Jamel  O'Reilly

Jamel O'Reilly

1655994660

A Beautiful Set Of Predefined Colors and Methods for iOS/OSX

Installation

Drag the included Colours.h and Colours.m files into your project. They are located in the top-level directory. You can see a demo of how to use these with the included Xcode project as well.

#import "Colours.h" into the classes you want to use this category in and you're all set.

CocoaPods

pod 'Colours'

or, for Swift:

pod 'Colours/Swift'

NSColor

Colours supports NSColor out of the box! Just make sure you have the AppKit framework installed (it comes that way for a new application) and you will be set. This README uses UIColor for its examples, just substitute NSColor and the methods are all the same.

Swift

A Swift version of Colours now exists that contains everything in the Obj-C version except:

  • Color Components Dictionary (use the tuples instead)
  • Sorting/Comparing Colors
  • Distance between Colors

Also, instead of dictionaries and arrays of color components, tuples are used instead. So instead of [someRedColor rgbaArray], you would use someRedColor.rgba() which gives you a tuple of four CGFloats like (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0). To get just the red value, you would write someRedColor.rgba().r.

Color Palette

infoBlueColorinfoBlueColorsuccessColorsuccessColorwarningColorwarningColor
dangerColordangerColorantiqueWhiteColorantiqueWhiteColoroldLaceColoroldLaceColor
ivoryColorivoryColorseashellColorseashellColorghostWhiteColorghostWhiteColor
snowColorsnowColorlinenColorlinenColorblack25PercentColorblack25PercentColor
black50PercentColorblack50PercentColorblack75PercentColorblack75PercentColorwarmGrayColorwarmGrayColor
coolGrayColorcoolGrayColorcharcoalColorcharcoalColortealColortealColor
steelBlueColorsteelBlueColorrobinEggColorrobinEggColorpastelBlueColorpastelBlueColor
turquoiseColorturquoiseColorskyBlueColorskyBlueColorindigoColorindigoColor
denimColordenimColorblueberryColorblueberryColorcornflowerColorcornflowerColor
babyBlueColorbabyBlueColormidnightBlueColormidnightBlueColorfadedBlueColorfadedBlueColor
icebergColoricebergColorwaveColorwaveColoremeraldColoremeraldColor
grassColorgrassColorpastelGreenColorpastelGreenColorseafoamColorseafoamColor
paleGreenColorpaleGreenColorcactusGreenColorcactusGreenColorchartreuseColorchartreuseColor
hollyGreenColorhollyGreenColoroliveColoroliveColoroliveDrabColoroliveDrabColor
moneyGreenColormoneyGreenColorhoneydewColorhoneydewColorlimeColorlimeColor
cardTableColorcardTableColorsalmonColorsalmonColorbrickRedColorbrickRedColor
easterPinkColoreasterPinkColorgrapefruitColorgrapefruitColorpinkColorpinkColor
indianRedColorindianRedColorstrawberryColorstrawberryColorcoralColorcoralColor
maroonColormaroonColorwatermelonColorwatermelonColortomatoColortomatoColor
pinkLipstickColorpinkLipstickColorpaleRoseColorpaleRoseColorcrimsonColorcrimsonColor
eggplantColoreggplantColorpastelPurpleColorpastelPurpleColorpalePurpleColorpalePurpleColor
coolPurpleColorcoolPurpleColorvioletColorvioletColorplumColorplumColor
lavenderColorlavenderColorraspberryColorraspberryColorfuschiaColorfuschiaColor
grapeColorgrapeColorperiwinkleColorperiwinkleColororchidColororchidColor
goldenrodColorgoldenrodColoryellowGreenColoryellowGreenColorbananaColorbananaColor
mustardColormustardColorbuttermilkColorbuttermilkColorgoldColorgoldColor
creamColorcreamColorlightCreamColorlightCreamColorwheatColorwheatColor
beigeColorbeigeColorpeachColorpeachColorburntOrangeColorburntOrangeColor
pastelOrangeColorpastelOrangeColorcantaloupeColorcantaloupeColorcarrotColorcarrotColor
mandarinColormandarinColorchiliPowderColorchiliPowderColorburntSiennaColorburntSiennaColor
chocolateColorchocolateColorcoffeeColorcoffeeColorcinnamonColorcinnamonColor
almondColoralmondColoreggshellColoreggshellColorsandColorsandColor
mudColormudColorsiennaColorsiennaColordustColordustColor

Using Predefined Colors

Colours was set up to be exactly like using an Apple predefined system color. For instance, to get a stark red, you type [UIColor redColor]. You don't get a lot of variation on this though without diving into the colorWithRed:green:blue:alpha: method and customizing the heck out of it. Well, I took the liberty of creating 100 colors to use in the same system color way that Apple uses with iOS. So instead of the redColor example earlier, just substitute one of the colors from the giant palette above, like so: [UIColor indigoColor].

