合)、次にメソッド#2によって設定されます。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。(最初に呼び出された場合)次に、メソッド#2で設定します。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。(最初に呼び出された場合)次に、メソッド#2で設定します。シングルスレッドプログラムには驚きはありません。それはステップバイステップです。マルチスレッドプログラムを使用すると、2つのスレッドが同時にコードを入力し、結果に大混乱をもたらす可能性があります。スレッドの問題は、同時に実行されている別のスレッドが同じコードを入力して共有データを操作できるようにしながら、共有メモリにアクセスする1つのスレッドを制御する何らかの方法が必要なことです。 

スレッドセーフ

3つのボールをジャグリングするたびに、空中のボールが、自然の異常によって、すでに右手に座っているボールが投げられるまで、右手に到達することが決して許されなかったと想像してみてください。少年、ジャグリングはずっと簡単でしょう!これがスレッドセーフのすべてです。私たちのプログラムでは、もう一方のスレッドがビジネスを終了している間、一方のスレッドをコードブロック内で待機させます。スレッドのブロックまたはスレッドの同期と呼ばれるこのアクティビティにより、プログラム内で実行される同時スレッドのタイミングを制御できます。C#では、メモリの特定の部分(通常はオブジェクトのインスタンス)をロックし、オブジェクトを使用して別のスレッドが完了するまで、スレッドがこのオブジェクトのメモリのコードを入力できないようにします。今ではおそらくコード例を渇望しているので、ここに行きます。

2スレッドのシナリオを見てみましょう。この例では、C#でスレッド1とスレッド2の2つのスレッドを作成します。どちらも、独自のwhileループで実行されます。スレッドは何の役にも立ちません。どのスレッドに属しているかを示すメッセージを出力するだけです。_threadOutputと呼ばれる共有メモリクラスメンバーを利用します。_threadOutputには、実行中のスレッドに基づいてメッセージが割り当てられます。リスト#1は、それぞれDisplayThread1とDisplayThread2に含まれる2つのスレッドを示しています。

リスト1-メモリ内で共通の変数を共有する2つのスレッドを作成する

// shared memory variable between the two threads  
// used to indicate which thread we are in  
private string _threadOutput = "";  
  
/// <summary>  
/// Thread 1: Loop continuously,  
/// Thread 1: Displays that we are in thread 1  
/// </summary>  
void DisplayThread1()  
{  
      while (_stopThreads == false)  
      {  
            Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 1");  
  
            // Assign the shared memory to a message about thread #1  
            _threadOutput = "Hello Thread1";  
  
  
            Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing   
  
            // tell the user what thread we are in thread #1, and display shared memory  
            Console.WriteLine("Thread 1 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);  
  
      }  
}  

/// <summary>  
/// Thread 2: Loop continuously,  
/// Thread 2: Displays that we are in thread 2  
/// </summary>  
void DisplayThread2()  
{  
      while (_stopThreads == false)  
      {  
        Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 2");  
  
  
       // Assign the shared memory to a message about thread #2  
        _threadOutput = "Hello Thread2";  
  
  
        Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing  
  
       // tell the user we are in thread #2  
        Console.WriteLine("Thread 2 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);  
  
      }  
}
Class1()  
{  
      // construct two threads for our demonstration;  
      Thread thread1 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(DisplayThread1));  
      Thread thread2 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(DisplayThread2));  
  
      // start them  
      thread1.Start();  
      thread2.Start();  
}

このコードの結果を図2に示します。結果を注意深く見てください。プログラムが驚くべき出力を提供することに気付くでしょう(これをシングルスレッドの考え方から見た場合)。_threadOutputを、それが属するスレッドに対応する番号の文字列に明確に割り当てましたが、コンソールでは次のように表示されます。

C#でのスレッド化

図2-2スレッドの例からの異常な出力。

私たちのコードから次のことが期待されます、

スレッド1の出力->ハロースレッド1とスレッド2の出力->ハロースレッド2ですが、ほとんどの場合、結果は完全に予測できません。 

スレッド2の出力->ハロースレッド1とスレッド1の出力->ハロースレッド2が表示されることがあります。スレッドの出力がコードと一致しません。コードを見て、それを目で追っていますが、_threadOutput = "Hello Thread 2"、Sleep、Write "Thread 2-> Hello Thread 2"ですが、このシーケンスで必ずしも最終結果が得られるとは限りません。 

