Hollie  Ratke

Hollie Ratke


How and Why to Write Enums in Go

An enum , which is short for enumerator , is a set of named constant values. Enums are a powerful tool that allow developers to create complex sets of constants that have useful names yet simple and unique values.

#golang #go #web-development #developer

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How and Why to Write Enums in Go
Fannie  Zemlak

Fannie Zemlak


What's new in the go 1.15

Go announced Go 1.15 version on 11 Aug 2020. Highlighted updates and features include Substantial improvements to the Go linker, Improved allocation for small objects at high core counts, X.509 CommonName deprecation, GOPROXY supports skipping proxies that return errors, New embedded tzdata package, Several Core Library improvements and more.

As Go promise for maintaining backward compatibility. After upgrading to the latest Go 1.15 version, almost all existing Golang applications or programs continue to compile and run as older Golang version.

#go #golang #go 1.15 #go features #go improvement #go package #go new features

Generis: Versatile Go Code Generator


Versatile Go code generator.


Generis is a lightweight code preprocessor adding the following features to the Go language :

  • Generics.
  • Free-form macros.
  • Conditional compilation.
  • HTML templating.
  • Allman style conversion.


package main;


import (


#define DebugMode
#as true

// ~~

#define HttpPort
#as 8080

// ~~

#define WriteLine( {{text}} )
#as log.Println( {{text}} )

// ~~

#define local {{variable}} : {{type}};
#as var {{variable}} {{type}};

// ~~

#define DeclareStack( {{type}}, {{name}} )
    // -- TYPES

    type {{name}}Stack struct
        ElementArray []{{type}};

    // -- INQUIRIES

    func ( stack * {{name}}Stack ) IsEmpty(
        ) bool
        return len( stack.ElementArray ) == 0;

    // -- OPERATIONS

    func ( stack * {{name}}Stack ) Push(
        element {{type}}
        stack.ElementArray = append( stack.ElementArray, element );

    // ~~

    func ( stack * {{name}}Stack ) Pop(
        ) {{type}}
            element : {{type}};

        element = stack.ElementArray[ len( stack.ElementArray ) - 1 ];

        stack.ElementArray = stack.ElementArray[ : len( stack.ElementArray ) - 1 ];

        return element;

// ~~

#define DeclareStack( {{type}} )
#as DeclareStack( {{type}}, {{type:PascalCase}} )

// -- TYPES

DeclareStack( string )
DeclareStack( int32 )


func HandleRootPage(
    response_writer http.ResponseWriter,
    request * http.Request
        boolean : bool;
        natural : uint;
        integer : int;
        real : float64;
        text : string;
        integer_stack : Int32Stack;

    boolean = true;
    natural = 10;
    integer = 20;
    real = 30.0;
    text = "text";
    escaped_url_text = "&escaped text?";
    escaped_html_text = "<escaped text/>";

    integer_stack.Push( 10 );
    integer_stack.Push( 20 );
    integer_stack.Push( 30 );

    #write response_writer
        <!DOCTYPE html>
        <html lang="en">
                <meta charset="utf-8">
                <title><%= request.URL.Path %></title>
                <% if ( boolean ) { %>
                    <%= "URL : " + request.URL.Path %>
                    <%@ natural %>
                    <%# integer %>
                    <%& real %>
                    <%~ text %>
                    <%^ escaped_url_text %>
                    <%= escaped_html_text %>
                    <%= "<%% ignored %%>" %>
                    <%% ignored %%>
                <% } %>
                Stack :
                <% for !integer_stack.IsEmpty() { %>
                    <%# integer_stack.Pop() %>
                <% } %>

// ~~

func main()
    http.HandleFunc( "/", HandleRootPage );

    #if DebugMode
        WriteLine( "Listening on http://localhost:HttpPort" );

        http.ListenAndServe( ":HttpPort", nil )


#define directive

Constants and generic code can be defined with the following syntax :

#define old code
#as new code

#define old code

#as new code


#define parameter

The #define directive can contain one or several parameters :

{{variable name}} : hierarchical code (with properly matching brackets and parentheses)
{{variable name#}} : statement code (hierarchical code without semicolon)
{{variable name$}} : plain code
{{variable name:boolean expression}} : conditional hierarchical code
{{variable name#:boolean expression}} : conditional statement code
{{variable name$:boolean expression}} : conditional plain code

They can have a boolean expression to require they match specific conditions :

HasText text
HasPrefix prefix
HasSuffix suffix
HasIdentifier text
expression && expression
expression || expression
( expression )

The #define directive must not start or end with a parameter.

