Elkamel Hassen

Elkamel Hassen

1574935861

Building Full-stack web development with ASP.NET Core 3.0 and Blazor

Full stack web development with ASP.NET Core 3.0 and Blazor

ASP.NET Core 3.0 is loaded with new features for building modern web applications and services. In this session, we’ll show you how to use ASP.NET Core 3.0 to build beautiful and interactive client-side web UI with Blazor backed by high-performance gRPC microservices and long-running worker service processes. We’ll show you how to secure your APIs with IdentityServer integration, use SignalR for client-to-server streaming and take advantage of the latest performance improvements.

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Building Full-stack web development with ASP.NET Core 3.0 and Blazor
Veronica  Roob

Veronica Roob

1653475560

A Pure PHP Implementation Of The MessagePack Serialization Format

msgpack.php

A pure PHP implementation of the MessagePack serialization format.

Features

Installation

The recommended way to install the library is through Composer:

composer require rybakit/msgpack

Usage

Packing

To pack values you can either use an instance of a Packer:

$packer = new Packer();
$packed = $packer->pack($value);

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$packed = MessagePack::pack($value);

In the examples above, the method pack automatically packs a value depending on its type. However, not all PHP types can be uniquely translated to MessagePack types. For example, the MessagePack format defines map and array types, which are represented by a single array type in PHP. By default, the packer will pack a PHP array as a MessagePack array if it has sequential numeric keys, starting from 0 and as a MessagePack map otherwise:

$mpArr1 = $packer->pack([1, 2]);               // MP array [1, 2]
$mpArr2 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 1 => 2]);     // MP array [1, 2]
$mpMap1 = $packer->pack([0 => 1, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {0: 1, 2: 3}
$mpMap2 = $packer->pack([1 => 2, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {1: 2, 2: 3}
$mpMap3 = $packer->pack(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // MP map {a: 1, b: 2}

However, sometimes you need to pack a sequential array as a MessagePack map. To do this, use the packMap method:

$mpMap = $packer->packMap([1, 2]); // {0: 1, 1: 2}

Here is a list of type-specific packing methods:

$packer->packNil();           // MP nil
$packer->packBool(true);      // MP bool
$packer->packInt(42);         // MP int
$packer->packFloat(M_PI);     // MP float (32 or 64)
$packer->packFloat32(M_PI);   // MP float 32
$packer->packFloat64(M_PI);   // MP float 64
$packer->packStr('foo');      // MP str
$packer->packBin("\x80");     // MP bin
$packer->packArray([1, 2]);   // MP array
$packer->packMap(['a' => 1]); // MP map
$packer->packExt(1, "\xaa");  // MP ext

Check the "Custom types" section below on how to pack custom types.

Packing options

The Packer object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the packing process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
FORCE_STRForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack UTF-8 strings
FORCE_BINForces PHP strings to be packed as MessagePack binary data
DETECT_STR_BINDetects MessagePack str/bin type automatically
  
FORCE_ARRForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack arrays
FORCE_MAPForces PHP arrays to be packed as MessagePack maps
DETECT_ARR_MAPDetects MessagePack array/map type automatically
  
FORCE_FLOAT32Forces PHP floats to be packed as 32-bits MessagePack floats
FORCE_FLOAT64Forces PHP floats to be packed as 64-bits MessagePack floats

The type detection mode (DETECT_STR_BIN/DETECT_ARR_MAP) adds some overhead which can be noticed when you pack large (16- and 32-bit) arrays or strings. However, if you know the value type in advance (for example, you only work with UTF-8 strings or/and associative arrays), you can eliminate this overhead by forcing the packer to use the appropriate type, which will save it from running the auto-detection routine. Another option is to explicitly specify the value type. The library provides 2 auxiliary classes for this, Map and Bin. Check the "Custom types" section below for details.

Examples:

// detect str/bin type and pack PHP 64-bit floats (doubles) to MP 32-bit floats
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::DETECT_STR_BIN | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32);

// these will throw MessagePack\Exception\InvalidOptionException
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_STR | PackOptions::FORCE_BIN);
$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32 | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT64);

Unpacking

To unpack data you can either use an instance of a BufferUnpacker:

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();

$unpacker->reset($packed);
$value = $unpacker->unpack();

or call a static method on the MessagePack class:

$value = MessagePack::unpack($packed);

If the packed data is received in chunks (e.g. when reading from a stream), use the tryUnpack method, which attempts to unpack data and returns an array of unpacked messages (if any) instead of throwing an InsufficientDataException:

while ($chunk = ...) {
    $unpacker->append($chunk);
    if ($messages = $unpacker->tryUnpack()) {
        return $messages;
    }
}

If you want to unpack from a specific position in a buffer, use seek:

$unpacker->seek(42); // set position equal to 42 bytes
$unpacker->seek(-8); // set position to 8 bytes before the end of the buffer

To skip bytes from the current position, use skip:

$unpacker->skip(10); // set position to 10 bytes ahead of the current position

To get the number of remaining (unread) bytes in the buffer:

$unreadBytesCount = $unpacker->getRemainingCount();

To check whether the buffer has unread data:

$hasUnreadBytes = $unpacker->hasRemaining();

If needed, you can remove already read data from the buffer by calling:

$releasedBytesCount = $unpacker->release();

With the read method you can read raw (packed) data:

$packedData = $unpacker->read(2); // read 2 bytes

Besides the above methods BufferUnpacker provides type-specific unpacking methods, namely:

$unpacker->unpackNil();   // PHP null
$unpacker->unpackBool();  // PHP bool
$unpacker->unpackInt();   // PHP int
$unpacker->unpackFloat(); // PHP float
$unpacker->unpackStr();   // PHP UTF-8 string
$unpacker->unpackBin();   // PHP binary string
$unpacker->unpackArray(); // PHP sequential array
$unpacker->unpackMap();   // PHP associative array
$unpacker->unpackExt();   // PHP MessagePack\Type\Ext object

Unpacking options

The BufferUnpacker object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the unpacking process (defaults are in bold):

NameDescription
BIGINT_AS_STRConverts overflowed integers to strings [1]
BIGINT_AS_GMPConverts overflowed integers to GMP objects [2]
BIGINT_AS_DECConverts overflowed integers to Decimal\Decimal objects [3]

1. The binary MessagePack format has unsigned 64-bit as its largest integer data type, but PHP does not support such integers, which means that an overflow can occur during unpacking.