説明

このようなマルチスレッドプログラムでは、理論的にはコードが2つのメソッドDisplayThread1とDisplayThread2を同時に実行しているためです。各メソッドは変数_threadOutputを共有します。したがって、_threadOutputにはスレッド#1で値 "Hello Thread1"が割り当てられ、2行後にコンソールに_threadOutputが表示されますが、スレッド#1がそれを割り当てて表示する時間の間のどこかで、スレッド#2が_threadOutputを割り当てる可能性があります。値「HelloThread2」。これらの奇妙な結果が発生する可能性があるだけでなく、図2に示す出力に見られるように、非常に頻繁に発生します。この痛みを伴うスレッドの問題は、競合状態として知られるスレッドプログラミングで非常に一般的なバグです。 この例は、よく知られているスレッドの問題の非常に単純な例です。この問題は、参照されている変数やスレッドセーフでない変数を指すコレクションなどを介して、プログラマーからはるかに間接的に隠されている可能性があります。図2では症状は露骨ですが、競合状態は非常にまれにしか現れず、1分に1回、1時間に1回、または3日後に断続的に現れる可能性があります。レースは、その頻度が低く、再現が非常に難しいため、おそらくプログラマーにとって最悪の悪夢です。

レースに勝つ

競合状態を回避する最善の方法は、スレッドセーフなコードを作成することです。コードがスレッドセーフである場合、いくつかの厄介なスレッドの問題が発生するのを防ぐことができます。スレッドセーフなコードを書くためのいくつかの防御策があります。1つは、メモリの共有をできるだけ少なくすることです。クラスのインスタンスを作成し、それが1つのスレッドで実行され、次に同じクラスの別のインスタンスを作成し、それが別のスレッドで実行される場合、静的変数が含まれていない限り、クラスはスレッドセーフです。 。2つのクラスはそれぞれ、独自のフィールド用に独自のメモリを作成するため、共有メモリはありません。クラスに静的変数がある場合、またはクラスのインスタンスが他の複数のスレッドによって共有されている場合は、他のクラスがその変数の使用を完了するまで、一方のスレッドがその変数のメモリを使用できないようにする方法を見つける必要があります。ロック。  C#を使用すると、Monitorクラスまたはlock {}構造のいずれかを使用してコードをロックできます。(lock構造は、実際にはtry-finallyブロックを介してMonitorクラスを内部的に実装しますが、プログラマーからこれらの詳細を隠します)。リスト1の例では、共有_threadOutput変数を設定した時点から、コンソールへの実際の出力まで、コードのセクションをロックできます。コードのクリティカルセクションを両方のスレッドでロックして、どちらか一方に競合が発生しないようにします。メソッド内をロックする最も速くて汚い方法は、このポインターをロックすることです。このポインタをロックすると、クラスインスタンス全体がロックされるため、ロック内でクラスのフィールドを変更しようとするスレッドはすべてブロックされます。。ブロッキングとは、変数を変更しようとしているスレッドが、ロックされたスレッドでロックが解除されるまで待機することを意味します。スレッドは、lock {}構造の最後のブラケットに到達すると、ロックから解放されます。

リスト2-2つのスレッドをロックして同期する

/// <summary>  
/// Thread 1, Displays that we are in thread 1 (locked)  
 /// </summary>  
 void DisplayThread1()  
 {  
       while (_stopThreads == false)  
       {  
          // lock on the current instance of the class for thread #1  
             lock (this)  
             {  
                   Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 1");  
                   _threadOutput = "Hello Thread1";  
                   Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing  
                   // tell the user what thread we are in thread #1  
                   Console.WriteLine("Thread 1 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);  
             }// lock released  for thread #1 here  
       }   
 }  

/// <summary>  
/// Thread 1, Displays that we are in thread 1 (locked)  
 /// </summary>  
 void DisplayThread2()  
 {  
       while (_stopThreads == false)  
       {  
  
