Mobile Testing with Emulator: A step-wise guide

Mobile Testing with Emulator: A step-wise guide

An Emulator is an application that emulates real mobile device software, hardware, and operating systems, allowing us to check and debug our application. It is generally provided by the device manufacturer. Mobile emulators are free and provided...

An Emulator is an application that emulates real mobile device software, hardware, and operating systems, allowing us to check and debug our application. It is generally provided by the device manufacturer. Mobile emulators are free and provided as a neighborhood of SDK with each new OS release. As a developer or a tester, you'll configure the emulator to closely resemble the devices on which you propose to deploy your application here i:e selenium online training .
The emulator window consists of a tool screen on the left and phone controls/keyboard on the proper . The device screen initially displays ‘ANDROID‘, then displays the graphical logo, while the Android platform related to the AVD is initializing.

What is AVD Manager?
AVD Manager may be a tool to make and manage Android Virtual Devices(AVDs), which define device configuration for the Android Emulator. Before you'll actually run an emulator, you would like to put in the Android SDK on your machine and define an AVD, which defines the hardware characteristics of the emulator. You can define things just like the device RAM, whether there's touch screen and/or keyboard, camera support, audio playback support, etc. You can create several AVDs to check your device on several virtual devices.

How to Create an Android Virtual Device?
Once installation of all the prerequisites are done, we'd like to launch the SDK Manager to download relevant files to make an emulator and run the virtual device.
o In command line(cmd), type in android sdk. It would open the SDK Manager for you to download the relevant files
o In the SDK Manager select the files as shown below. This will help you create a virtual device
There are two ways to make Android Virtual Devices for mobile testing:
o Using Command Line
o Using AVD Manager
Creating a New Android Virtual Device using AVD Manager
The first step is to launch the AVD Manager and for that, there are variety of options you'll follow:
o Launch AVD Manager using Program Menu : Go to Start → All Program → Android SDK Tools → AVD Manager
o Launch AVD Manager using Command Line : Go to Run and type cmd to open command prompt window. Type: android avd
o Launch AVD Manager from folder location : Browse to Android SDK folder and Double-click on AVD Manager.
Either of the above ways, it might open the Android Virtual Device Manager, which might assist you create the virtual devices. The AVD Manager main screen shows one default virtual device, which is Nexus 5.

  1. Click on Create button to make a replacement AVD
  2. A crop up will open, follow the below screenshot for the values. In case you're simulating a selected device, you would possibly want to call it intrinsically. For example NexusSix-4.4 refers to an AVD that simulate Nexus-SIx which runs on Android 4.4.2 version.

    In this test i select a really generic name Android to stay it simple.
    Note: you'll fiddle with different configurations for your virtual device.
  3. Click on OK to proceed with the save changes.
  4. After you complete above steps, the emulator are going to be displayed under the Android Virtual Devices tab, configured on the AVD Manager. Now select the AVD name and click on on Start on the proper .
  5. this is able to launch the crop up with few options, you'll choose as you would like . Once done, click on Launch, this may launch the emulator.

    Scale display to real size: This causes the resolution of the emulator’s display to be scaled to match the screen size
    Wipe user data: This would wipe any previous app installation you have done and would launch a plain fresh emulator
    Launch from snapshot: This causes the emulated device to start from a previously saved snapshot of the device’s state. The emulator launches much faster when launched from a snapshot.
    Save to snapshot: This causes the emulated device’s state to be saved to a snapshot upon device exit
  6. Emulator will launch, it might take jiffy to display the house Screen of the virtual android device. The time taken is really adequate to the turn on time on the important mobile device.
    Note:
  • You can use the command ‘adb devices‘ to see if the adb is detecting the emulator. This basically completes the Android SDK installation part.
  • If ANDROID logo appears for more than 15-30 minutes, something has probably gone wrong. Reboot your computer, start AVD Manager, delete our created ‘Android’ AVD, recreate this AVD, and relaunch new AVD.
    The emulator window launched with 5554: Android in its title bar. Value 5554 identifies a console port that you simply can use to question and control the AVD’s environment. Android supports a maximum of 16 concurrently executing AVDs, where each AVD is assigned an even-numbered port number that starts at 5554. It means we will initialize quite one AVD at an equivalent time and may test the app with parallel execution.
    Creating an Android Emulator using Command Line
    Android Emulator is often configured differently for simulating different android devices. With the assistance of AVD configuration, Android Emulator can simulate:

o Target platforms versions
o Screen sizes
o Solutions
o Input methods
o Hardware configurations
o External storage sizes for SD card

Although there are an honest number of default device configurations present in AVD Manager, if you've got any particular device in mind that you simply want to emulate, you would like to create an AVD that resembles the features of your target device. For example, you would like to understand the screen size and determination then on.

