Choosing a data visualization library for React

Choosing a data visualization library for React

Choosing a data visualization library for React. Choosing a data visualization library for React. The Nivo documentation site allows you to easily customize attributes from the UI. Chart libraries ranked by the number of days since their last commit during a snapshot in January.

Choosing a data visualization library for React. Choosing a data visualization library for React. The Nivo documentation site allows you to easily customize attributes from the UI. Chart libraries ranked by the number of days since their last commit during a snapshot in January.

Early in my career at Apple, I learned a great deal about building products. I gained exposure to the world-class manufacturing processes that enabled Apple to ship its hardware products on time and at quality, and later transform itself into the most valuable company in the world.

My experience at Apple also taught me how the principles behind manufacturing optimization could be applied to software engineering and architecture design.

Software development continues to trend toward reusable and interoperable components rather than bespoke engineering for everything. Like optimizing processes in manufacturing, choosing the right frameworks and libraries is the key to fast, efficient development.

If you’re building an application with data visualizations, an early decision you have to make is whether to use D3 or a React chart library.

If you’re not familiar with D3, it is a Javascript library that provides the necessary building blocks to build data visualizations by manipulating SVG and HTML. It has become the backbone of the most popular reusable data visualization libraries — such as ChartJS, eCharts, C3, NVD3, and Plotly — which make it easier to generate D3-based charts while writing less code. Most of these libraries have a wrapper library for usage in popular frameworks, such as Ember, React, Vue, or Angular.

If you want to minimize writing custom code and time, I recommend using a React chart library instead of creating your own charts in D3.

But after you decide to use an existing library, the decision to invest time and energy into a new chart library can be overwhelming. Where do you start?

React is a relatively new ecosystem and there are perhaps fewer chart library options than there are for Javascript, which might make you feel a bit limited. As a starting point, I would suggest that you look at these React-specific libraries:

There are also some great wrappers out there, such as react-chartjs-2 and React Highcharts. But before you weigh the pros and cons of each library, I’ll outline below what I think are the most important criteria for your decision.

Top criteria for choosing a library

Your first step should be to clearly define your use cases. It sounds obvious, but knowing what you are looking for is the most important criteria in your decision.

What chart types does your application require? Depending on the type of application you’re building, you might require simple instead of complex charts. Often, line/area, grouped/stacked bar, and pie/donut charts suffice for most applications.

What kind of customization, formatting, and interactivity do you require in your design? Do you need to be able to customize tick marks? What about showing or hiding grids and axes? Will you need to custom tooltips, legends, and margins? Will you need to format and style your charts significantly? These are all important questions you should also ask.

After you have concretely defined your requirements, here are the top four questions you should consider:

  1. Is the project well-documented with examples?
  2. How active is the project?
  3. Is the project free or commercially-licensed?
  4. How easily customizable are chart components, like tooltips and legends?

Documentation and examples

A good chart library should have a dedicated documentation site that is both interactive and includes many examples. Raphaël Benitte did an amazing job building the documentation site for Nivo. It allows you to customize attributes and see a live simulation of each chart with randomized data directly in the documentation site UI, which makes prototyping and iterating on design 10x faster. Nivo and React-Vis both use Storybook for UI demonstrations of their various examples, which can dramatically shortcut the time to build a chart.

The Nivo]( "") documentation site allows you to easily customize attributes from the UI.

Project activity

Before you invest too much time, you should check to make sure the library is being actively maintained. Most chart libraries have 1 or 2 active maintainers. You should check how recently and how often the project is being updated. The date of the last commit in GitHub can be a good indicator. Charting libraries built specifically for React are generally updated more frequently than their Javascript counterparts.

Chart libraries ranked by the number of days since their last commit during a snapshot in January.

Free vs. commercial

While there are many great free libraries out there, some would argue that a paid license might be worth the time you save, especially if you’re building a commercial product. Three popular paid charting libraries with a React wrapper are HighCharts (there are several flavors, but this is the official wrapper), ZingChart, and FusionCharts. A license for Highcharts, which is known for its breadth and flexibility, starts at $1,510 for a single developer for the Highcharts Suite.


It’s important that you spend enough time researching the full capabilities of the library. Specifically, be sure to check out the documentation for tooltips, legends, axes, and titles. Readability of the codebase can be important here in case you need to go to GitHub and find the code you’re trying to customize.

As I mentioned before, you should pay close attention to the types of charts supported, especially if you need to go beyond line, bar, pie, scatter, and other standard charts. Need a line and bar chart together? Recharts has a composed line and bar chart. Need a grouped and stacked bar chart? Recharts has a mixed bar chart as well. If you are looking to have a visually consistent application and make your code reusable, you will want to choose a chart library that supports all the types of charts you need.

Recharts]( "") is good for charts composed of multiple chart types.

One constraint you might encounter is the number and variety of charts. In my opinion, chord, sankeys, and other complex charts can be confusing and are generally not needed for most applications.

If you’re looking for a library that is closer to the metal, I’d recommend VX. Shapes are the core element behind VX (the main package import is @vx/shape). If you observe the constructs of the code in the package, Harrison Hoff also uses base D3 components like xScale and yScale.