Color Helper Methods

Beyond giving you a list of a ton of colors with no effort, this category also gives you some methods that allow different color manipulations and translations. Here's how you use these:

Hex String

You can convert the commonly seen hexadecimal color string (ahh, thank you CSS) to a UIColor, and vice versa, very easily using the following methods:

UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromHexString:@"#f587e4"];
NSString *hexString = [newColor hexString];

RGBA

RGBA Array to and from a UIColor

The color -> array method creates an array of 4 NSNumbers representing the RGBA values of the color. These are not in the 0-255 range, but rather normalized in the 0-1 range. So if your R is 230, then it will be represented in the array as 0.902.

NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] rgbaArray];
UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromRGBAArray:colorArray];

RGBA Dictionary to and from a UIColor

Similar to the array method above, this returns an NSDictionary that contains NSNumbers. Static keys are used to access the different color components of the dictionary. This allows you to use autocorrect to use the returned dictionary faster.

  • kColoursRGBA_R
  • kColoursRGBA_G
  • kColoursRGBA_B
  • kColoursRGBA_A
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] rgbaDictionary];
UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromRGBADictionary:colorDict];

// You can also get a single component like so:
NSNumber *r = colorDict[kColoursRGBA_R];

HSBA

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the Hue, Saturation and Brightness values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursHSBA_H
  • kColoursHSBA_S
  • kColoursHSBA_B
  • kColoursHSBA_A
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] hsbaArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] hsbaDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromHSBAArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromHSBADictionary:colorDictionary];

CIELAB

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the CIE_Lightness, CIE_a and CIE_b values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursCIE_L
  • kColoursCIE_A
  • kColoursCIE_B
  • kColoursCIE_alpha
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] CIE_LabArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] CIE_LabDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromCIE_LabArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromCIE_LabDictionary:colorDictionary];

CMYK

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the CMYKY values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursCMYK_C
  • kColoursCMYK_M
  • kColoursCMYK_Y
  • kColoursCMYK_K
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] cmykArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] cmykDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromCMYKArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromCMYKDictionary:colorDictionary];

Color Components

This method returns a dictionary containing values for each of the keys (RGBA, HSBA, CIE_LAB, CMYK) from above. This means you can get a hue value and a Lightness value from the same source. Here's how you use this:

NSDictionary *components = [someColor colorComponents];
CGFloat H = components[kColoursHSBA_H];
CGFloat L = components[kColoursCIE_L];

You can also retrieve singular values instead of the entire dictionary by calling any of these methods below on a UIColor. This will be significantly slower at getting all of the values for one color, versus just retrieving one. If you need more than one, call the specific array or dictionary method from above.

CGFloat R = [[UIColor tomatoColor] red];
CGFloat G = [[UIColor tomatoColor] green];
CGFloat B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] blue];
CGFloat H = [[UIColor tomatoColor] hue];
CGFloat S = [[UIColor tomatoColor] saturation];
CGFloat B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] brightness];
CGFloat CIE_L = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_Lightness];
CGFloat CIE_A = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_a];
CGFloat CIE_B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_b];
CGFloat alpha = [[UIColor tomatoColor] alpha];

Darken/Lighten Colors

You can darken or lighten a color by using these methods. The only parameter is a percentage float from 0 -> 1, so a 25% lighter color would use the parameter 0.25.

UIColor *lighterColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] lighten:0.25f];
UIColor *darkerColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] darken:0.25f];

Black or White Contrasting Color

A lot of times you may want to put text on top of a view that is a certain color, and you want to be sure that it will look good on top of it. With this method you will return either white or black, depending on the how well each of them contrast on top of it. Here's how you use this:

UIColor *contrastingColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] blackOrWhiteContrastingColor];

Complementary Color

This method will create a UIColor instance that is the exact opposite color from another UIColor on the color wheel. The same saturation and brightness are preserved, just the hue is changed.