#as parameter

The #as directive can use the value of the #define parameters :

{{variable name}}
{{variable name:filter function}}
{{variable name:filter function:filter function:...}}

Their value can be changed through one or several filter functions :

ReplacePrefix old_prefix new_prefix
ReplaceSuffix old_suffix new_suffix
ReplaceText old_text new_text
ReplaceIdentifier old_identifier new_identifier
AddPrefix prefix
AddSuffix suffix
RemovePrefix prefix
RemoveSuffix suffix
RemoveText text
RemoveIdentifier identifier

#if directive

Conditional code can be defined with the following syntax :

#if boolean expression
    #if boolean expression
    #if boolean expression

The boolean expression can use the following operators :

expression && expression
expression || expression
( expression )

#write directive

Templated HTML code can be sent to a stream writer using the following syntax :

#write writer expression
    <% code %>
    <%@ natural expression %>
    <%# integer expression %>
    <%& real expression %>
    <%~ text expression %>
    <%= escaped text expression %>
    <%! removed content %>
    <%% ignored tags %%>


  • There is no operator precedence in boolean expressions.
  • The --join option requires to end the statements with a semicolon.
  • The #writer directive is only available for the Go language.


Install the DMD 2 compiler (using the MinGW setup option on Windows).

Build the executable with the following command line :

dmd -m64 generis.d

Command line

generis [options]


--prefix # : set the command prefix
--parse INPUT_FOLDER/ : parse the definitions of the Generis files in the input folder
--process INPUT_FOLDER/ OUTPUT_FOLDER/ : reads the Generis files in the input folder and writes the processed files in the output folder
--trim : trim the HTML templates
--join : join the split statements
--create : create the output folders if needed
--watch : watch the Generis files for modifications
--pause 500 : time to wait before checking the Generis files again
--tabulation 4 : set the tabulation space count
--extension .go : generate files with this extension


generis --process GS/ GO/

Reads the Generis files in the GS/ folder and writes Go files in the GO/ folder.

generis --process GS/ GO/ --create

Reads the Generis files in the GS/ folder and writes Go files in the GO/ folder, creating the output folders if needed.

generis --process GS/ GO/ --create --watch

Reads the Generis files in the GS/ folder and writes Go files in the GO/ folder, creating the output folders if needed and watching the Generis files for modifications.

generis --process GS/ GO/ --trim --join --create --watch

Reads the Generis files in the GS/ folder and writes Go files in the GO/ folder, trimming the HTML templates, joining the split statements, creating the output folders if needed and watching the Generis files for modifications.



Author: Senselogic
Source Code: https://github.com/senselogic/GENERIS 
License: View license

#go #golang #code 

Go-enum: An Enum Generator for Go


An enum generator for go

How it works

go-enum will take a commented type declaration like this:

// ENUM(jpeg, jpg, png, tiff, gif)
type ImageType int

and generate a file with the iota definition along various optional niceties that you may need:

const (
    // ImageTypeJpeg is a ImageType of type Jpeg.
    ImageTypeJpeg ImageType = iota
    // ImageTypeJpg is a ImageType of type Jpg.
    // ImageTypePng is a ImageType of type Png.
    // ImageTypeTiff is a ImageType of type Tiff.
    // ImageTypeGif is a ImageType of type Gif.

// String implements the Stringer interface.
func (x ImageType) String() string

// ParseImageType attempts to convert a string to a ImageType.
func ParseImageType(name string) (ImageType, error)

// MarshalText implements the text marshaller method.
func (x ImageType) MarshalText() ([]byte, error)

// UnmarshalText implements the text unmarshaller method.
func (x *ImageType) UnmarshalText(text []byte) error

Fear not the fact that the MarshalText and UnmarshalText are generated rather than JSON methods... they will still be utilized by the default JSON encoding methods.

If you find that the options given are not adequate for your use case, there is an option to add a custom template (-t flag) to the processing engine so that your custom code can be created!


The goal of go-enum is to create an easy to use enum generator that will take a decorated type declaration like type EnumName int and create the associated constant values and funcs that will make life a little easier for adding new values. It's not perfect, but I think it's useful.

I took the output of the Stringer command as the String() method, and added a way to parse a string value.


You can now download a release directly from github and use that for generating your enums! (Thanks to GoReleaser)

I did not specify any overrides on the release binary names, so uname -s and uname -m should provide the correct version of the binary for your distro.

    curl -fsSL "https://github.com/abice/go-enum/releases/download/$(GO_ENUM_VERSION)/go-enum_$(uname -s)_$(uname -m)" -o go-enum

Adding it to your project

Using go generate

  1. Add a go:generate line to your file like so... //go:generate go-enum -f=$GOFILE --marshal
  2. Run go generate like so go generate ./...
  3. Enjoy your newly created Enumeration!