Other criteria to consider

There are a number of other important criteria to compare when choosing a library. In terms of popularity, you should also check out each library’s stars, forks, and contributors on GitHub. Of the React-specific libraries, Recharts had the most stars (10.7K) as of late January, followed by Victory (6.7K), VX (5.6K), React-Vis (4.9K), and Nivo (4.8K).

GitHub stars for popular chart libraries

Another good proxy for popularity is package downloads on NPM.

Chart generated using NPM Charts](,react-vis,victory,@vx/shape,@nivo/core) ",react-vis,victory,@vx/shape,@nivo/core)")

I also like to see how quickly pull requests are opened and merged, which is a good indicator of the velocity of new feature requests. Commit frequency in GitHub Insights is a good proxy for activity, though you may find very helpful and responsive maintainers with less frequent updates.

VX]( "") is an actively maintained repo with weekly commits

One benefit of choosing a paid product is that you will have access to support. If you choose a free, open-source library, you’ll have to rely on other people who are willing to help and share examples. While you will generally find more help from a larger community on Stack Overflow, I also consider whether or not the library has an active community forum. Nivo, for instance, has an active Discourse community and Victory has one on Gitter.

If you’re working in React, being able to theme your chart library is another big win. Whereas Chartist, for instance, uses a highly customizable Sass file, Nivo let’s you create your own theme constant across all of your charts,

You should also investigate whether or not your library supports server-side rendering. Some libraries assume that your code will only be executed in a client-side environment. If you want to produce charts outside of your application’s user interface — such as in an email client or in a blog embed — you need to be able to render your charts server-side. Some libraries support rendering your charts in SVG, HTML, and Canvas which can give you greater flexibility and control over where you display your charts.

Don’t forget about browser and device compatibility. If you’re building a desktop app with plans to build a mobile app using React Native, currently Victory is the only library that makes components for React Native. Also, if your app is responsive, then some chart libraries might work better than others. Nivo comes with out-of-the-box responsive components whereas React-Vis, for instance, might require a custom wrapper with breakpoints.

One last criteria I like to consider is code splitting, which makes your imports more manageable and maintainable. Some chart libraries (such as VX and Nivo) are bundled into multiple smaller packages that allow you to load individual charts components instead of the entire library, which can result in better performance. If all you need is a line chart, it would be a shame to import an entire library. For instance, Nivo lets you use import { line } from @nivo/line instead of importing the entire package.

Choosing Nivo

In the project I’m working on (Code Time), we started with React-Chartist because the documentation was clear and simple. However, we ultimately decided to switch to Nivo because it met all of our use cases and had a thorough documentation site.

The most frustrating part of experimenting with a new library is making an attribute change and being unable to detect if the change is working or not. Nivo allows you to tweak attributes in the UI and quickly see the effect, which helps speed up my development. There are some things that could still be improved, like being able to see your own data in the UI and creating variables for formats, but these are minor details that I am looking forward to seeing improved in the future as the library grows.

JavaScript developers should you be using Web Workers?

JavaScript developers should you be using Web Workers?

Do you think JavaScript developers should be making more use of Web Workers to shift execution off of the main thread?

Originally published by David Gilbertson at

So, Web Workers. Those wonderful little critters that allow us to execute JavaScript off the main thread.

Also known as “no, you’re thinking of Service Workers”.

Photo by Caleb Jones on Unsplash

Before I get into the meat of the article, please sit for a lesson in how computers work:

Understood? Good.

For the red/green colourblind, let me explain. While a CPU is doing one thing, it can’t be doing another thing, which means you can’t sort a big array while a user scrolls the screen.

This is bad, if you have a big array and users with fingers.

Enter, Web Workers. These split open the atomic concept of a ‘CPU’ and allow us to think in terms of threads. We can use one thread to handle user-facing work like touch events and rendering the UI, and different threads to carry out all other work.

Check that out, the main thread is green the whole way through, ready to receive and respond to the gentle caress of a user.

You’re excited (I can tell), if we only have UI code on the main thread and all other code can go in a worker, things are going to be amazing (said the way Oprah would say it).

But cool your jets for just a moment, because websites are mostly about the UI — it’s why we have screens. And a lot of a user’s interactions with your site will be tapping on the screen, waiting for a response, reading, tapping, looking, reading, and so on.

So we can’t just say “here’s some JS that takes 20ms to run, chuck it on a thread”, we must think about where that execution time exists in the user’s world of tap, read, look, read, tap…

I like to boil this down to one specific question:

Is the user waiting anyway?

Imagine we have created some sort of git-repository-hosting website that shows all sorts of things about a repository. We have a cool feature called ‘issues’. A user can even click an ‘issues’ tab in our website to see a list of all issues relating to the repository. Groundbreaking!

When our users click this issues tab, the site is going to fetch the issue data, process it in some way — perhaps sort, or format dates, or work out which icon to show — then render the UI.

Inside the user’s computer, that’ll look exactly like this.

Look at that processing stage, locking up the main thread even though it has nothing to do with the UI! That’s terrible, in theory.