2. Make sure the GMP extension is enabled.

3. Make sure the Decimal extension is enabled.

Examples:

$packedUint64 = "\xcf"."\xff\xff\xff\xff"."\xff\xff\xff\xff";

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // string(20) "18446744073709551615"

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_GMP);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(GMP) {...}

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker($packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_DEC);
var_dump($unpacker->unpack()); // object(Decimal\Decimal) {...}

Custom types

In addition to the basic types, the library provides functionality to serialize and deserialize arbitrary types. This can be done in several ways, depending on your use case. Let's take a look at them.

Type objects

If you need to serialize an instance of one of your classes into one of the basic MessagePack types, the best way to do this is to implement the CanBePacked interface in the class. A good example of such a class is the Map type class that comes with the library. This type is useful when you want to explicitly specify that a given PHP array should be packed as a MessagePack map without triggering an automatic type detection routine:

$packer = new Packer();

$packedMap = $packer->pack(new Map([1, 2, 3]));
$packedArray = $packer->pack([1, 2, 3]);

More type examples can be found in the src/Type directory.

Type transformers

As with type objects, type transformers are only responsible for serializing values. They should be used when you need to serialize a value that does not implement the CanBePacked interface. Examples of such values could be instances of built-in or third-party classes that you don't own, or non-objects such as resources.

A transformer class must implement the CanPack interface. To use a transformer, it must first be registered in the packer. Here is an example of how to serialize PHP streams into the MessagePack bin format type using one of the supplied transformers, StreamTransformer:

$packer = new Packer(null, [new StreamTransformer()]);

$packedBin = $packer->pack(fopen('/path/to/file', 'r+'));

More type transformer examples can be found in the src/TypeTransformer directory.

Extensions

In contrast to the cases described above, extensions are intended to handle extension types and are responsible for both serialization and deserialization of values (types).

An extension class must implement the Extension interface. To use an extension, it must first be registered in the packer and the unpacker.

The MessagePack specification divides extension types into two groups: predefined and application-specific. Currently, there is only one predefined type in the specification, Timestamp.

Timestamp

The Timestamp extension type is a predefined type. Support for this type in the library is done through the TimestampExtension class. This class is responsible for handling Timestamp objects, which represent the number of seconds and optional adjustment in nanoseconds:

$timestampExtension = new TimestampExtension();

$packer = new Packer();
$packer = $packer->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();
$unpacker = $unpacker->extendWith($timestampExtension);

$packedTimestamp = $packer->pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = $unpacker->reset($packedTimestamp)->unpack();

$seconds = $timestamp->getSeconds();
$nanoseconds = $timestamp->getNanoseconds();

When using the MessagePack class, the Timestamp extension is already registered:

$packedTimestamp = MessagePack::pack(Timestamp::now());
$timestamp = MessagePack::unpack($packedTimestamp);

Application-specific extensions

In addition, the format can be extended with your own types. For example, to make the built-in PHP DateTime objects first-class citizens in your code, you can create a corresponding extension, as shown in the example. Please note, that custom extensions have to be registered with a unique extension ID (an integer from 0 to 127).

More extension examples can be found in the examples/MessagePack directory.

To learn more about how extension types can be useful, check out this article.

Exceptions

If an error occurs during packing/unpacking, a PackingFailedException or an UnpackingFailedException will be thrown, respectively. In addition, an InsufficientDataException can be thrown during unpacking.

An InvalidOptionException will be thrown in case an invalid option (or a combination of mutually exclusive options) is used.

Tests

Run tests as follows:

vendor/bin/phpunit

Also, if you already have Docker installed, you can run the tests in a docker container. First, create a container:

./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

The command above will create a container named msgpack with PHP 8.1 runtime. You may change the default runtime by defining the PHP_IMAGE environment variable:

PHP_IMAGE='php:8.0-cli' ./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -

See a list of various images here.

Then run the unit tests:

docker run --rm -v $PWD:/msgpack -w /msgpack msgpack

Fuzzing

To ensure that the unpacking works correctly with malformed/semi-malformed data, you can use a testing technique called Fuzzing. The library ships with a help file (target) for PHP-Fuzzer and can be used as follows:

php-fuzzer fuzz tests/fuzz_buffer_unpacker.php

Performance

To check performance, run:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0030 ........ 0.0139
false ................ 0.0037 ........ 0.0144
true ................. 0.0040 ........ 0.0137
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0052 ........ 0.0120
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0059 ........ 0.0114
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0119
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0126
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0064 ........ 0.0132
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0135
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0078 ........ 0.0200
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0212
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0203
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0111 ........ 0.0271
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0115 ........ 0.0260
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0103 ........ 0.0273
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0116 ........ 0.0326
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0118 ........ 0.0332
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0325
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0140 ........ 0.0277
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0294
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0086 ........ 0.0241
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0089 ........ 0.0225
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0085 ........ 0.0229
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0280
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0121 ........ 0.0270
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0109 ........ 0.0274
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0128 ........ 0.0346
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0339
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0135 ........ 0.0368
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0138 ........ 0.0276
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0132 ........ 0.0286
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0274
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0180 ........ 0.0285
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0284
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0275
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0283
fix string #1 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0133
fix string #2 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0216
fix string #3 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0222
fix string #4 ........ 0.0091 ........ 0.0241
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0122 ........ 0.0301
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0118 ........ 0.0304
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0119 ........ 0.0315
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0150 ........ 0.0388
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1545 ........ 0.1665
32-bit string ........ 0.1570 ........ 0.1756
wide char string #1 .. 0.0091 ........ 0.0236
wide char string #2 .. 0.0122 ........ 0.0313
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0100 ........ 0.0302
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0123 ........ 0.0324
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0327
16-bit binary ........ 0.0168 ........ 0.0372
32-bit binary ........ 0.1588 ........ 0.1754
fix array #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0131
fix array #2 ......... 0.0294 ........ 0.0367
fix array #3 ......... 0.0412 ........ 0.0472
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1378 ........ 0.1596
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.1865 ........ 0.2283
fix map #1 ........... 0.0725 ........ 0.1048
fix map #2 ........... 0.0319 ........ 0.0405
fix map #3 ........... 0.0356 ........ 0.0665
fix map #4 ........... 0.0465 ........ 0.0497
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2540 ........ 0.3028
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2372 ........ 0.2710
fixext 1 ............. 0.0283 ........ 0.0358
fixext 2 ............. 0.0291 ........ 0.0371
fixext 4 ............. 0.0302 ........ 0.0355
fixext 8 ............. 0.0288 ........ 0.0384
fixext 16 ............ 0.0293 ........ 0.0359
8-bit ext ............ 0.0302 ........ 0.0439
16-bit ext ........... 0.0334 ........ 0.0499
32-bit ext ........... 0.1845 ........ 0.1888
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0337 ........ 0.0547
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0335 ........ 0.0560
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0371 ........ 0.0575
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0374 ........ 0.0542
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0356 ........ 0.0533
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0362 ........ 0.0699
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0381 ........ 0.0701
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0367 ........ 0.0687
=============================================
Total                  2.7618          4.0820
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

With JIT:

php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0005 ........ 0.0054
false ................ 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
true ................. 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0047
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0025 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0023 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0024 ........ 0.0045
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0081
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0079
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0041 ........ 0.0080
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0095
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0091
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0094
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0114
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0122
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0120
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0159
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0157
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0158
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0081
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0095
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0090
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0056 ........ 0.0085
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0107
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0106
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0104
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0162
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0073 ........ 0.0174
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0164
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0161
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0135
fix string #1 ....... -0.0002 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0067
fix string #3 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0077
fix string #4 ........ 0.0033 ........ 0.0078
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0110
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0121
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0124
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0099 ........ 0.0146
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1522 ........ 0.1474
32-bit string ........ 0.1511 ........ 0.1483
wide char string #1 .. 0.0039 ........ 0.0084
wide char string #2 .. 0.0073 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0112
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0077 ........ 0.0129
16-bit binary ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0145
32-bit binary ........ 0.1535 ........ 0.1479
fix array #1 ......... 0.0008 ........ 0.0061
fix array #2 ......... 0.0121 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0193 ........ 0.0222
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0607 ........ 0.0479
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.0749 ........ 0.0824
fix map #1 ........... 0.0329 ........ 0.0431
fix map #2 ........... 0.0161 ........ 0.0189
fix map #3 ........... 0.0205 ........ 0.0262
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0205
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1016 ........ 0.0927
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1096 ........ 0.1030
fixext 1 ............. 0.0157 ........ 0.0161
fixext 2 ............. 0.0175 ........ 0.0183
fixext 4 ............. 0.0156 ........ 0.0185
fixext 8 ............. 0.0163 ........ 0.0184
fixext 16 ............ 0.0164 ........ 0.0182
8-bit ext ............ 0.0158 ........ 0.0207
16-bit ext ........... 0.0203 ........ 0.0219
32-bit ext ........... 0.1614 ........ 0.1539
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0195 ........ 0.0249
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0188 ........ 0.0260
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0281
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0212 ........ 0.0291
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0295
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0222 ........ 0.0358
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0228 ........ 0.0353
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0210 ........ 0.0319
=============================================
Total                  1.6432          1.9674
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0

You may change default benchmark settings by defining the following environment variables:

NameDefault
MP_BENCH_TARGETSpure_p,pure_u, see a list of available targets
MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS100_000
MP_BENCH_DURATIONnot set
MP_BENCH_ROUNDS3
MP_BENCH_TESTS-@slow, see a list of available tests

For example:

export MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p
export MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS=1000000
export MP_BENCH_ROUNDS=5
# a comma separated list of test names
export MP_BENCH_TESTS='complex array, complex map'
# or a group name
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='-@slow' // @pecl_comp
# or a regexp
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='/complex (array|map)/'