Creating Default Device Definition

  1. Attend Device Definitions tab and choose one among the presets and click on ‘Create AVD’
  2. Every default device will provide you some preset AVD which are often changed consistent with your need

    Note: Notice that the OK button is disabled, simply because under CPU/ABI it says that “No system Images installed for this target“. To avoid this, select different Device configuration from Device & select any skin or select none for skin and proceed.

Below are the lists of optional and mandatory settings:

o AVD NAME: Choose a name for the AVD like NexusSix-4.4 that refer to your device configuration
o Device: Select the AVD resolution as per the device options
o Target: Select the Android version / Test Environment or Target Platform
o CPU/ABI: Select Intel Atom (x86) for 32-bit and ARM (armeabi-v7) for 64-bit.
o Keyboard: Select this box to use the keyboard in the AVD
o Skin: Select this box to get the hardware buttons
o Front Camera: If the system have a webcam, that can be used with AVD
o Back Camera: If the system have a webcam, that can be used with AVD
o Memory Options: Set RAM & VM Heap for the device according to your need
o Internal Storage: Set this as per your need and Select GiB/MiB from the drop down
o SD Card: Set this as per your need and Select GiB/MiB from the drop down
o Emulation Options

  • Snapshot: Select this to persist, it allows you to quickly start the emulator after the primary startup.
  • Use Host GPU: Select this to use the pc graphics
  1. After you complete the above steps, the emulator are going to be displayed under the Android Virtual Devices tab, configured on the AVD Manager. Now Select the newly added AVD name and click on on Start on the proper.
  2. This is able to launch the crop up with few options, you'll choose as you would like . here selenium online training Hyderabad Once done click on Launch, this may launch the emulator.
    o Scale display to real size: This causes the resolution of the emulator’s display to be scaled to match the screen size
    o Wipe user data: This would wipe any previous app installation you have done and would launch a plain fresh emulator
    o Launch from snapshot: This causes the emulated device to be started from a previously saved snapshot of the device’s state. The emulator launches much faster when launched from a snapshot
    o Save to snapshot: This causes the emulated device’s state to be saved to a snapshot upon device exit
    Once done, Emulator will launch. It would take jiffy to display the house Screen of the virtual Android device.
    Creating a Custom Device Definition
    In case the available device definitions don't match the device type you’d wish to emulate, you'll create a custom device

definition for your AVD:

  1. If the AVD manager is opened, attend Device Definitions
  2. Click on Create Devices.
  3. The Configure Hardware Profile window will display and it'll allow you to specify various configurations like the screen size, memory options, input type, and sensors.
    Note: Once all the knowledge is filled properly, Create Device button will get enabled and you'll proceed then.
  4. After you complete above steps, the emulator are going to be displayed under the Device Definition tab, configured on the AVD Manager. selenium training Now Select the newly created AVD name and click on on Create AVD on the proper.
    Automation using Android emulator
    o Get Emulator Platform Version
    o Unlock Android emulator screen
    o Go to Settings. You will find About Phone under settings.
    o Go to About Phone. It will show you Android version
    o Verify calculator App Is Available In Emulator

We are getting to run an Appium test for calculator application so it should be there in emulator. Generally, calculator app are going to be already installed in emulator. To check if it is installed or not,

  1. Unlock emulator
  2. Verify if there's an application with name Calculator
  3. Get app activity and package name. We need launcher activity and package name of calculator app. Activity and package name of calculator app on behalf of me are:
    o Package name : com.android.calculator2
    o Activity name : com.android.calculator2.Calculator
  4. Create Appium Test Script In Eclipse. Now we are able to create and run our first Appium test on Android emulator for calculator application. I have prepared Appium test script as below. I have used RemoteWebDriver of Selenium Webdriver to launch app with required capabilities.
  5. to start out an instance of the emulator from the instruction , navigate to the tools/ folder of the SDK. Enter emulator command like this: emulator -avd []
    So that was all about performing Appium testing on emulator.