But think about what the human is actually doing at this point. They’re waiting for the common trio of network/process/render; just sittin’ around with less to do than the Bolivian Navy.

Because we care about our users, we show a loading indicator to let them know we’ve received their request and are working on it — putting the human in a ‘waiting’ state. Let’s add that to the diagram.

Now that we have a human in the picture, we can mix in a Web Worker and think about the impact it will have on their life:


First thing to note is that we’re not doing anything in parallel. We need the data from the network before we process it, and we need to process the data before we can render the UI. The elapsed time doesn’t change.

(BTW, the time involved in moving data to a Web Worker and back is negligible: 1ms per 100 KB is a decent rule of thumb.)

So we can move work off the main thread and have a page that is responsive during that time, but to what end? If our user is sitting there looking at a spinner for 600ms, have we enriched their experience by having a responsive screen for the middle third?


I’ve fudged these diagrams a little bit to make them the gorgeous specimens of graphic design that they are, but they’re not really to scale.

When responding to a user request, you’ll find that the network and DOM-manipulating part of any given task take much, much longer than the pure-JS data processing part.

I saw an article recently making the case that updating a Redux store was a good candidate for Web Workers because it’s not UI work (and non-UI work doesn’t belong on the main thread).

Chucking the data processing over to a worker thread sounds sensible, but the idea struck me as a little, umm, academic.

First, let’s split instances of ‘updating a store’ into two categories:

  1. Updating a store in response to a user interaction, then updating the UI in response to the data change
  2. Not that first one

If the first scenario, a user taps a button on the screen — perhaps to change the sort order of a list. The store updates, and this results in a re-rendering of the DOM (since that’s the point of a store).

Let me just delete one thing from the previous diagram:

In my experience, it is rare that the store-updating step goes beyond a few dozen milliseconds, and is generally followed by ten times that in DOM updating, layout, and paint. If I’ve got a site that’s taking longer than this, I’d be asking questions about why I have so much data in the browser and so much DOM, rather than on which thread I should do my processing.

So the question we’re faced with is the same one from above: the user tapped something on the screen, we’re going to work on that request for hopefully less than a second, why would we want to make the screen responsive during that time?

OK what about the second scenario, where a store update isn’t in response to a user interaction? Performing an auto-save, for example — there’s nothing more annoying than an app becoming unresponsive doing something you didn’t ask it to do.

Actually there’s heaps of things more annoying than that. Teens, for example.

Anyhoo, if you’re doing an auto-save and taking 100ms to process data client-side before sending it off to a server, then you should absolutely use a Web Worker.

In fact, any ‘background’ task that the user hasn’t asked for, or isn’t waiting for, is a good candidate for moving to a Web Worker.

The matter of value

Complexity is expensive, and implementing Web Workers ain’t cheap.

If you’re using a bundler — and you are — you’ll have a lot of reading to do, and probably npm packages to install. If you’ve got a create-react-app app, prepare to eject (and put aside two days twice a year to update 30 different packages when the next version of Babel/Redux/React/ESLint comes out).

Also, if you want to share anything fancier than plain data between a worker and the main thread you’ve got some more reading to do (comlink is your friend).

What I’m getting at is this: if the benefit is real, but minimal, then you’ve gotta ask if there’s something else you could spend a day or two on with a greater benefit to your users.

This thinking is true of everything, of course, but I’ve found that Web Workers have a particularly poor benefit-to-effort ratio.

Hey David, why you hate Web Workers so bad?

Good question.

This is a doweling jig:

I own a doweling jig. I love my doweling jig. If I need to drill a hole into the end of a piece of wood and ensure that it’s perfectly perpendicular to the surface, I use my doweling jig.

But I don’t use it to eat breakfast. For that I use a spoon.

Four years ago I was working on some fancy animations. They looked slick on a fast device, but janky on a slow one. So I wrote fireball-js, which executes a rudimentary performance benchmark on the user’s device and returns a score, allowing me to run my animations only on devices that would render them smoothly.

Where’s the best spot to run some CPU intensive code that the user didn’t request? On a different thread, of course. A Web Worker was the correct tool for the job.

Fast forward to 2019 and you’ll find me writing a routing algorithm for a mapping application. This requires parsing a big fat GeoJSON map into a collection of nodes and edges, to be used when a user asks for directions. The processing isn’t in response to a user request and the user isn’t waiting on it. And so, a Web Worker is the correct tool for the job.

It was only when doing this that it dawned on me: in the intervening quartet of years, I have seen exactly zero other instances where Web Workers would have improved the user experience.

Contrast this with a recent resurgence in Web Worker wonderment, and combine that contrast with the fact that I couldn’t think of anything else to write about, then concatenate that combined contrast with my contrarian character and you’ve got yourself a blog post telling you that maybe Web Workers are a teeny-tiny bit overhyped.

Thanks for reading

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Further reading

An Introduction to Web Workers

JavaScript Web Workers: A Beginner’s Guide

Using Web Workers to Real-time Processing

How to use Web Workers in Angular app

Using Web Workers with Angular CLI

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