Another example, benchmarking both the library and the PECL extension:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0031 ........ 0.0141 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0064
false ................ 0.0039 ........ 0.0154 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0053
true ................. 0.0038 ........ 0.0139 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0110 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0029
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0045 ........ 0.0025
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0047 ........ 0.0103 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0046 ........ 0.0102 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0023
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0174 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0031
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0167 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0029
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0168 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0092 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0049 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0227 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0046
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0123 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0051
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0136 ........ 0.0331 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0130 ........ 0.0336 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0329 ...... 0.0051 ........ 0.0048
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0126 ........ 0.0268 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0135 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0046
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0131 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0077 ........ 0.0236 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0087 ........ 0.0244 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0048
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0084 ........ 0.0241 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0112 ........ 0.0271 ...... 0.0048 ........ 0.0045
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0124 ........ 0.0292 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0270 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0050
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0051
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0133 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0049
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0129 ........ 0.0350 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0048
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0145 ........ 0.0254 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0214 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0287 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0050
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0143 ........ 0.0277 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0052
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0141 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0144 ........ 0.0282 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
fix string #1 ........ 0.0036 ........ 0.0143 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0053
fix string #2 ........ 0.0107 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0068
fix string #3 ........ 0.0116 ........ 0.0245 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0069
fix string #4 ........ 0.0105 ........ 0.0253 ...... 0.0083 ........ 0.0077
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0318 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0088
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0121 ........ 0.0295 ...... 0.0076 ........ 0.0086
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0293 ...... 0.0130 ........ 0.0093
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0159 ........ 0.0368 ...... 0.0117 ........ 0.0086
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1547 ........ 0.1686 ...... 0.1516 ........ 0.1373
32-bit string ........ 0.1558 ........ 0.1729 ...... 0.1511 ........ 0.1396
wide char string #1 .. 0.0098 ........ 0.0237 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0065
wide char string #2 .. 0.0128 ........ 0.0291 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0082
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0040 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0120 ........ 0.0058
fix array #2 ......... 0.0279 ........ 0.0390 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0415 ........ 0.0463 ...... 0.0162 ........ 0.0187
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1349 ........ 0.1628 ...... 0.0334 ........ 0.0341
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0345 ........ 0.0391 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0168
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0459 ........ 0.0473 ...... 0.0151 ........ 0.0163
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2518 ........ 0.2962 ...... 0.0400 ........ 0.0490
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2380 ........ 0.2682 ...... 0.0545 ........ 0.0579
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  1.5625          2.3866        0.7735          0.7243
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

With JIT:

MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php

Example output

Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0001 ........ 0.0052 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0042
false ................ 0.0007 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0043
true ................. 0.0008 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0021 ........ 0.0043 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0022 ........ 0.0044 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0030 ........ 0.0048 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0032 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0050
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0044
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0082 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0095 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0047
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0088 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0039
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0118 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0097 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0095 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0047
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0053 ........ 0.0083 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0089 ........ 0.0097 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0046
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0093 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0122 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0087 ........ 0.0120 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0121 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0149 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0045
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0160 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0046
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0152 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0045
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0044
fix string #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0045 ...... 0.0071 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0075 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0060
fix string #3 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0086 ...... 0.0068 ........ 0.0060
fix string #4 ........ 0.0050 ........ 0.0088 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0059
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0081 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0062
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0128 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0065
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0126 ...... 0.0115 ........ 0.0065
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0105 ........ 0.0137 ...... 0.0128 ........ 0.0068
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1510 ........ 0.1486 ...... 0.1526 ........ 0.1391
32-bit string ........ 0.1517 ........ 0.1475 ...... 0.1504 ........ 0.1370
wide char string #1 .. 0.0044 ........ 0.0085 ...... 0.0067 ........ 0.0057
wide char string #2 .. 0.0081 ........ 0.0125 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0063
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0014 ........ 0.0059 ...... 0.0132 ........ 0.0055
fix array #2 ......... 0.0146 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0155 ........ 0.0148
fix array #3 ......... 0.0211 ........ 0.0229 ...... 0.0179 ........ 0.0180
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0673 ........ 0.0498 ...... 0.0343 ........ 0.0388
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0148 ........ 0.0180 ...... 0.0156 ........ 0.0179
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0201 ...... 0.0214 ........ 0.0167
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1027 ........ 0.0836 ...... 0.0388 ........ 0.0510
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1104 ........ 0.1010 ...... 0.0556 ........ 0.0602
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  0.9642          1.0909        0.8224          0.7213
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7

Note that the msgpack extension (v2.1.2) doesn't support ext, bin and UTF-8 str types.

License

The library is released under the MIT License. See the bundled LICENSE file for details.

Author: rybakit
Source Code: https://github.com/rybakit/msgpack.php
License: MIT License

#php 

Py Rouge: A Full Python Implementation Of The ROUGE Metric

Py-rouge

A full Python implementation of the ROUGE metric, producing same results as in the official perl implementation.

Important remarks

  • The original Porter stemmer in NLTK is slightly different than the one use in the official ROUGE perl script as it has been written by end. Therefore, there might be slightly different stems for certain words. For DUC2004 dataset, I have identified these words and this script produces same stems.
  • The official ROUGE perl script use resampling strategy to compute the average with confidence intervals. Therefore, we might have a difference <3e-5 for ROUGE-L as well as ROUGE-W and <4e-5 for ROUGE-N.
  • Finally, ROUGE-1.5.5. has a bug: should have $tmpTextLen += $sLen at line 2101. Here, the last sentence, $limitBytes is taken instead of $limitBytes-$tmpTextLen (as $tmpTextLen is never updated with bytes length limit). It has been fixed in this code. This bug does not have a consequence for the default evaluation -b 665.

In case of doubts, please see all the implemented tests to compare outputs between the official ROUGE-1.5.5 and this script.

Installation

Package is uploaded on PyPI <https://pypi.org/project/py-rouge>_.

You can install it with pip:

pip install py-rouge

or do it manually:

git clone https://github.com/Diego999/py-rouge
cd py-rouge
python setup.py install

Issues/Pull Requests/Feedbacks

Don't hesitate to contact for any feedback or create issues/pull requests (especially if you want to rewrite the stemmer implemented in ROUGE-1.5.5 in python ;)).