Selenium WebDriver With Python 3.x - Novice To Ninja

Selenium WebDriver With Python 3.x - Novice To Ninja

Selenium WebDriver With Python 3.x - Novice To Ninja

Description
Best Selenium WebDriver With Python Programming Language Course - Complete Framework Implementation From Scratch

This course includes a wide range of topics from Selenium WebDriver Basics and Advanced, Python Programming Concepts, Unittest And Pytest Framework, Automation Framework Design (Page Objects, Data Driven, Reading CSV Files), Logging Infrastructure, Cross-Browser Testing, Interview Preparation. All materials including code files.

You achieve two targets with one single course

Complete Python Programming Language
Selenium WebDriver Automation
Why Python Programming Language?

Python Programming Language is the fastest growing programming language within both the fields, development and testing. QA industry is rapidly progressing to move on with Python Programming Language for all the automation needs because of the flexibility it offers.

One stop place to become an Expert in Web Automation Framework related technologies from scratch

We start from Beginners level and go through Advance level. This is a single course for everything you need to know related to Web UI Automation.

To read more:

Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python Programming for Beginners

Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python Programming for Beginners

Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python Programming for Beginners. Implement of Python Selenium Frameworks from scratch. Learn Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python from scratch. Selenium with Python Full Course For Beginners. Learn Pytest tutorial for Beginners

Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python Programming for Beginners. Implement of Python Selenium Frameworks from scratch. Learn Selenium Webdriver Automation with Python from scratch. Selenium with Python Full Course For Beginners. Learn Pytest tutorial for Beginners

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver: For all your cross-browser, multi-device testing needs, look no further than the powerful combination of Selenium WebDriver and pytest.

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver: For all your cross-browser, multi-device testing needs, look no further than the powerful combination of Selenium WebDriver and pytest.

One of the challenges that developers face is ensuring that their web application works seamlessly across a different set of devices, browsers, and operating systems platforms. This is where cross-browser testing plays a very crucial role in testing the web application since it helps in testing across different combinations. Based on the target market, development and product teams need to chart out a plan for the various activities involved in cross-browser compatibility testing.

Selenium – Introduction and WebDriver Interface

As far as testing a web application is concerned, there a couple of web frameworks available that automate the tests performed across different web browsers. Selenium is a very popular framework that is primarily used for the automation testing of web applications. It is an open-source tool with which web testing can be performed against popular browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Microsoft Edge. The framework can also be used if the test has to be performed on Internet Explorer (latest version or the legacy versions).

Selenium WebDriver is considered one of the core components of the Selenium framework. Selenium WebDriver API is a collection of open-source APIs/language-specific bindings that accepts commands and sends them to the browser, against which the testing is performed. The individual who is responsible for developing the tests need not bother about the architecture details or other technical specifications of the web browser since WebDriver acts as an interface between the test suite/test case and web browser (achieved using the browser-specific WebDriver).

Selenium WebDriver supports different programming languages like Python, C#, Ruby, PERL, and Java. The diagram below shows a simplified view of the Selenium WebDriver Interface. We have already covered the Selenium WebDriver architecture in-depth in our earlier post.

Pytest Test Framework – Introduction and Advantages

Python has a couple of test frameworks that ease the task of web application testing; unittest and pytest are the most widely used frameworks. unittest is a part of the standard library (in Python) and comes as a part of the Python installation. For test automation using pytest, the more popular of the two, with Selenium WebDriver, you need to install pytest separately. Here are some of the advantages of the pytest framework:

  • Can be used by development teams, test teams, teams that are practicing Test-Driven Development (TDD), as well as in open-source projects.
  • Can be used in simple, as well as complex, functional test cases for applications and libraries.
  • Easy to port existing test suites to pytest for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.
  • Compatibility with other test frameworks like unittest and nose, so switching to this framework is very easy.
  • Supports parameterizing, which is instrumental in executing the same tests with different configurations using a simple marker. You can come up with more effective test cases/test suites with less repetitive code implementation.
  • The highh number of asserts that provides more detailed information about the failure scenarios.
  • Support of Fixtures and Classes. Using Fixtures, it becomes easy to make common test objects available throughout a module, session, function, or class. Fixtures and Classes will be covered in more detail in subsequent sections.
  • Good and up-to-date documentation.
  • xdist support through which test cases can be parallelized.