           // lock on the current instance of the class for thread #2  
             lock (this)  
             {  
                   Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 2");  
                   _threadOutput = "Hello Thread2";  
                   Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing  
                   // tell the user what thread we are in thread #1  
                   Console.WriteLine("Thread 2 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);  
             } // lock released  for thread #2 here  
       }   
 }

2つのスレッドをロックした結果を図3に示します。すべてのスレッド出力が適切に同期されていることに注意してください。スレッド1の出力->ハロースレッド1とスレッド2の出力->ハロースレッド2という結果が常に表示されます。ただし、スレッドのロックにはコストがかかることに注意してください。スレッドをロックすると、ロックが解除されるまで他のスレッドを強制的に待機させます。本質的に、他のスレッドが共有メモリの使用を待機している間、最初のスレッドはプログラムで何もしていないため、プログラムの速度が低下しました。したがって、ロックは慎重に使用する必要があります。共有メモリに関与していない場合は、コード内にあるすべてのメソッドをロックするだけではいけません。また、ロックを使用するときは注意してください。スレッド#1がスレッド#2によってロックが解放されるのを待っている状況に陥りたくないからです。スレッド#2は、スレッド#1によってロックが解放されるのを待っています。この状況が発生すると、両方のスレッドがブロックされ、プログラムがフリーズしたように見えます。この状況はとして知られていますデッドロックが発生し、プログラム内の予測できない断続的な期間にも発生する可能性があるため、競合状態とほぼ同じくらい悪い状況です。 

  C#でのスレッド化

  図3-ロックを使用したデュアルスレッドプログラムの同期

代替ソリューション

.NETは、スレッドの制御に役立つ多くのメカニズムを提供します。別のスレッドが共有メモリの一部を処理している間、スレッドをブロックしたままにする別の方法は、AutoResetEventを使用することです。AutoResetEventクラスには、SetとWaitOneの2つのメソッドがあります。これらの2つの方法は、スレッドのブロックを制御するために一緒に使用できます。AutoResetEventがfalseで初期化されると、プログラムは、AutoResetEventでSetメソッドが呼び出されるまで、WaitOneを呼び出すコード行で停止します。AutoResetEventでSetメソッドが実行されると、スレッドのブロックが解除され、WaitOneを超えて続行できるようになります。次回WaitOneが呼び出されると、自動的にリセットされるため、プログラムは、WaitOneメソッドが実行されているコード行で再び待機(ブロック)します。この「停止とトリガー」を使用できます Setを呼び出して、別のスレッドがブロックされたスレッドを解放する準備ができるまで、あるスレッドをブロックするメカニズム。リスト3は、AutoResetEventを使用して、ブロックされたスレッドが待機し、ブロックされていないスレッドが実行されてコンソールに_threadOutputを表示している間に、互いにブロックする同じ2つのスレッドを示しています。最初に、_blockThread1はfalseを通知するように初期化され、_blockThread2はtrueを通知するように初期化されます。これは、_blockThread2がDisplayThread_2のループを最初に通過するときに、WaitOne呼び出しを続行できるようになる一方で、_blockThread1はDisplayThread_1のWaitOne呼び出しをブロックすることを意味します。_blockThread2がスレッド2のループの終わりに達すると、スレッド1をブロックから解放するためにSetを呼び出して_blockThread1に信号を送ります。次に、スレッド2は、スレッド1がループの終わりに到達して_blockThread2でSetを呼び出すまで、WaitOne呼び出しで待機します。スレッド1で呼び出されたセットはスレッド2のブロックを解放し、プロセスが再開されます。両方のAutoResetEvents(_blockThread1と_blockThread2)を最初にfalseを通知するように設定した場合、両方のスレッドが互いにトリガーする機会なしにループの進行を待機し、デッドロック。 

リスト3-あるいは、AutoResetEventでスレッドをブロックする

AutoResetEvent _blockThread1 = new AutoResetEvent(false);  
AutoResetEvent _blockThread2 = new AutoResetEvent(true);  
  