UIColor *complementary = [[UIColor seafoamColor] complementaryColor];

Distance between 2 Colors

5.1.0 +

Detecting a difference in two colors is not as trivial as it sounds. One's first instinct is to go for a difference in RGB values, leaving you with a sum of the differences of each point. It looks great! Until you actually start comparing colors. Why do these two reds have a different distance than these two blues in real life vs computationally? Human visual perception is next in the line of things between a color and your brain. Some colors are just perceived to have larger variants inside of their respective areas than others, so we need a way to model this human variable to colors. Enter CIELAB. This color formulation is supposed to be this model. So now we need to standardize a unit of distance between any two colors that works independent of how humans visually perceive that distance. Enter CIE76,94,2000. These are methods that use user-tested data and other mathematically and statistically significant correlations to output this info. You can read the wiki articles below to get a better understanding historically of how we moved to newer and better color distance formulas, and what their respective pros/cons are.

Finding Distance

CGFloat distance = [someColor distanceFromColor:someOtherColor type:ColorDistanceCIE94];
BOOL isNoticablySimilar = distance < threshold;

References

Generating Color Schemes

You can create a 5-color scheme based off of a UIColor using the following method. It takes in a UIColor and one of the ColorSchemeTypes defined in Colours. It returns an NSArray of 4 new UIColor objects to create a pretty nice color scheme that complements the root color you passed in.

NSArray *colorScheme = [color colorSchemeOfType:ColorSchemeType];

ColorSchemeTypes

  • ColorSchemeAnalagous
  • ColorSchemeMonochromatic
  • ColorSchemeTriad
  • ColorSchemeComplementary

Here are the different examples starting with a color scheme based off of [UIColor seafoamColor].

ColorSchemeAnalagous

Analagous

ColorSchemeMonochromatic

Monochromatic

ColorSchemeTriad

Triad

ColorSchemeComplementary

Complementary

Android

My friend, Matt York ported a version of this repository over to Android, so you can use these exact same colors and color methods in your Android apps as well. You can find it here: Colours for Android.

Xamarin

akamud has graciously ported this library as a Xamarin Android component, which can be found at https://github.com/akamud/Colours. An iOS Xamarin component is in the works as well.

Reap What I Sow!

This project is distributed under the standard MIT License. Please use this and twist it in whatever fashion you wish - and recommend any cool changes to help the code.

Author: bennyguitar
Source Code: https://github.com/bennyguitar/Colours
License: MIT license

#ios #swift 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

A Beautiful Set Of Predefined Colors and Methods for iOS/OSX
Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami

1651383480

A Simple Wrapper Around Amplify AppSync Simulator

This serverless plugin is a wrapper for amplify-appsync-simulator made for testing AppSync APIs built with serverless-appsync-plugin.

Install

npm install serverless-appsync-simulator
# or
yarn add serverless-appsync-simulator

Usage

This plugin relies on your serverless yml file and on the serverless-offline plugin.

plugins:
  - serverless-dynamodb-local # only if you need dynamodb resolvers and you don't have an external dynamodb
  - serverless-appsync-simulator
  - serverless-offline

Note: Order is important serverless-appsync-simulator must go before serverless-offline

To start the simulator, run the following command:

sls offline start

You should see in the logs something like:

...
Serverless: AppSync endpoint: http://localhost:20002/graphql
Serverless: GraphiQl: http://localhost:20002
...

Configuration

Put options under custom.appsync-simulator in your serverless.yml file

| option | default | description | | ------------------------ | -------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------- | | apiKey | 0123456789 | When using API_KEY as authentication type, the key to authenticate to the endpoint. | | port | 20002 | AppSync operations port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20002, 20012, 20022, etc.) | | wsPort | 20003 | AppSync subscriptions port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20003, 20013, 20023, etc.) | | location | . (base directory) | Location of the lambda functions handlers. | | refMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the Ref function | | getAttMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the GetAtt function | | importValueMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the ImportValue function | | functions | {} | A mapping of external functions for providing invoke url for external fucntions | | dynamoDb.endpoint | http://localhost:8000 | Dynamodb endpoint. Specify it if you're not using serverless-dynamodb-local. Otherwise, port is taken from dynamodb-local conf | | dynamoDb.region | localhost | Dynamodb region. Specify it if you're connecting to a remote Dynamodb intance. | | dynamoDb.accessKeyId | DEFAULT_ACCESS_KEY | AWS Access Key ID to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.secretAccessKey | DEFAULT_SECRET | AWS Secret Key to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.sessionToken | DEFAULT_ACCESS_TOKEEN | AWS Session Token to access DynamoDB, only if you have temporary security credentials configured on AWS | | dynamoDb.* | | You can add every configuration accepted by DynamoDB SDK | | rds.dbName | | Name of the database | | rds.dbHost | | Database host | | rds.dbDialect | | Database dialect. Possible values (mysql | postgres) | | rds.dbUsername | | Database username | | rds.dbPassword | | Database password | | rds.dbPort | | Database port | | watch | - *.graphql
- *.vtl | Array of glob patterns to watch for hot-reloading. |

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    location: '.webpack/service' # use webpack build directory
    dynamoDb:
      endpoint: 'http://my-custom-dynamo:8000'

Hot-reloading

By default, the simulator will hot-relad when changes to *.graphql or *.vtl files are detected. Changes to *.yml files are not supported (yet? - this is a Serverless Framework limitation). You will need to restart the simulator each time you change yml files.