To summarize, Pytest is a software test framework which can be used to make simple, yet scalable test cases with ease.

Now that you are aware of the advantages of pytest over other test frameworks, let’s have a detailed look at the pytest framework and how it can be used with Selenium WebDriver framework in order to perform automated cross-browser testing for web applications.

Test Automation Using Pytest – Installation and Getting Started

As mentioned earlier, pytest is not a part of the standard Python installation and needs to be installed separately. In order to install pytest, you should execute the following command on the prompt/terminal:

pip install –U pytest

Once the installation is complete, you can verify whether the installation is successful, by typing the following command:

pytest --version

Below is the output when the above command is executed on Linux and Windows machine

PyCharm is a popular IDE that is used for pytest development. You can install the PyCharm Edu version for Windows, Linux, or macOS. For development, we are using PyCharm for Windows. Once PyCharm is installed, you should make sure that the default test runner is pytest. In order to change the default test runner, you should navigate to File -> Settings -> Tools -> Python Integrated Tools and change Default test runner for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.

Now that PyCharm Edu is installed and the default test runner is set to pytest, you need to install the Selenium package for Python to perform test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver. In order to install Selenium, you should invoke the command mentioned below in the terminal of PyCharm.

pip install -U selenium ( Syntax – pip install –U )

Shown below is the snapshot of the command execution:

Now that your development environment is all set, we look into some of the features and aspects of pytest.

Pytest – Usage, Exit Codes, and Compilation

pytest and py.test can be used interchangeably. In order to get information about the arguments that can be used with pytest, you can execute the command below on the terminal.

pytest --help     
#Command to get help about the options that can be used with pytest command 
# Details about fixtures pytest --fixtures  #Shows the available built-in function arguments

When pytest code is executed, it results in one of the following exit codes:

| EXIT CODE | DESCRIPTION |

| 0 | Test cases/test suites are executed successfully and end result was PASS |

| 1 | Test cases/test suites were executed, but some tests FAILED |

| 2 | Test execution was stopped by the user |

| 3 | Unknown error occurred when the tests were executed |

| 4 | Usage of pytest command is incorrect |

| 5 | No tests were collected |

It is important that the file containing pytest code be named as **test_.py or _test.py. In order to compile and execute pytest source code for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver, you can use the following command on the terminal

pytest <test_file_name.py> --verbose --capture=no

Let’s have a look at some examples of test automation using pytest. We start with a very simple example –test_pytest_example_1.py.

#pytest in action – test_pytest_example_1.py 
def function_1(var):   
return var + 1   
def test_success():   
assert function_1(4) == 5   
def test_failure():   
assert function_1(2) == 5

In the above code snippet, we create a function named function_1  which takes one argument named var . There are two test cases:  test_success()  and  test_failure() . The test cases are executed in serial order and the assert is issued on an execution of the test cases. Compile the code using the command mentioned below

pytest --verbose --capture=no test_pytest_example_1.py

As seen in the output, the result of the first test case is PASS (shown in blue) and a result of the second test case is FAIL (shown in red).

pytest makes use of the assert available in Python for verification of results. It gives out meaningful information which can be used for verification and debugging. pytest.raises is commonly used to raise exceptions; below is an example where a Factorial of a number is calculated. In one test case, a negative number is passed as an input to the factorial function and AssertionError is raised.

factorial_example.py  contains the implementation that uses recursion in order to calculate factorial of the input number. Before the factorial is calculated, the input parameter check is performed. Assert would be raised in case the input number is negative.

def factorial_function(number):    
# Perform a check whether the input number is positive or not, if it is not    
# positive, raise an assert     
assert number >= 0\. and type(number) is int, "The input is not recognized"       
if number == 0:         
return 1     
else:       
# recursive function to calculate factorial         
return number * factorial_function(number – 1)

test_factorial_example.py  is a pytest implementation which use factorial functionality. Three test cases are implemented –  test_standard_library  (output from factorial_function is compared with the output obtained from math.factorial module),  test_negative_number  (assertion is raised when the input number is negative), and (results of output from factorial_function are compared with specific values).