/// <summary>  
/// Thread 1, Displays that we are in thread 1  
/// </summary>  
void DisplayThread_1()  
{  
      while (_stopThreads == false)  
      {  
               // block thread 1  while the thread 2 is executing  
                _blockThread1.WaitOne();   
  
                // Set was called to free the block on thread 1, continue executing the code  
                  Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 1");  
  
                  _threadOutput = "Hello Thread 1";  
                  Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing  
  
                   // tell the user what thread we are in thread #1  
                  Console.WriteLine("Thread 1 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);  
  
                // finished executing the code in thread 1, so unblock thread 2  
                  _blockThread2.Set();  
      }  
}  
  
/// <summary>  
/// Thread 2, Displays that we are in thread 2  
/// </summary>  
void DisplayThread_2()  
{  
      while (_stopThreads == false)  
      {  
            // block thread 2  while thread 1 is executing  
                  _blockThread2.WaitOne();   
  
            // Set was called to free the block on thread 2, continue executing the code  
                  Console.WriteLine("Display Thread 2");  
  
                  _threadOutput = "Hello Thread 2";  
                  Thread.Sleep(1000);  // simulate a lot of processing  
  
                   // tell the user we are in thread #2  
                  Console.WriteLine("Thread 2 Output --> {0}", _threadOutput);   
  
            // finished executing the code in thread 2, so unblock thread 1  
                _blockThread1.Set();  
      }  
} 

 

リスト3で生成される出力は、図3に示すロックコードと同じ出力ですが、AutoResetEventを使用すると、現在のスレッドが処理を完了したときに、あるスレッドが別のスレッドに通知する方法をより動的に制御できます。

結論

マイクロプロセッサの速度の理論的限界を押し上げているため、テクノロジは、コンピュータテクノロジの速度とパフォーマンスを最適化できる新しい方法を見つける必要があります。マルチプロセッサチップの発明と並列プログラミングへの侵入により、マルチスレッドを理解することで、ムーアの法則に挑戦し続けるために必要な利点をもたらすこれらのより最近のテクノロジーを処理するために必要なパラダイムに備えることができます。C#と.NETは、マルチスレッドと並列処理をサポートする機能を提供します。これらのツールを上手に活用する方法を理解すれば、私たち自身の日々のプログラミング活動において、将来のこれらのハードウェアの約束に備えることができます。一方、シャープなあなたができるので、スレッドのあなたの知識エン.NET可能性を。 

リンク:https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/article/introduction-to-multithreading-in-C-Sharp/

#csharp 

ceto na

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Atypical Season 4 Episode 1 is a 2021 American drama film directed by Fisher Stevens and written by Cheryl Guerriero. It stars Justin Timberlake as a former college football star, now an ex-convict, who starts to mentor a young boy (Ryder Allen); Alisha Wainwright, June Squibb, and Juno Temple also star. It was digitally released by Apple TV+ on January 29, 2021. The film received mixed reviews from critics, who praised the performances while noting its familiarity.

◇ STREAMING MEDIA ◇
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb to stream refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner.[clarification needed] Streaming refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs). There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. For example, users whose Internet connection lacks sufficient bandwidth may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content. And users lacking compatible hardware or software systems may be unable to stream certain content. Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media (e.g. a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it frequently is. Streaming is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. Through streaming, an end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. The term streaming media can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, and real-time text, which are all considered streaming text. Elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. Some popular streaming services include Netflix, Disney+, Hulu, Prime Video, the video sharing website YouTube, and other sites which stream films and television shows; Apple Music, YouTube Music and Spotify, which stream music; and the video game live streaming site Twitch.

◇ COPYRIGHT ◇
Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself. A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States. Some jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. [better source needed] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered territorial rights. This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works cross national borders or national rights are inconsistent. Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without a formal registration. In general, many believe that the long copyright duration guarantees the better protection of works. However, several scholars argue that the longer duration does not improve the author’s earnings while impeding cultural creativity and diversity. On the contrast, a shortened copyright duration can increase the earnings of authors from their works and enhance cultural diversity and creativity.