Example

import rouge


def prepare_results(m, p, r, f):
    return '\t{}:\t{}: {:5.2f}\t{}: {:5.2f}\t{}: {:5.2f}'.format(m, 'P', 100.0 * p, 'R', 100.0 * r, 'F1', 100.0 * f)


for aggregator in ['Avg', 'Best', 'Individual']:
    print('Evaluation with {}'.format(aggregator))
    apply_avg = aggregator == 'Avg'
    apply_best = aggregator == 'Best'

    evaluator = rouge.Rouge(metrics=['rouge-n', 'rouge-l', 'rouge-w'],
                           max_n=4,
                           limit_length=True,
                           length_limit=100,
                           length_limit_type='words',
                           apply_avg=apply_avg,
                           apply_best=apply_best,
                           alpha=0.5, # Default F1_score
                           weight_factor=1.2,
                           stemming=True)


    hypothesis_1 = "King Norodom Sihanouk has declined requests to chair a summit of Cambodia 's top political leaders , saying the meeting would not bring any progress in deadlocked negotiations to form a government .\nGovernment and opposition parties have asked King Norodom Sihanouk to host a summit meeting after a series of post-election negotiations between the two opposition groups and Hun Sen 's party to form a new government failed .\nHun Sen 's ruling party narrowly won a majority in elections in July , but the opposition _ claiming widespread intimidation and fraud _ has denied Hun Sen the two-thirds vote in parliament required to approve the next government .\n"
    references_1 = ["Prospects were dim for resolution of the political crisis in Cambodia in October 1998.\nPrime Minister Hun Sen insisted that talks take place in Cambodia while opposition leaders Ranariddh and Sam Rainsy, fearing arrest at home, wanted them abroad.\nKing Sihanouk declined to chair talks in either place.\nA U.S. House resolution criticized Hun Sen's regime while the opposition tried to cut off his access to loans.\nBut in November the King announced a coalition government with Hun Sen heading the executive and Ranariddh leading the parliament.\nLeft out, Sam Rainsy sought the King's assurance of Hun Sen's promise of safety and freedom for all politicians.",
                    "Cambodian prime minister Hun Sen rejects demands of 2 opposition parties for talks in Beijing after failing to win a 2/3 majority in recent elections.\nSihanouk refuses to host talks in Beijing.\nOpposition parties ask the Asian Development Bank to stop loans to Hun Sen's government.\nCCP defends Hun Sen to the US Senate.\nFUNCINPEC refuses to share the presidency.\nHun Sen and Ranariddh eventually form a coalition at summit convened by Sihanouk.\nHun Sen remains prime minister, Ranariddh is president of the national assembly, and a new senate will be formed.\nOpposition leader Rainsy left out.\nHe seeks strong assurance of safety should he return to Cambodia.\n",
                    ]

    hypothesis_2 = "China 's government said Thursday that two prominent dissidents arrested this week are suspected of endangering national security _ the clearest sign yet Chinese leaders plan to quash a would-be opposition party .\nOne leader of a suppressed new political party will be tried on Dec. 17 on a charge of colluding with foreign enemies of China '' to incite the subversion of state power , '' according to court documents given to his wife on Monday .\nWith attorneys locked up , harassed or plain scared , two prominent dissidents will defend themselves against charges of subversion Thursday in China 's highest-profile dissident trials in two years .\n"
    references_2 = "Hurricane Mitch, category 5 hurricane, brought widespread death and destruction to Central American.\nEspecially hard hit was Honduras where an estimated 6,076 people lost their lives.\nThe hurricane, which lingered off the coast of Honduras for 3 days before moving off, flooded large areas, destroying crops and property.\nThe U.S. and European Union were joined by Pope John Paul II in a call for money and workers to help the stricken area.\nPresident Clinton sent Tipper Gore, wife of Vice President Gore to the area to deliver much needed supplies to the area, demonstrating U.S. commitment to the recovery of the region.\n"

    all_hypothesis = [hypothesis_1, hypothesis_2]
    all_references = [references_1, references_2]

    scores = evaluator.get_scores(all_hypothesis, all_references)

    for metric, results in sorted(scores.items(), key=lambda x: x[0]):
        if not apply_avg and not apply_best: # value is a type of list as we evaluate each summary vs each reference
            for hypothesis_id, results_per_ref in enumerate(results):
                nb_references = len(results_per_ref['p'])
                for reference_id in range(nb_references):
                    print('\tHypothesis #{} & Reference #{}: '.format(hypothesis_id, reference_id))
                    print('\t' + prepare_results(metric,results_per_ref['p'][reference_id], results_per_ref['r'][reference_id], results_per_ref['f'][reference_id]))
            print()
        else:
            print(prepare_results(metric, results['p'], results['r'], results['f']))
    print()

It produces the following output:

Evaluation with Avg
    rouge-1:    P: 28.62    R: 26.46    F1: 27.49
    rouge-2:    P:  4.21    R:  3.92    F1:  4.06
    rouge-3:    P:  0.80    R:  0.74    F1:  0.77
    rouge-4:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00
    rouge-l:    P: 30.52    R: 28.57    F1: 29.51
    rouge-w:    P: 15.85    R:  8.28    F1: 10.87

Evaluation with Best
    rouge-1:    P: 30.44    R: 28.36    F1: 29.37
    rouge-2:    P:  4.74    R:  4.46    F1:  4.59
    rouge-3:    P:  1.06    R:  0.98    F1:  1.02
    rouge-4:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00
    rouge-l:    P: 31.54    R: 29.71    F1: 30.60
    rouge-w:    P: 16.42    R:  8.82    F1: 11.47

Evaluation with Individual
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-1:    P: 38.54    R: 35.58    F1: 37.00
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-1:    P: 45.83    R: 43.14    F1: 44.44
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-1:    P: 15.05    R: 13.59    F1: 14.29

    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-2:    P:  7.37    R:  6.80    F1:  7.07
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-2:    P:  9.47    R:  8.91    F1:  9.18
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-2:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00

    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-3:    P:  2.13    R:  1.96    F1:  2.04
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-3:    P:  1.06    R:  1.00    F1:  1.03
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-3:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00

    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-4:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-4:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-4:    P:  0.00    R:  0.00    F1:  0.00

    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-l:    P: 42.11    R: 39.39    F1: 40.70
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-l:    P: 46.19    R: 43.92    F1: 45.03
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-l:    P: 16.88    R: 15.50    F1: 16.16

    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-w:    P: 22.27    R: 11.49    F1: 15.16
    Hypothesis #0 & Reference #1: 
        rouge-w:    P: 24.56    R: 13.60    F1: 17.51
    Hypothesis #1 & Reference #0: 
        rouge-w:    P:  8.29    R:  4.04    F1:  5.43

Download Details:

Author: Diego999
Source Code: https://github.com/Diego999/py-rouge

License: Apache-2.0 license

#perl #python 

Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1602560783

jQuery Ajax CRUD in ASP.NET Core MVC with Modal Popup

In this article, we’ll discuss how to use jQuery Ajax for ASP.NET Core MVC CRUD Operations using Bootstrap Modal. With jQuery Ajax, we can make HTTP request to controller action methods without reloading the entire page, like a single page application.