# Import the necessary modules/packages required for implementation 
import pytest import math   
from factorial_example import factorial_function  
def test_factorial_functionality():     
print("Inside test_factorial_functionality")       
assert factorial_function(0) == 1     
assert factorial_function(4)== 24   
def test_standard_library():     
print("Inside test_standard_library")      
for i in range(5): 
# verify whether factorial is calculated correctly       
# by checking against result against  standard       
# library - math.factorial()         
assert math.factorial(i) == factorial_function(i)   
def test_negative_number():     
print("Inside test_negative_number")      
# This test case would pass if Assertion Error    
# is raised. In this case, the input number is negative    
# hence, the test case passes     
with pytest.raises(AssertionError):         
factorial_function(-10)

You can execute the code using the command py.test –capture=no test_factorial_example.py , either on the command prompt or on the Terminal of PyCharm IDE. As seen in the snapshot, all the test cases have passed and logs under “print statement” are output on the console

Test Automation Using Pytest – Fixtures (Usage and Implementation)

Consider an example where you have to execute certain MySQL queries on a database that contains employee information within an organization. The time taken to execute a query would depend on the number of records (i.e. employees) in the database. Before queries are executed, required operations (w.r.t database connectivity) have to be performed and the “returned handle” would be used in a subsequent implementation involving the database. Database operations can be CPU intensive (as the number of records increases); hence, repetitive implementation and execution should be avoided. There are two ways in which this issue can be solved:

  1. With the help of classic xunit style setup along with teardown methods.
  2. By using fixtures (recommended).

The xunit style of fixtures is already supported in unittest but pytest has a much better way of dealing with fixtures. Fixtures are a set of resources that have to set up before the test starts and have to be cleaned up after the execution of tests is complete. It contains a lot of improvements over the classic implementation of setup and teardown functions. The main advantages of using fixtures are

  • Can be used by development teams, test teams, teams that are practicing Test-Driven Development (TDD), as well as in open-source projects.
  • Can be used in simple, as well as complex, functional test cases for applications and libraries.
  • Easy to port existing test suites to pytest for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.
  • Compatibility with other test frameworks like unittest and nose, so switching to this framework is very easy.
  • Supports parameterizing, which is instrumental in executing the same tests with different configurations using a simple marker. You can come up with more effective test cases/test suites with less repetitive code implementation.
  • The highh number of asserts that provides more detailed information about the failure scenarios.
  • Support of Fixtures and Classes. Using Fixtures, it becomes easy to make common test objects available throughout a module, session, function, or class. Fixtures and Classes will be covered in more detail in subsequent sections.
  • Good and up-to-date documentation.
  • xdist support through which test cases can be parallelized.

Ever since the launch of version 3.5, the fixtures of higher scope are prioritized above the lower scope fixtures in terms of instantiating. Higher scope fixture includes sessions, and lower scope fixture would include classes, functions, and others. You can even ‘‘parameterize" these fixture functions in order to execute them multiple times along with the execution of dependent tests.

Fixture parameterization has been widely used to write exhaustive test functions. Below is a simple code for test automation using pytest where setup() and teardown()  of ‘resource 1’ is called, even when the test_2 is executed. Since this is a simple implementation (with fewer computations), there are not many overheads even when unnecessary setup and module calls are invoked, but it could hamper the overall code performance in case any CPU-intensive operations (like database connectivity) are involved.

#Import all the necessary modules import pytest   
def resource_1_setup():     
print('Setup for resource 1 called')   
def resource_1_teardown():     
print('Teardown for resource 1 called')   
def setup_module(module):     
print('\nSetup of module is called')     
resource_1_setup()   
def teardown_module(module):     
print('\nTeardown of module is called')     
resource_1_teardown()   
def test_1_using_resource_1():     
print('Test 1 that uses Resource 1')   
def test_2_not_using_resource_1():     
print('\nTest 2 does not need Resource 1')

Execute the test case ‘test_2_not_using_resource_1’ by invoking the following command on the terminal:

pytest --capture=no --verbose test_fixtures.py::test_2_not_using_resource_1

As observed from the output [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-problem.png], even though “test_2” is executed, the fixture functions for “resource 1” are unnecessarily invoked. This problem can be fixed by using fixtures; we will have a look at these in the upcoming example.

As seen in the example below, we define a fixture function resource_1_setup()  (similar to setup in xunit style implementation) and resource_1_teardown()  (similar to teardown in xunit style implementation). The fixture function has “module scope” using @pytest.fixture(scope=’module’) .