Hot-reloading relies on watchman. Make sure it is installed on your system.

You can change the files being watched with the watch option, which is then passed to watchman as the match expression.

e.g.

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    watch:
      - ["match", "handlers/**/*.vtl", "wholename"] # => array is interpreted as the literal match expression
      - "*.graphql"                                 # => string like this is equivalent to `["match", "*.graphql"]`

Or you can opt-out by leaving an empty array or set the option to false

Note: Functions should not require hot-reloading, unless you are using a transpiler or a bundler (such as webpack, babel or typescript), un which case you should delegate hot-reloading to that instead.

Resource CloudFormation functions resolution

This plugin supports some resources resolution from the Ref, Fn::GetAtt and Fn::ImportValue functions in your yaml file. It also supports some other Cfn functions such as Fn::Join, Fb::Sub, etc.

Note: Under the hood, this features relies on the cfn-resolver-lib package. For more info on supported cfn functions, refer to the documentation

Basic usage

You can reference resources in your functions' environment variables (that will be accessible from your lambda functions) or datasource definitions. The plugin will automatically resolve them for you.

provider:
  environment:
    BUCKET_NAME:
      Ref: MyBucket # resolves to `my-bucket-name`

resources:
  Resources:
    MyDbTable:
      Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
      Properties:
        TableName: myTable
      ...
    MyBucket:
      Type: AWS::S3::Bucket
      Properties:
        BucketName: my-bucket-name
    ...

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_DYNAMODB
    name: dynamosource
    config:
      tableName:
        Ref: MyDbTable # resolves to `myTable`

Override (or mock) values

Sometimes, some references cannot be resolved, as they come from an Output from Cloudformation; or you might want to use mocked values in your local environment.

In those cases, you can define (or override) those values using the refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap options.

  • refMap takes a mapping of resource name to value pairs
  • getAttMap takes a mapping of resource name to attribute/values pairs
  • importValueMap takes a mapping of import name to values pairs

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    refMap:
      # Override `MyDbTable` resolution from the previous example.
      MyDbTable: 'mock-myTable'
    getAttMap:
      # define ElasticSearchInstance DomainName
      ElasticSearchInstance:
        DomainEndpoint: 'localhost:9200'
    importValueMap:
      other-service-api-url: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_ELASTICSEARCH
    name: elasticsource
    config:
      # endpoint resolves as 'http://localhost:9200'
      endpoint:
        Fn::Join:
          - ''
          - - https://
            - Fn::GetAtt:
                - ElasticSearchInstance
                - DomainEndpoint

Key-value mock notation

In some special cases you will need to use key-value mock nottation. Good example can be case when you need to include serverless stage value (${self:provider.stage}) in the import name.

This notation can be used with all mocks - refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap

provider:
  environment:
    FINISH_ACTIVITY_FUNCTION_ARN:
      Fn::ImportValue: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url

custom:
  serverless-appsync-simulator:
    importValueMap:
      - key: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url
        value: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

Limitations

This plugin only tries to resolve the following parts of the yml tree:

  • provider.environment
  • functions[*].environment
  • custom.appSync

If you have the need of resolving others, feel free to open an issue and explain your use case.

For now, the supported resources to be automatically resovled by Ref: are:

  • DynamoDb tables
  • S3 Buckets

Feel free to open a PR or an issue to extend them as well.

External functions

When a function is not defined withing the current serverless file you can still call it by providing an invoke url which should point to a REST method. Make sure you specify "get" or "post" for the method. Default is "get", but you probably want "post".

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    functions:
      addUser:
        url: http://localhost:3016/2015-03-31/functions/addUser/invocations
        method: post
      addPost:
        url: https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts
        method: post

Supported Resolver types

This plugin supports resolvers implemented by amplify-appsync-simulator, as well as custom resolvers.