To demonstrate CRUD operations – insert, update, delete and retrieve, the project will be dealing with details of a normal bank transaction. GitHub repository for this demo project : https://bit.ly/33KTJAu.

Sub-topics discussed :

  • Form design for insert and update operation.
  • Display forms in modal popup dialog.
  • Form post using jQuery Ajax.
  • Implement MVC CRUD operations with jQuery Ajax.
  • Loading spinner in .NET Core MVC.
  • Prevent direct access to MVC action method.

Create ASP.NET Core MVC Project

In Visual Studio 2019, Go to File > New > Project (Ctrl + Shift + N).

From new project window, Select Asp.Net Core Web Application_._

Image showing how to create ASP.NET Core Web API project in Visual Studio.

Once you provide the project name and location. Select Web Application(Model-View-Controller) and uncheck HTTPS Configuration. Above steps will create a brand new ASP.NET Core MVC project.

Showing project template selection for .NET Core MVC.

Setup a Database

Let’s create a database for this application using Entity Framework Core. For that we’ve to install corresponding NuGet Packages. Right click on project from solution explorer, select Manage NuGet Packages_,_ From browse tab, install following 3 packages.

Showing list of NuGet Packages for Entity Framework Core

Now let’s define DB model class file – /Models/TransactionModel.cs.

public class TransactionModel
{
    [Key]
    public int TransactionId { get; set; }

    [Column(TypeName ="nvarchar(12)")]
    [DisplayName("Account Number")]
    [Required(ErrorMessage ="This Field is required.")]
    [MaxLength(12,ErrorMessage ="Maximum 12 characters only")]
    public string AccountNumber { get; set; }

    [Column(TypeName ="nvarchar(100)")]
    [DisplayName("Beneficiary Name")]
    [Required(ErrorMessage = "This Field is required.")]
    public string BeneficiaryName { get; set; }

    [Column(TypeName ="nvarchar(100)")]
    [DisplayName("Bank Name")]
    [Required(ErrorMessage = "This Field is required.")]
    public string BankName { get; set; }

    [Column(TypeName ="nvarchar(11)")]
    [DisplayName("SWIFT Code")]
    [Required(ErrorMessage = "This Field is required.")]
    [MaxLength(11)]
    public string SWIFTCode { get; set; }

    [DisplayName("Amount")]
    [Required(ErrorMessage = "This Field is required.")]
    public int Amount { get; set; }

    [DisplayFormat(DataFormatString = "{0:MM/dd/yyyy}")]
    public DateTime Date { get; set; }
}

C#Copy

Here we’ve defined model properties for the transaction with proper validation. Now let’s define  DbContextclass for EF Core.

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Substrate Parachain Template: A New Cumulus-based Substrate Node

Substrate Cumulus Parachain Template

A new Cumulus-based Substrate node, ready for hacking :cloud:

This project is a fork of the Substrate Node Template modified to include dependencies required for registering this node as a parathread or parachain to an established relay chain.

👉 Learn more about parachains here, and parathreads here.

Build & Run

Follow these steps to prepare a local Substrate development environment :hammer_and_wrench:

Setup of Machine

If necessary, refer to the setup instructions at the Substrate Developer Hub.

Build

Once the development environment is set up, build the Cumulus Parachain Template. This command will build the Wasm Runtime and native code:

cargo build --release

Relay Chain

NOTE: In the following two sections, we document how to manually start a few relay chain nodes, start a parachain node (collator), and register the parachain with the relay chain.

We also have the polkadot-launch CLI tool that automate the following steps and help you easily launch relay chains and parachains. However it is still good to go through the following procedures once to understand the mechanism for running and registering a parachain.

To operate a parathread or parachain, you must connect to a relay chain. Typically you would test on a local Rococo development network, then move to the testnet, and finally launch on the mainnet. Keep in mind you need to configure the specific relay chain you will connect to in your collator chain_spec.rs. In the following examples, we will use rococo-local as the relay network.

Build Relay Chain

Clone and build Polkadot (beware of the version tag we used):

# Get a fresh clone, or `cd` to where you have polkadot already:
git clone -b v0.9.7 --depth 1 https://github.com/paritytech/polkadot.git
cd polkadot
cargo build --release

Generate the Relay Chain Chainspec

First, we create the chain specification file (chainspec). Note the chainspec file must be generated on a single node and then shared among all nodes!

👉 Learn more about chain specification here.

./target/release/polkadot build-spec \
--chain rococo-local \
--raw \
--disable-default-bootnode \
> rococo_local.json

Start Relay Chain

We need n + 1 full validator nodes running on a relay chain to accept n parachain / parathread connections. Here we will start two relay chain nodes so we can have one parachain node connecting in later.

From the Polkadot working directory:

# Start Relay `Alice` node
./target/release/polkadot \
--chain ./rococo_local.json \
-d /tmp/relay/alice \
--validator \
--alice \
--port 50555

Open a new terminal, same directory:

# Start Relay `Bob` node
./target/release/polkadot \
--chain ./rococo_local.json \
-d /tmp/relay/bob \
--validator \
--bob \
--port 50556

Add more nodes as needed, with non-conflicting ports, DB directories, and validator keys (--charlie, --dave, etc.).