#Import all the necessary modules import pytest   
#Implement the fixture that has module scope 
@pytest.fixture(scope='module') 
def resource_1_setup(request):     
print('\nSetup for resource 1 called')       
def resource_1_teardown():         
print('\nTeardown for resource 1 called')       
# An alternative option for executing teardown code is to make use of the addfinalizer method of the request-context     
# object to register finalization functions.     
# Source - https://docs.pytest.org/en/latest/fixture.html     
request.addfinalizer(resource_1_teardown)   
def test_1_using_resource_1(resource_1_setup):     
print('Test 1 uses resource 1')   
def test_2_not_using_resource_1():     
print('\n Test 2 does not need Resource 1')

We execute the code by triggering all the test cases. As shown in the output below [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-all-tests-executed.png], “setup for resource 1” is called only for Test 1 and not for Test 2.

Now, we execute only test case 2, that is, test_2_not_using_resource_1() . As seen in the output below [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-only-2-tests-executed.png], setup and teardown functions for Resource 1 are not called since the only test case 2 is executed. This is where fixtures can be highly effective since it eliminates repetitive code and execution of unnecessary code. Official documentation about fixtures in pytest can be found here.

Test Automation Using Pytest with Selenium WebDriver

When you are looking out for a test automation framework, you would probably require a test framework that meets all your requirements. The framework should have the ability to log events, generate test reports, and should have good community support. Pytest fulfils all these requirements and test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver is highly recommended as it does not involve a steep learning curve.

When you are planning to develop test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver, the first concern that you need to look into is when you should load the browser. Loading a new browser instance after each test is not recommended since it is not a scalable solution and might increase the overall test execution time. It is recommended to load the browser (under test) before the actual test cases have started and unloaded/closed the browser instance as soon as the tests are complete. This is possible by using Fixtures in pytest. As mentioned earlier, Fixtures make extensive use of a concept know as dependency injection, where dependencies can be loaded before the actual tests have started.

By default, fixtures have function scope, depending on the requirements; you can change the implemented fixture’s scope to a module, session, or class. Like the lifetime of variables in C language, the scope of fixtures indicates how many times the particular fixture will be created.

| FIXTURE SCOPE | EXPLANATION |

| Function | Fixture is executed/run once per test session |

| Session | One fixture is created for the entire test session |

| Class | Only one fixture is created per class of tests |

| Module | Fixture is created once per module |

Once the tests have been executed, you might be interested to capture the test results in a report format (like HTML). You need to install pytest-html module for the same

pip install pytest-html

Below is the snapshot of the command in execution:

Now that you have knowledge about pytest fixtures, Selenium, and Selenium WebDriver interface, let’s have a look at an example with all these things in action. Before you start the implementation, please ensure that you download Gecko driver for Firefox and ChromeDriver for Chrome from here and here respectively. In order to avoid mentioning the path/location where the drivers have been downloaded, make sure that you place these respective drivers at the location where the corresponding browsers are present. In the snapshot below, you can see that we have copied Geckodriver.exe in the location where Firefox browser (firefox.exe) is present.

Now that you have the setup ready, let’s get started with the implementation. Import all the necessary modules in the beginning so that you avoid errors. In our case, the modules imported are selenium, pytest, pytest-html. Two fixture functions – driver_init()  and  chrome_driver_init()  have the “class” scope. As seen in the fixture function driver_init() , an instance of Firefox is created using GeckoDriver, whereas in chrome_driver_init() , an instance of Chrome browser is created using ChromeDriver. yield contains the implementation of teardown; code inside yield is responsible for doing the cleanup activity. A class is used to group test cases, in this case, there are two important classes, Test_URL()  and Test_URL_Chrome() . The implemented classes are making use of the fixtures that were implemented using mark.usefixtures [ @pytest.mark.usefixtures(“driver_init”) ]. The test case performs a simple test of invoking the respective browser (Firefox/Chrome) and opening the supplied URL i.e. https://www.lambdatest.com/ Filename – test_selenium_webdriver-2.py

