How To Develop And Deploy Micro-Frontends Using Single-Spa Framework

Micro-frontends are the future of frontend web development. Inspired by microservices, which allow you to break up your backend into smaller pieces, micro-frontends allow you to build, test, and deploy pieces of your frontend app independently of each other. Depending on the micro-frontend framework you choose, you can even have multiple micro-frontend apps — written in React, Angular, Vue, or anything else — coexisting peacefully together in the same larger app!

In this article, we’re going to develop an app composed of micro-frontends using single-spa and deploy it to Heroku. We’ll set up continuous integration using Travis CI. Each CI pipeline will bundle the JavaScript for a micro-frontend app and then upload the resulting build artifacts to AWS S3. Finally, we’ll make an update to one of the micro-frontend apps and see how it can be deployed to production independently of the other micro-frontend apps.

Overview of the Demo App

Demo app — end result

Before we discuss the step-by-step instructions, let’s get a quick overview of what makes up the demo app. This app is composed of four sub-apps:

  1. container app that serves as the main page container and coordinates the mounting and unmounting of the micro-frontend apps
  2. micro-frontend navbar app that’s always present on the page
  3. micro-frontend “page 1” app that only shows when active
  4. micro-frontend “page 2” app that also only shows when active

These four apps all live in separate repos, available on GitHub, which I’ve linked to above.

The end result is fairly simple in terms of the user interface, but, to be clear, the user interface isn’t the point here. If you’re following along on your own machine, by the end of this article you too will have all the underlying infrastructure necessary to get started with your own micro-frontend app!

Alright, grab your scuba gear, because it’s time to dive in!

Creating the Container App

To generate the apps for this demo, we’re going to use a command-line interface (CLI) tool called create-single-spa. The version of create-single-spa at the time of writing is 1.10.0, and the version of single-spa installed via the CLI is 4.4.2.

We’ll follow these steps to create the container app (also sometimes called the root config):

mkdir single-spa-demo

cd single-spa-demo

mkdir single-spa-demo-root-config

cd single-spa-demo-root-config

npx create-single-spa

We’ll then follow the CLI prompts:

  1. Select “single spa root config”
  2. Select “yarn” or “npm” (I chose “yarn”)

3. Enter an organization name (I used “thawkin3,” but it can be whatever you want)

Great! Now, if you check out the single-spa-demo-root-config directory, you should see a skeleton root config app. We’ll customize this in a bit, but first let’s also use the CLI tool to create our other three micro-frontend apps.

Creating the Micro-Frontend Apps

To generate our first micro-frontend app, the navbar, we’ll follow these steps:

cd ..

mkdir single-spa-demo-nav

cd single-spa-demo-nav

npx create-single-spa

We’ll then follow the CLI prompts:

  1. Select “single-spa application / parcel”
  2. Select “react”
  3. Select “yarn” or “npm” (I chose “yarn”)
  4. Enter an organization name, the same one you used when creating the root config app (“thawkin3” in my case)
  5. Enter a project name (I used “single-spa-demo-nav”)

Now that we’ve created the navbar app, we can follow these same steps to create our two page apps. But, we’ll replace each place we see “single-spa-demo-nav” with “single-spa-demo-page-1” the first time through and then with “single-spa-demo-page-2” the second time through.

At this point we’ve generated all four apps that we need: one container app and three micro-frontend apps. Now it’s time to hook our apps together.

#microfrontend #single-spa #javascript #architecture #microservice-architecture #web-development #microservices #hackernoon-top-story

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How To Develop And Deploy Micro-Frontends Using Single-Spa Framework
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

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Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

Hire Frontend Developers

Create a new web app or revamp your existing website?

Every existing website or a web application that we see with an interactive and user-friendly interface are from Front-End developers who ensure that all visual effects come into existence. Hence, to build a visually appealing web app front-end development is required.

At HourlyDeveloper.io, you can Hire FrontEnd Developers as we have been actively working on new frontend development as well as frontend re-engineering projects from older technologies to newer.

Consult with experts: https://bit.ly/2YLhmFZ

#hire frontend developers #frontend developers #frontend development company #frontend development services #frontend development #frontend

Best Android Mobile App Development Frameworks

Are you looking for the best Android app development frameworks? Get the best Android app development frameworks that help to build the top-notch Android mobile app.

For more info:
Website: https://www.appcluesinfotech.com/
Email: info@appcluesinfotech.com
Call: +1-978-309-9910

#best android mobile app development frameworks #top mobile app development frameworks #android app development frameworks #top frameworks for android app development #most popular android app development frameworks #app development frameworks

How To Develop And Deploy Micro-Frontends Using Single-Spa Framework

Micro-frontends are the future of frontend web development. Inspired by microservices, which allow you to break up your backend into smaller pieces, micro-frontends allow you to build, test, and deploy pieces of your frontend app independently of each other. Depending on the micro-frontend framework you choose, you can even have multiple micro-frontend apps – written in React, Angular, Vue, or anything else – coexisting peacefully together in the same larger app!