Reserve a ParaID

To connect to a relay chain, you must first _reserve a ParaId for your parathread that will become a parachain. To do this, you will need sufficient amount of currency on the network account to reserve the ID.

In this example, we will use Charlie development account where we have funds available. Once you submit this extrinsic successfully, you can start your collators.

The easiest way to reserve your ParaId is via Polkadot Apps UI under the Parachains -> Parathreads tab and use the + ParaID button.

Parachain

Select the Correct Relay Chain

To operate your parachain, you need to specify the correct relay chain you will connect to in your collator chain_spec.rs. Specifically you pass the command for the network you need in the Extensions of your ChainSpec::from_genesis() in the code.

Extensions {
    relay_chain: "rococo-local".into(), // You MUST set this to the correct network!
    para_id: id.into(),
},

You can choose from any pre-set runtime chainspec in the Polkadot repo, by referring to the cli/src/command.rs and node/service/src/chain_spec.rs files or generate your own and use that. See the Cumulus Workshop for how.

In the following examples, we will use the rococo-local relay network we setup in the last section.

Export the Parachain Genesis and Runtime

We first generate the genesis state and genesis wasm needed for the parachain registration.

# Build the parachain node (from it's top level dir)
cd substrate-parachain-template
cargo build --release

# Folder to store resource files needed for parachain registration
mkdir -p resources

# Build the chainspec
./target/release/parachain-collator build-spec \
--disable-default-bootnode > ./resources/template-local-plain.json

# Build the raw chainspec file
./target/release/parachain-collator build-spec \
--chain=./resources/template-local-plain.json \
--raw --disable-default-bootnode > ./resources/template-local-raw.json

# Export genesis state to `./resources`, using 2000 as the ParaId
./target/release/parachain-collator export-genesis-state --parachain-id 2000 > ./resources/para-2000-genesis

# Export the genesis wasm
./target/release/parachain-collator export-genesis-wasm > ./resources/para-2000-wasm

NOTE: we have set the para_ID to be 2000 here. This must be unique for all parathreads/chains on the relay chain you register with. You must reserve this first on the relay chain for the testnet or mainnet.

Start a Parachain Node (Collator)

From the parachain template working directory:

# NOTE: this command assumes the chain spec is in a directory named `polkadot`
# that is at the same level of the template working directory. Change as needed.
#
# It also assumes a ParaId of 2000. Change as needed.
./target/release/parachain-collator \
-d /tmp/parachain/alice \
--collator \
--alice \
--force-authoring \
--ws-port 9945 \
--parachain-id 2000 \
-- \
--execution wasm \
--chain ../polkadot/rococo_local.json

Output:

2021-05-30 16:57:39 Parachain Collator Template
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ✌️  version 3.0.0-acce183-x86_64-linux-gnu
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ❤️  by Anonymous, 2017-2021
2021-05-30 16:57:39 📋 Chain specification: Local Testnet
2021-05-30 16:57:39 🏷 Node name: Alice
2021-05-30 16:57:39 👤 Role: AUTHORITY
2021-05-30 16:57:39 💾 Database: RocksDb at /tmp/parachain/alice/chains/local_testnet/db
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ⛓  Native runtime: template-parachain-1 (template-parachain-0.tx1.au1)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain id: Id(2000)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain Account: 5Ec4AhPUwPeyTFyuhGuBbD224mY85LKLMSqSSo33JYWCazU4
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain genesis state: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a96f42b5cb798190e5f679bb16970905087a9a9fc612fb5ca6b982b85783c0d03170a2e7597b7b7e3d84c05391d139a62b157e78786d8c082f29dcf4c11131400
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Is collating: yes
2021-05-30 16:57:41 [Parachain] 🔨 Initializing Genesis block/state (state: 0x0a96…3c0d, header-hash: 0xd42b…f271)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 [Parachain] ⏱  Loaded block-time = 12s from block 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 16:57:43 [Relaychain] 🔨 Initializing Genesis block/state (state: 0xace1…1b62, header-hash: 0xfa68…cf58)
2021-05-30 16:57:43 [Relaychain] 👴 Loading GRANDPA authority set from genesis on what appears to be first startup.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] ⏱  Loaded block-time = 6s from block 0xfa68f5abd2a80394b87c9bd07e0f4eee781b8c696d0a22c8e5ba38ae10e1cf58
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 👶 Creating empty BABE epoch changes on what appears to be first startup.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 🏷 Local node identity is: 12D3KooWBjYK2W4dsBfsrFA9tZCStb5ogPb6STQqi2AK9awXfXyG
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 📦 Highest known block at #0
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 〽️ Prometheus server started at 127.0.0.1:9616
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] Listening for new connections on 127.0.0.1:9945.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Using default protocol ID "sup" because none is configured in the chain specs
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] 🏷 Local node identity is: 12D3KooWADBSC58of6ng2M29YTDkmWCGehHoUZhsy9LGkHgYscBw
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] 📦 Highest known block at #0
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Unable to listen on 127.0.0.1:9945
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Unable to bind RPC server to 127.0.0.1:9945. Trying random port.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Listening for new connections on 127.0.0.1:45141.
2021-05-30 16:57:45 [Relaychain] 🔍 Discovered new external address for our node: /ip4/192.168.42.204/tcp/30334/ws/p2p/12D3KooWBjYK2W4dsBfsrFA9tZCStb5ogPb6STQqi2AK9awXfXyG
2021-05-30 16:57:45 [Parachain] 🔍 Discovered new external address for our node: /ip4/192.168.42.204/tcp/30333/p2p/12D3KooWADBSC58of6ng2M29YTDkmWCGehHoUZhsy9LGkHgYscBw
2021-05-30 16:57:48 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #8 (0xe60b…9b0a)
2021-05-30 16:57:49 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #8 (0xe60b…9b0a), finalized #5 (0x1e6f…567c), ⬇ 4.5kiB/s ⬆ 2.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:49 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 2.0kiB/s ⬆ 1.7kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #9 (0x1af9…c9be)
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #9 (0x6ed8…fdf6)
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #9 (0x1af9…c9be), finalized #6 (0x3319…69a2), ⬇ 1.8kiB/s ⬆ 0.5kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:59 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #9 (0x1af9…c9be), finalized #7 (0x5b50…1e5b), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:59 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 16:58:00 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #10 (0xc9c9…1ca3)

You see messages are from both a relaychain node and a parachain node. This is because a relay chain light client is also run next to the parachain collator.