◇ MOVIES / FILM ◇
Movies, or films, are a type of visual communication which uses moving pictures and sound to tell stories or teach people something. Most people watch (view) movies as a type of entertainment or a way to have fun. For some people, fun movies can mean movies that make them laugh, while for others it can mean movies that make them cry, or feel afraid. It is widely believed that copyrights are a must to foster cultural diversity and creativity. However, Parc argues that contrary to prevailing beliefs, imitation and copying do not restrict cultural creativity or diversity but in fact support them further. This argument has been supported by many examples such as Millet and Van Gogh, Picasso, Manet, and Monet, etc. Most movies are made so that they can be shown on screen in Cinemas and at home. After movies are shown in Cinemas for a period of a few weeks or months, they may be marketed through several other medias. They are shown on pay television or cable television, and sold or rented on DVD disks or videocassette tapes, so that people can watch the movies at home. You can also download or stream movies. Older movies are shown on television broadcasting stations. A movie camera or video camera takes pictures very quickly, usually at 24 or 25 pictures (frames) every second. When a movie projector, a computer, or a television shows the pictures at that rate, it looks like the things shown in the set of pictures are really moving. Sound is either recorded at the same time, or added later. The sounds in a movie usually include the sounds of people talking (which is called dialogue), music (which is called the soundtrack), and sound effects, the sounds of activities that are happening in the movie (such as doors opening or guns being fired).
In the 20th century the camera used photographic film. The product is still often called a film even though there usually is no film. A genre is a word for a type of movie or a style of movie. Movies can be fictional (made up), or documentary (showing ‘real life’), or a mix of the two. Although hundreds of movies are made every year, there are very few that do not follow a small number of set plots, or stories. Some movies mix together two or more genres.

Action movies have a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve ‘goodies’ and ‘baddies’, so war and crime are common subjects. Action movies usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple. For example, in Die Hard, terrorists take control of a skyscraper and ask for a big ransom in exchange for not killing the hostage workers. One hero somehow manages to save everyone. Action movies do not usually make people cry, but if the action movie is also a drama, emotion will be involved. Adventure Movies usually involve a hero who sets out on a quest to save the world or loved ones.

Animated movies use artificial images like talking cartoons to tell a story. These movies used to be drawn by hand, one frame at a time, but are now made on computers. Buddy movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other, both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because of the close friendship between the ‘buddies’. Comedies are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things or being in silly or unusual situations that make the audience laugh. Documentaries are movies that are (or claim to be) about real people and real events.

They are nearly always serious and may involve strongly emotional subjects, for example cruelty. Dramas are serious, and often about people falling in love or needing to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to ‘overcome’ (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want. Tragedies are always dramas, and are about people in trouble. For example, a husband and wife who are divorcing must each try to prove to a court of law that they are the best person to take care of their child. Emotion (feelings) are a big part of the movie and the audience (people watching the movie) may get upset and even cry.

Film noir movies are 1940s-era detective dramas about crime and violence. Family movies are made to be good for the entire family. They are mainly made for children but often entertaining for adults as well. Disney is famous for their family movies. Horror movies use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in movie studios where the movie is made) are all designed to add to the feeling. Romantic Comedies (Rom-Coms) are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. Rom-Coms are usually light-hearten, but may include some emotion. Comedy horror movies blend horror and comic motifs in its plots. Movies in this genre sometimes use black comedy as the main form of humor. Science fiction movies are set in the future or in outer space. Some use their future or alien settings to ask questions about the meaning of life or how we should think about life. Science fiction movies often use special effects to create images of alien worlds, outer space, alien creatures, and spaceships. Fantasy movies include magical and impossible things that any real human being cannot do. Thrillers are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until the final minutes, when there are usually ‘twists’ in the plot (surprises). Suspense movies keep you on the edge of your seat. They usually have multiple twists that confuse the watcher. Western movies tell stories about cowboys in the western United States in the 1870s and 1880s. They are usually action movies, but with historical costumes. Some involve Native Americans. Not all films that are set in the American West are made there. For example, Western films made in Italy are called Spaghetti Westerns. Some films can also use Western plots even if they are set in other places.

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