In this article, we’re going to develop an app composed of micro-frontends using single-spa and deploy it to Heroku. We’ll set up continuous integration using Travis CI. Each CI pipeline will bundle the JavaScript for a micro-frontend app and then upload the resulting build artifacts to AWS S3. Finally, we’ll make an update to one of the micro-frontend apps and see how it can be deployed to production independently of the other micro-frontend apps.

Overview of the Demo App

Demo app end resultDemo app - end result

Before we discuss the step-by-step instructions, let’s get a quick overview of what makes up the demo app. This app is composed of four sub-apps:

  1. container app that serves as the main page container and coordinates the mounting and unmounting of the micro-frontend apps
  2. micro-frontend navbar app that’s always present on the page
  3. micro-frontend “page 1” app that only shows when active
  4. micro-frontend “page 2” app that also only shows when active

These four apps all live in separate repos, available on GitHub, which I’ve linked to above.

The end result is fairly simple in terms of the user interface, but, to be clear, the user interface isn’t the point here. If you’re following along on your own machine, by the end of this article you too will have all the underlying infrastructure necessary to get started with your own micro-frontend app!

Alright, grab your scuba gear, because it’s time to dive in!

Creating the Container App

To generate the apps for this demo, we’re going to use a command-line interface (CLI) tool called create-single-spa. The version of create-single-spa at the time of writing is 1.10.0, and the version of single-spa installed via the CLI is 4.4.2.

We’ll follow these steps to create the container app (also sometimes called the root config):

Shell

mkdir single-spa-demo

cd single-spa-demo

mkdir single-spa-demo-root-config

cd single-spa-demo-root-config

npx create-single-spa

We’ll then follow the CLI prompts:

  1. Select “single spa root config”
  2. Select “yarn” or “npm” (I chose “yarn”)
  3. Enter an organization name (I used “thawkin3,” but it can be whatever you want)

Great! Now, if you check out the single-spa-demo-root-config directory, you should see a skeleton root config app. We’ll customize this in a bit, but first let’s also use the CLI tool to create our other three micro-frontend apps.

Creating the Micro-Frontend Apps

To generate our first micro-frontend app, the navbar, we’ll follow these steps:

Shell

cd ..

mkdir single-spa-demo-nav

cd single-spa-demo-nav

npx create-single-spa

We’ll then follow the CLI prompts:

  1. Select “single-spa application / parcel”
  2. Select “react”
  3. Select “yarn” or “npm” (I chose “yarn”)
  4. Enter an organization name, the same one you used when creating the root config app (“thawkin3” in my case)
  5. Enter a project name (I used “single-spa-demo-nav”)

Now that we’ve created the navbar app, we can follow these same steps to create our two page apps. But, we’ll replace each place we see “single-spa-demo-nav” with “single-spa-demo-page-1” the first time through and then with “single-spa-demo-page-2” the second time through.

At this point we’ve generated all four apps that we need: one container app and three micro-frontend apps. Now it’s time to hook our apps together.

#javascript #web development #microservices #heroku #microservice architecture #appdev #frontend #frontend web developer #container development #microfrontends

Fredy  Larson

Fredy Larson

1595059664

How long does it take to develop/build an app?

With more of us using smartphones, the popularity of mobile applications has exploded. In the digital era, the number of people looking for products and services online is growing rapidly. Smartphone owners look for mobile applications that give them quick access to companies’ products and services. As a result, mobile apps provide customers with a lot of benefits in just one device.

Likewise, companies use mobile apps to increase customer loyalty and improve their services. Mobile Developers are in high demand as companies use apps not only to create brand awareness but also to gather information. For that reason, mobile apps are used as tools to collect valuable data from customers to help companies improve their offer.

There are many types of mobile applications, each with its own advantages. For example, native apps perform better, while web apps don’t need to be customized for the platform or operating system (OS). Likewise, hybrid apps provide users with comfortable user experience. However, you may be wondering how long it takes to develop an app.

To give you an idea of how long the app development process takes, here’s a short guide.

App Idea & Research

app-idea-research

_Average time spent: two to five weeks _

This is the initial stage and a crucial step in setting the project in the right direction. In this stage, you brainstorm ideas and select the best one. Apart from that, you’ll need to do some research to see if your idea is viable. Remember that coming up with an idea is easy; the hard part is to make it a reality.

All your ideas may seem viable, but you still have to run some tests to keep it as real as possible. For that reason, when Web Developers are building a web app, they analyze the available ideas to see which one is the best match for the targeted audience.

Targeting the right audience is crucial when you are developing an app. It saves time when shaping the app in the right direction as you have a clear set of objectives. Likewise, analyzing how the app affects the market is essential. During the research process, App Developers must gather information about potential competitors and threats. This helps the app owners develop strategies to tackle difficulties that come up after the launch.

The research process can take several weeks, but it determines how successful your app can be. For that reason, you must take your time to know all the weaknesses and strengths of the competitors, possible app strategies, and targeted audience.

The outcomes of this stage are app prototypes and the minimum feasible product.

#android app #frontend #ios app #minimum viable product (mvp) #mobile app development #web development #android app development #app development #app development for ios and android #app development process #ios and android app development #ios app development #stages in app development