Parachain Registration

Now that you have two relay chain nodes, and a parachain node accompanied with a relay chain light client running, the next step is to register the parachain in the relay chain with the following steps (for detail, refer to the Substrate Cumulus Worship):

  • Goto Polkadot Apps UI, connecting to your relay chain.
  • Execute a sudo extrinsic on the relay chain by going to Developer -> sudo page.
  • Pick paraSudoWrapper -> sudoScheduleParaInitialize(id, genesis) as the extrinsic type, shown below.

Polkadot Apps UI

  • Set the id: ParaId to 2,000 (or whatever ParaId you used above), and set the parachain: Bool option to Yes.
  • For the genesisHead, drag the genesis state file exported above, para-2000-genesis, in.
  • For the validationCode, drag the genesis wasm file exported above, para-2000-wasm, in.

Note: When registering to the public Rococo testnet, ensure you set a unique paraId larger than 1,000. Values below 1,000 are reserved exclusively for system parachains.

Restart the Parachain (Collator)

The collator node may need to be restarted to get it functioning as expected. After a new epoch starts on the relay chain, your parachain will come online. Once this happens, you should see the collator start reporting parachain blocks:

# Notice the relay epoch change! Only then do we start parachain collating!
#
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), finalized #28 (0x10ff…6539), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 New epoch 3 launching at block 0x68bc…0605 (block slot 270402601 >= start slot 270402601).
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 Next epoch starts at slot 270402611
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #31 (0x68bc…0605)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x68bcc93d24a31a2c89800a56c7a2b275fe9ca7bd63f829b64588ae0d99280605 at=0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92; parent_hash: 0xd42b…f271; extrinsics (2): [0x1bf5…1d76, 0x7c9b…4e23]]
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae, previously 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92.
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #1 (0x80fc…ccae)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #31 (0x68bc…0605), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.2kiB/s ⬆ 129.9kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x5e92…ba30)
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] Moving approval window from session 0..=2 to 0..=3
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x8144…74eb)
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #32 (0x5e92…ba30), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.4kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #33 (0x8c30…9ccd)
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x8c30ce9e6e9867824eb2aff40148ac1ed64cf464f51c5f2574013b44b20f9ccd at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), finalized #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), ⬇ 0.7kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying authority set change scheduled at block #31
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying GRANDPA set change to new set [(Public(88dc3417d5058ec4b4503e0c12ea1a0a89be200fe98922423d4334014fa6b0ee (5FA9nQDV...)), 1), (Public(d17c2d7823ebf260fd138f2d7e27d114c0145d968b5ff5006125f2414fadae69 (5GoNkf6W...)), 1)]
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Imported justification for block #31 that triggers command Changing authorities, signaling voter.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #34 (0x211b…febf)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x211b3c53bebeff8af05e8f283d59fe171b7f91a5bf9c4669d88943f5a42bfebf at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694; parent_hash: 0x80fc…ccae; extrinsics (2): [0x4a6c…1fc6, 0x6b84…7cea]]
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0, previously 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #2 (0x5087…b5a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #31 (0x68bc…0605), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 130.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #32 (0x5e92…ba30), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:30 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #35 (0xee07…38a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #35 (0xee07…38a0), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.9kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #36 (0xe8ce…4af6)
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0xe8cec8015c0c7bf508bf3f2f82b1696e9cca078e814b0f6671f0b0d5dfe84af6 at=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #36 (0xe8ce…4af6), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #2 (0x5087…b5a0), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0

Note the delay here! It may take some time for your relay chain to enter a new epoch.

Rococo & Westend Relay Chain Testnets

Is this Cumulus Parachain Template Rococo & Westend testnets compatible? Yes!

  • Rococo is the testnet of Kusama (join the Rococo Faucet to get testing funds).
  • Westend is the testnet of Polkadot (join the Westend Faucet to get testing funds).

See the Cumulus Workshop for the latest instructions to register a parathread/parachain on a relay chain.

NOTE: When running the relay chain and parachain, you must use the same tagged version of Polkadot and Cumulus so the collator would register successfully to the relay chain. You should test locally registering your parachain successfully before attempting to connect to any running relay chain network!

Find chainspec files to connect to live networks here. You want to be sure to use the correct git release tag in these files, as they change from time to time and must match the live network!

These networks are under constant development - so please follow the progress and update of your parachains in lock step with the testnet changes if you wish to connect to the network. Do join the Parachain Technical matrix chat room to ask questions and connect with the parachain building teams.

Learn More

  • More detailed instructions to use Cumulus parachains are found in the Cumulus Workshop.
  • Refer to the upstream Substrate Node Template to learn more about the structure of this project, the capabilities it encapsulates and the way in which those capabilities are implemented.
  • Learn more about how a parachain block is added to a finalized chain here.

Download Details:
Author: aresprotocols
Source Code: https://github.com/aresprotocols/substrate-parachain-template
License: Unlicense License

#rust  #blockchain #substrate #parachain #polkadot 

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