Using Makefile

If you prefer makefile stuff, you can always do something like this:

STANDARD_ENUMS = example/animal_enum.go \

NULLABLE_ENUMS = example/sql_enum.go

$(STANDARD_ENUMS): GO_ENUM_FLAGS=--nocase --marshal --names --ptr
$(NULLABLE_ENUMS): GO_ENUM_FLAGS=--nocase --marshal --names --sqlnullint --ptr


# The generator statement for go enum files.  Files that invalidate the
# enum file: source file, the binary itself, and this file (in case you want to generate with different flags)
%_enum.go: %.go $(GOENUM) Makefile
    $(GOENUM) -f $*.go $(GO_ENUM_FLAGS)

Command options

go-enum --help

   go-enum - An enum generator for go

   go-enum [global options] [arguments...]


   --file value, -f value      The file(s) to generate enums.  Use more than one flag for more files.
   --noprefix                  Prevents the constants generated from having the Enum as a prefix. (default: false)
   --lower                     Adds lowercase variants of the enum strings for lookup. (default: false)
   --nocase                    Adds case insensitive parsing to the enumeration (forces lower flag). (default: false)
   --marshal                   Adds text (and inherently json) marshalling functions. (default: false)
   --sql                       Adds SQL database scan and value functions. (default: false)
   --flag                      Adds golang flag functions. (default: false)
   --prefix value              Replaces the prefix with a user one.
   --names                     Generates a 'Names() []string' function, and adds the possible enum values in the error response during parsing (default: false)
   --nocamel                   Removes the snake_case to CamelCase name changing (default: false)
   --ptr                       Adds a pointer method to get a pointer from const values (default: false)
   --sqlnullint                Adds a Null{{ENUM}} type for marshalling a nullable int value to sql (default: false)
   --sqlnullstr                Adds a Null{{ENUM}} type for marshalling a nullable string value to sql.  If sqlnullint is specified too, it will be Null{{ENUM}}Str (default: false)
   --template value, -t value  Additional template file(s) to generate enums.  Use more than one flag for more files. Templates will be executed in alphabetical order.
   --alias value, -a value     Adds or replaces aliases for a non alphanumeric value that needs to be accounted for. [Format should be "key:value,key2:value2", or specify multiple entries, or both!]
   --help, -h                  show help (default: false)
   --version, -v               print the version (default: false)


The parser looks for comments on your type defs and parse the enum declarations from it. The parser will look for ENUM( and continue to look for comma separated values until it finds a ). You can put values on the same line, or on multiple lines.
If you need to have a specific value jump in the enum, you can now specify that by adding =numericValue to the enum declaration. Keep in mind, this resets the data for all following values. So if you specify 50 in the middle of an enum, each value after that will be 51, 52, 53...


You can use comments inside enum that start with //
The comment must be at the end of the same line as the comment value, only then it will be added as a comment to the generated constant.

// Commented is an enumeration of commented values
value1 // Commented value 1
value3 // Commented value 3
type Commented int

The generated comments in code will look something like:

const (
    // CommentedValue1 is a Commented of type Value1
    // Commented value 1
    CommentedValue1 Commented = iota
    // CommentedValue2 is a Commented of type Value2
    // CommentedValue3 is a Commented of type Value3
    // Commented value 3


There are a few examples in the example directory. I've included one here for easy access, but can't guarantee it's up to date.

// Color is an enumeration of colors that are allowed.
/* ENUM(
Black, White, Red
Green = 33 // Green starts with 33
// Blue
// grey=
// yellow
// blue-green
// red-orange
// yellow_green
// red-orange-blue
// )
type Color int32

The generated code will look something like:

// Code generated by go-enum DO NOT EDIT.
// Version: example
// Revision: example
// Build Date: example
// Built By: example

package example

import (

const (
    // ColorBlack is a Color of type Black.
    ColorBlack Color = iota
    // ColorWhite is a Color of type White.
    // ColorRed is a Color of type Red.
    // ColorGreen is a Color of type Green.
    // Green starts with 33
    ColorGreen Color = iota + 30
    // ColorBlue is a Color of type Blue.
    // ColorGrey is a Color of type Grey.
    // ColorYellow is a Color of type Yellow.
    // ColorBlueGreen is a Color of type Blue-Green.
    // ColorRedOrange is a Color of type Red-Orange.
    // ColorYellowGreen is a Color of type Yellow_green.
    // ColorRedOrangeBlue is a Color of type Red-Orange-Blue.