From Aws Amplify:

  • NONE
  • AWS_LAMBDA
  • AMAZON_DYNAMODB
  • PIPELINE

Implemented by this plugin

  • AMAZON_ELASTIC_SEARCH
  • HTTP
  • RELATIONAL_DATABASE

Relational Database

Sample VTL for a create mutation

#set( $cols = [] )
#set( $vals = [] )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #set( $discard = $cols.add("$toSnake") )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($ctx.args.input[$entry]) )
      #if( $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("1") )
      #else
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("0") )
      #end
  #else
      #set( $discard = $vals.add("'$ctx.args.input[$entry]'") )
  #end
#end
#set( $valStr = $vals.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#set( $colStr = $cols.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#if ( $valStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $valStr = "($valStr)" )
#end
#if ( $colStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $colStr = "($colStr)" )
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["INSERT INTO <name-of-table> $colStr VALUES $valStr", "SELECT * FROM    <name-of-table> ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1"]
}

Sample VTL for an update mutation

#set( $update = "" )
#set( $equals = "=" )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $cur = $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($cur) )
      #if( $cur )
        #set ( $cur = "1" )
      #else
        #set ( $cur = "0" )
      #end
  #end
  #if ( $util.isNullOrEmpty($update) )
      #set($update = "$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #else
      #set($update = "$update,$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #end
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> SET $update WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id"]
}

Sample resolver for delete mutation

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=$ctx.args.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.id"]
}

Sample mutation response VTL with support for handling AWSDateTime

#set ( $index = -1)
#set ( $result = $util.parseJson($ctx.result) )
#set ( $meta = $result.sqlStatementResults[1].columnMetadata)
#foreach ($column in $meta)
    #set ($index = $index + 1)
    #if ( $column["typeName"] == "timestamptz" )
        #set ($time = $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index]["stringValue"] )
        #set ( $nowEpochMillis = $util.time.parseFormattedToEpochMilliSeconds("$time.substring(0,19)+0000", "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ssZ") )
        #set ( $isoDateTime = $util.time.epochMilliSecondsToISO8601($nowEpochMillis) )
        $util.qr( $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index].put("stringValue", "$isoDateTime") )
    #end
#end
#set ( $res = $util.parseJson($util.rds.toJsonString($util.toJson($result)))[1][0] )
#set ( $response = {} )
#foreach($mapKey in $res.keySet())
    #set ( $s = $mapKey.split("_") )
    #set ( $camelCase="" )
    #set ( $isFirst=true )
    #foreach($entry in $s)
        #if ( $isFirst )
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1) )
        #else
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1).toUpperCase() )
        #end
        #set ( $isFirst=false )
        #set ( $stringLength = $entry.length() )
        #set ( $remaining = $entry.substring(1, $stringLength) )
        #set ( $camelCase = "$camelCase$first$remaining" )
    #end
    $util.qr( $response.put("$camelCase", $res[$mapKey]) )
#end
$utils.toJson($response)

Using Variable Map

Variable map support is limited and does not differentiate numbers and strings data types, please inject them directly if needed.

Will be escaped properly: null, true, and false values.

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   [
    "UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=:ID",
    "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=:ID and unix_timestamp > $ctx.args.newerThan"
  ],
  variableMap: {
    ":ID": $ctx.args.id,
##    ":TIMESTAMP": $ctx.args.newerThan -- This will be handled as a string!!!
  }
}

Requires

Author: Serverless-appsync
Source Code: https://github.com/serverless-appsync/serverless-appsync-simulator 
License: MIT License

#serverless #sync #graphql 

Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami

1651319520

Serverless APIGateway Service Proxy

Serverless APIGateway Service Proxy

This Serverless Framework plugin supports the AWS service proxy integration feature of API Gateway. You can directly connect API Gateway to AWS services without Lambda.

Install

Run serverless plugin install in your Serverless project.

serverless plugin install -n serverless-apigateway-service-proxy

Supported AWS services

Here is a services list which this plugin supports for now. But will expand to other services in the feature. Please pull request if you are intersted in it.

  • Kinesis Streams
  • SQS
  • S3
  • SNS
  • DynamoDB
  • EventBridge

How to use

Define settings of the AWS services you want to integrate under custom > apiGatewayServiceProxies and run serverless deploy.