# Import the 'modules' that are required for execution   
import pytest import pytest_html from selenium 
import webdriver from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options 
import Options from selenium.webdriver.common.keys 
import Keys from time import sleep   
#Fixture for Firefox @pytest.fixture(scope="class") 
def driver_init(request):     ff_driver = webdriver.Firefox()     
request.cls.driver = ff_driver     yield     ff_driver.close()   
#Fixture for Chrome @pytest.fixture(scope="class") 
def chrome_driver_init(request):     
chrome_driver = webdriver.Chrome()     
request.cls.driver = chrome_driver     yield     chrome_driver.close()   
@pytest.mark.usefixtures("driver_init") class BasicTest:     pass class Test_URL(BasicTest):         
def test_open_url(self):             
self.driver.get("https://www.lambdatest.com/")             
print(self.driver.title)               
sleep(5)   
@pytest.mark.usefixtures("chrome_driver_init") 
class Basic_Chrome_Test:     
pass class Test_URL_Chrome(Basic_Chrome_Test):         
def test_open_url(self):             
self.driver.get("https://www.lambdatest.com/")            
 print(self.driver.title)               
sleep(5)

Since we require the test output in an HTML file, we make us of –html=&nbsp;argumentt while executing the test code. The complete command to execute test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver:

| 1 |

py.test.exe --capture=no --verbose --html=pytest_selenium_test_report.html test_selenium_webdriver-1.py


|

Below is the execution output, testcase test_open_url() is executed for the class Test_URL  and Test_URL_Chrome() . The test report is pytest_selenium_test_report.html [Image – PyTest-Selenium-Output-1.png]. Here is a test report for further clarity.

As seen in the above implementation, the only difference between fixture function for Firefox and Chrome browser is the setting up of the respective browser. The majority of the implementation is same for both the browsers, so it becomes important to optimize the code by avoiding repetition of code. This is possible by making use of parameterized fixtures. As seen in the implementation [Filename – test_selenium_webdriver-1.py], the major change is addition of parameters to fixtures, as in @pytest.fixture(params=[“chrome”, “firefox”],scope=”class”) . Depending on the browser in use, the corresponding WebDriver is used to invoke the browser.

# Import the 'modules' that are required for execution   
import pytest import pytest_html from selenium 
import webdriver from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options 
import Options from selenium.webdriver.common.keys 
import Keys from time import sleep   
#Fixture for Firefox @pytest.fixture(params=["chrome", "firefox"],scope="class") 
def driver_init(request):     
if request.param == "chrome":         
web_driver = webdriver.Chrome()     
if request.param == "firefox":         
web_driver = webdriver.Firefox()     
request.cls.driver = web_driver     yield     
web_driver.close()   
@pytest.mark.usefixtures("driver_init") class BasicTest:     
pass class Test_URL(BasicTest):         
def test_open_url(self):             
self.driver.get("https://www.lambdatest.com/")             
print(self.driver.title)               
sleep(5)

In our case, we are using the Chrome and Firefox browsers and the test case Test_URL()  would be executed for each browser separately. As seen in the output, the test case is invoked once with parameters as “firefox” and “chrome.”

Cross-Browser Testing With Pytest, Selenium and Lambdatest

There is always a limitation on the amount of testing that you can perform on your local machine or test machines since thorough testing has to be performed on different kinds of devices, operating systems, and browsers. Setting up a local test environment is not a scalable and economical option. This is where your test team can utilize the power of Lambdatest’s cross-browser testing on the cloud capabilities.

You can perform manual as well as automated cross-browser testing of your web application or website on different browsers (even old versions) and devices. You can also perform real-time testing by using their Tunnel feature which lets you use their test infrastructure from the terminal. LambdaTest Selenium Automation Grid enables you to perform end-to-end automation tests on a secure, reliable, and scalable Selenium infrastructure. You can utilize the LambdaTest Selenium Grid to not only increase the overall code-coverage (via testing), but to also decrease the overall time required to execute your automation scripts written in Python.

Conclusion

Test automation using Pytest with Selenium WebDriver is a very favourable option as a framework that has good features with which test engineers can come up with implementation that is easy to implement and which is scalable. It can be used for writing test cases for simple scenarios as well as highly complex scenarios. A developer who is well-versed with the Python, unittest/other test frameworks based on Python would find pytest easy to learn. With pytest leverages concepts like dependency injection, there is less cost involved in the maintainability of the source code.

Since the number of devices are increasing with each passing day, it becomes highly impractical to manually test your code against different devices, operating systems, and browsers; this is where testers/developers can utilize Lambdatest’s cross-browser testing tool, which allows you to perform test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver effortlessly.