const _ColorName = "BlackWhiteRedGreenBluegreyyellowblue-greenred-orangeyellow_greenred-orange-blue"

var _ColorMap = map[Color]string{
    ColorBlack:         _ColorName[0:5],
    ColorWhite:         _ColorName[5:10],
    ColorRed:           _ColorName[10:13],
    ColorGreen:         _ColorName[13:18],
    ColorBlue:          _ColorName[18:22],
    ColorGrey:          _ColorName[22:26],
    ColorYellow:        _ColorName[26:32],
    ColorBlueGreen:     _ColorName[32:42],
    ColorRedOrange:     _ColorName[42:52],
    ColorYellowGreen:   _ColorName[52:64],
    ColorRedOrangeBlue: _ColorName[64:79],

// String implements the Stringer interface.
func (x Color) String() string {
    if str, ok := _ColorMap[x]; ok {
        return str
    return fmt.Sprintf("Color(%d)", x)

var _ColorValue = map[string]Color{
    _ColorName[0:5]:                    ColorBlack,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[0:5]):   ColorBlack,
    _ColorName[5:10]:                   ColorWhite,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[5:10]):  ColorWhite,
    _ColorName[10:13]:                  ColorRed,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[10:13]): ColorRed,
    _ColorName[13:18]:                  ColorGreen,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[13:18]): ColorGreen,
    _ColorName[18:22]:                  ColorBlue,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[18:22]): ColorBlue,
    _ColorName[22:26]:                  ColorGrey,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[22:26]): ColorGrey,
    _ColorName[26:32]:                  ColorYellow,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[26:32]): ColorYellow,
    _ColorName[32:42]:                  ColorBlueGreen,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[32:42]): ColorBlueGreen,
    _ColorName[42:52]:                  ColorRedOrange,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[42:52]): ColorRedOrange,
    _ColorName[52:64]:                  ColorYellowGreen,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[52:64]): ColorYellowGreen,
    _ColorName[64:79]:                  ColorRedOrangeBlue,
    strings.ToLower(_ColorName[64:79]): ColorRedOrangeBlue,

// ParseColor attempts to convert a string to a Color
func ParseColor(name string) (Color, error) {
    if x, ok := _ColorValue[name]; ok {
        return x, nil
    return Color(0), fmt.Errorf("%s is not a valid Color", name)

func (x Color) Ptr() *Color {
    return &x

// MarshalText implements the text marshaller method
func (x Color) MarshalText() ([]byte, error) {
    return []byte(x.String()), nil

// UnmarshalText implements the text unmarshaller method
func (x *Color) UnmarshalText(text []byte) error {
    name := string(text)
    tmp, err := ParseColor(name)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    *x = tmp
    return nil

Author: Abice
Source Code: https://github.com/abice/go-enum 
License: MIT License

#go #golang #code #enums 

What You Can Learn about Setting from Classic Sitcoms

Giving your novel a strong sense of place is vital to doing your part to engage the readers without confusing or frustrating them. Setting is a big part of this (though not the whole enchilada — there is also social context and historic period), and I often find writing students and consulting clients erring on one of two extremes.

**Either: **Every scene is set in a different, elaborately-described place from the last. This leads to confusion (and possibly exhaustion and impatience) for the reader, because they have no sense of what they need to actually pay attention to for later and what’s just…there. Are the details of that forest in chapter 2 important? Will I ever be back in this castle again? Is there a reason for this character to be in this particular room versus the one she was in the last time I saw her? Who knows!

Or: There are few or no clues at all as to where the characters are in a scene. What’s in the room? Are they even in a room? Are there other people in th — ope, yes, there are, someone just materialized, what is happening? This all leads to the dreaded “brains in jars” syndrome. That is, characters are only their thoughts and words, with no grounding in the space-time continuum. No one seems to be in a place, in a body, at a time of day.

Everything aspect of writing a novel comes with its difficulties, and there are a lot of moving pieces to manage and deploy in the right balance. When you’re a newer writer, especially, there’s something to be said for keeping things simple until you have a handle on how to manage the arc and scope of a novel-length work. And whether you tend to overdo settings or underdo them, you can learn something from TV, especially classic sitcoms.

Your basic “live studio audience” sitcoms are performed and filmed on sets built inside studios vs. on location. This helps keep production expenses in check and helps the viewer feel at home — there’s a reliable and familiar container to hold the story of any given episode. The writers on the show don’t have to reinvent the wheel with every script.

Often, a show will have no more than two or three basic sets that are used episode to episode, and then a few other easily-understood sets (characters’ workplaces, restaurants, streets scenes) are also used regularly but not every episode.

#creative-writing #writing-exercise #writing-craft #writing #writing-tips #machine learning

Aria Smith


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