Kinesis

Sample syntax for Kinesis proxy in serverless.yml.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis: # partitionkey is set apigateway requestid by default
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        partitionKey: 'hardcordedkey' # use static partitionkey
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis/{myKey} # use path parameter
        method: post
        partitionKey:
          pathParam: myKey
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        partitionKey:
          bodyParam: data.myKey # use body parameter
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        partitionKey:
          queryStringParam: myKey # use query string param
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true
    - kinesis: # PutRecords
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        action: PutRecords
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    YourStream:
      Type: AWS::Kinesis::Stream
      Properties:
        ShardCount: 1

Sample request after deploying.

curl https://xxxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/kinesis -d '{"message": "some data"}'  -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

SQS

Sample syntax for SQS proxy in serverless.yml.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /sqs
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SQSQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    SQSQueue:
      Type: 'AWS::SQS::Queue'

Sample request after deploying.

curl https://xxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/sqs -d '{"message": "testtest"}' -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

Customizing request parameters

If you'd like to pass additional data to the integration request, you can do so by including your custom API Gateway request parameters in serverless.yml like so:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /queue
        method: post
        queueName: !GetAtt MyQueue.QueueName
        cors: true

        requestParameters:
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Name': "'cognitoIdentityId'"
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Value.StringValue': 'context.identity.cognitoIdentityId'
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Value.DataType': "'String'"
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.2.Name': "'cognitoAuthenticationProvider'"
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.2.Value.StringValue': 'context.identity.cognitoAuthenticationProvider'
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.2.Value.DataType': "'String'"

The alternative way to pass MessageAttribute parameters is via a request body mapping template.

Customizing request body mapping templates

See the SQS section under Customizing request body mapping templates

Customizing responses

Simplified response template customization

You can get a simple customization of the responses by providing a template for the possible responses. The template is assumed to be application/json.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /queue
        method: post
        queueName: !GetAtt MyQueue.QueueName
        cors: true
        response:
          template:
            # `success` is used when the integration response is 200
            success: |-
              { "message: "accepted" }
            # `clientError` is used when the integration response is 400
            clientError: |-
              { "message": "there is an error in your request" }
            # `serverError` is used when the integration response is 500
            serverError: |-
              { "message": "there was an error handling your request" }

Full response customization

If you want more control over the integration response, you can provide an array of objects for the response value:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /queue
        method: post
        queueName: !GetAtt MyQueue.QueueName
        cors: true
        response:
          - statusCode: 200
            selectionPattern: '2\\d{2}'
            responseParameters: {}
            responseTemplates:
              application/json: |-
                { "message": "accepted" }

The object keys correspond to the API Gateway integration response object.

S3

Sample syntax for S3 proxy in serverless.yml.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3
        method: post
        action: PutObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        key: static-key.json # use static key
        cors: true

    - s3:
        path: /s3/{myKey} # use path param
        method: get
        action: GetObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        key:
          pathParam: myKey
        cors: true

    - s3:
        path: /s3
        method: delete
        action: DeleteObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        key:
          queryStringParam: key # use query string param
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    S3Bucket:
      Type: 'AWS::S3::Bucket'

Sample request after deploying.

curl https://xxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/s3 -d '{"message": "testtest"}' -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

Customizing request parameters

Similar to the SQS support, you can customize the default request parameters serverless.yml like so:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3
        method: post
        action: PutObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        cors: true

        requestParameters:
          # if requestParameters has a 'integration.request.path.object' property you should remove the key setting
          'integration.request.path.object': 'context.requestId'
          'integration.request.header.cache-control': "'public, max-age=31536000, immutable'"

Customizing request templates

If you'd like use custom API Gateway request templates, you can do so like so:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3
        method: get
        action: GetObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        request:
          template:
            application/json: |
              #set ($specialStuff = $context.request.header.x-special)
              #set ($context.requestOverride.path.object = $specialStuff.replaceAll('_', '-'))
              {}

Note that if the client does not provide a Content-Type header in the request, ApiGateway defaults to application/json.

Customize the Path Override in API Gateway

Added the new customization parameter that lets the user set a custom Path Override in API Gateway other than the {bucket}/{object} This parameter is optional and if not set, will fall back to {bucket}/{object} The Path Override will add {bucket}/ automatically in front

Please keep in mind, that key or path.object still needs to be set at the moment (maybe this will be made optional later on with this)

Usage (With 2 Path Parameters (folder and file and a fixed file extension)):

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3/{folder}/{file}
        method: get
        action: GetObject
        pathOverride: '{folder}/{file}.xml'
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        cors: true

        requestParameters:
          # if requestParameters has a 'integration.request.path.object' property you should remove the key setting
          'integration.request.path.folder': 'method.request.path.folder'
          'integration.request.path.file': 'method.request.path.file'
          'integration.request.path.object': 'context.requestId'
          'integration.request.header.cache-control': "'public, max-age=31536000, immutable'"

This will result in API Gateway setting the Path Override attribute to {bucket}/{folder}/{file}.xml So for example if you navigate to the API Gatway endpoint /language/en it will fetch the file in S3 from {bucket}/language/en.xml

Can use greedy, for deeper Folders

The forementioned example can also be shortened by a greedy approach. Thanks to @taylorreece for mentioning this.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3/{myPath+}
        method: get
        action: GetObject
        pathOverride: '{myPath}.xml'
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        cors: true

        requestParameters:
          # if requestParameters has a 'integration.request.path.object' property you should remove the key setting
          'integration.request.path.myPath': 'method.request.path.myPath'
          'integration.request.path.object': 'context.requestId'
          'integration.request.header.cache-control': "'public, max-age=31536000, immutable'"

This will translate for example /s3/a/b/c to a/b/c.xml

Customizing responses

You can get a simple customization of the responses by providing a template for the possible responses. The template is assumed to be application/json.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - s3:
        path: /s3
        method: post
        action: PutObject
        bucket:
          Ref: S3Bucket
        key: static-key.json
        response:
          template:
            # `success` is used when the integration response is 200
            success: |-
              { "message: "accepted" }
            # `clientError` is used when the integration response is 400
            clientError: |-
              { "message": "there is an error in your request" }
            # `serverError` is used when the integration response is 500
            serverError: |-
              { "message": "there was an error handling your request" }

SNS

Sample syntax for SNS proxy in serverless.yml.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sns:
        path: /sns
        method: post
        topicName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SNSTopic', 'TopicName'] }
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    SNSTopic:
      Type: AWS::SNS::Topic

Sample request after deploying.

curl https://xxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/sns -d '{"message": "testtest"}' -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

Customizing responses

Simplified response template customization

You can get a simple customization of the responses by providing a template for the possible responses. The template is assumed to be application/json.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sns:
        path: /sns
        method: post
        topicName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SNSTopic', 'TopicName'] }
        cors: true
        response:
          template:
            # `success` is used when the integration response is 200
            success: |-
              { "message: "accepted" }
            # `clientError` is used when the integration response is 400
            clientError: |-
              { "message": "there is an error in your request" }
            # `serverError` is used when the integration response is 500
            serverError: |-
              { "message": "there was an error handling your request" }

Full response customization

If you want more control over the integration response, you can provide an array of objects for the response value:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sns:
        path: /sns
        method: post
        topicName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SNSTopic', 'TopicName'] }
        cors: true
        response:
          - statusCode: 200
            selectionPattern: '2\d{2}'
            responseParameters: {}
            responseTemplates:
              application/json: |-
                { "message": "accepted" }

The object keys correspond to the API Gateway integration response object.

Content Handling and Pass Through Behaviour customization

If you want to work with binary fata, you can not specify contentHandling and PassThrough inside the request object.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sns:
        path: /sns
        method: post
        topicName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SNSTopic', 'TopicName'] }
        request:
          contentHandling: CONVERT_TO_TEXT
          passThrough: WHEN_NO_TEMPLATES

The allowed values correspond with the API Gateway Method integration for ContentHandling and PassthroughBehavior

DynamoDB

Sample syntax for DynamoDB proxy in serverless.yml. Currently, the supported DynamoDB Operations are PutItem, GetItem and DeleteItem.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - dynamodb:
        path: /dynamodb/{id}/{sort}
        method: put
        tableName: { Ref: 'YourTable' }
        hashKey: # set pathParam or queryStringParam as a partitionkey.
          pathParam: id
          attributeType: S
        rangeKey: # required if also using sort key. set pathParam or queryStringParam.
          pathParam: sort
          attributeType: S
        action: PutItem # specify action to the table what you want
        condition: attribute_not_exists(Id) # optional Condition Expressions parameter for the table
        cors: true
    - dynamodb:
        path: /dynamodb
        method: get
        tableName: { Ref: 'YourTable' }
        hashKey:
          queryStringParam: id # use query string parameter
          attributeType: S
        rangeKey:
          queryStringParam: sort
          attributeType: S
        action: GetItem
        cors: true
    - dynamodb:
        path: /dynamodb/{id}
        method: delete
        tableName: { Ref: 'YourTable' }
        hashKey:
          pathParam: id
          attributeType: S
        action: DeleteItem
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    YourTable:
      Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
      Properties:
        TableName: YourTable
        AttributeDefinitions:
          - AttributeName: id
            AttributeType: S
          - AttributeName: sort
            AttributeType: S
        KeySchema:
          - AttributeName: id
            KeyType: HASH
          - AttributeName: sort
            KeyType: RANGE
        ProvisionedThroughput:
          ReadCapacityUnits: 1
          WriteCapacityUnits: 1

Sample request after deploying.

curl -XPUT https://xxxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/dynamodb/<hashKey>/<sortkey> \
 -d '{"name":{"S":"john"},"address":{"S":"xxxxx"}}' \
 -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

EventBridge

Sample syntax for EventBridge proxy in serverless.yml.

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - eventbridge:  # source and detailType are hardcoded; detail defaults to POST body
        path: /eventbridge
        method: post
        source: 'hardcoded_source'
        detailType: 'hardcoded_detailType'
        eventBusName: { Ref: 'YourBusName' }
        cors: true
    - eventbridge:  # source and detailType as path parameters
        path: /eventbridge/{detailTypeKey}/{sourceKey}
        method: post
        detailType:
          pathParam: detailTypeKey
        source:
          pathParam: sourceKey
        eventBusName: { Ref: 'YourBusName' }
        cors: true
    - eventbridge:  # source, detail, and detailType as body parameters
        path: /eventbridge/{detailTypeKey}/{sourceKey}
        method: post
        detailType:
          bodyParam: data.detailType
        source:
          bodyParam: data.source
        detail:
          bodyParam: data.detail
        eventBusName: { Ref: 'YourBusName' }
        cors: true

resources:
  Resources:
    YourBus:
      Type: AWS::Events::EventBus
      Properties:
        Name: YourEventBus

Sample request after deploying.

curl https://xxxxxxx.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/dev/eventbridge -d '{"message": "some data"}'  -H 'Content-Type:application/json'

Common API Gateway features

Enabling CORS

To set CORS configurations for your HTTP endpoints, simply modify your event configurations as follows:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors: true

Setting cors to true assumes a default configuration which is equivalent to:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors:
          origin: '*'
          headers:
            - Content-Type
            - X-Amz-Date
            - Authorization
            - X-Api-Key
            - X-Amz-Security-Token
            - X-Amz-User-Agent
          allowCredentials: false

Configuring the cors property sets Access-Control-Allow-Origin, Access-Control-Allow-Headers, Access-Control-Allow-Methods,Access-Control-Allow-Credentials headers in the CORS preflight response. To enable the Access-Control-Max-Age preflight response header, set the maxAge property in the cors object:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors:
          origin: '*'
          maxAge: 86400

If you are using CloudFront or another CDN for your API Gateway, you may want to setup a Cache-Control header to allow for OPTIONS request to be cached to avoid the additional hop.

To enable the Cache-Control header on preflight response, set the cacheControl property in the cors object:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'YourStream' }
        cors:
          origin: '*'
          headers:
            - Content-Type
            - X-Amz-Date
            - Authorization
            - X-Api-Key
            - X-Amz-Security-Token
            - X-Amz-User-Agent
          allowCredentials: false
          cacheControl: 'max-age=600, s-maxage=600, proxy-revalidate' # Caches on browser and proxy for 10 minutes and doesnt allow proxy to serve out of date content

Adding Authorization

You can pass in any supported authorization type:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /sqs
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SQSQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        cors: true

        # optional - defaults to 'NONE'
        authorizationType: 'AWS_IAM' # can be one of ['NONE', 'AWS_IAM', 'CUSTOM', 'COGNITO_USER_POOLS']

        # when using 'CUSTOM' authorization type, one should specify authorizerId
        # authorizerId: { Ref: 'AuthorizerLogicalId' }
        # when using 'COGNITO_USER_POOLS' authorization type, one can specify a list of authorization scopes
        # authorizationScopes: ['scope1','scope2']

resources:
  Resources:
    SQSQueue:
      Type: 'AWS::SQS::Queue'

Source: AWS::ApiGateway::Method docs

Enabling API Token Authentication

You can indicate whether the method requires clients to submit a valid API key using private flag:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /sqs
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SQSQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        cors: true
        private: true

resources:
  Resources:
    SQSQueue:
      Type: 'AWS::SQS::Queue'

which is the same syntax used in Serverless framework.

Source: Serverless: Setting API keys for your Rest API

Source: AWS::ApiGateway::Method docs

Using a Custom IAM Role

By default, the plugin will generate a role with the required permissions for each service type that is configured.

You can configure your own role by setting the roleArn attribute:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /sqs
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SQSQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        cors: true
        roleArn: # Optional. A default role is created when not configured
          Fn::GetAtt: [CustomS3Role, Arn]

resources:
  Resources:
    SQSQueue:
      Type: 'AWS::SQS::Queue'
    CustomS3Role:
      # Custom Role definition
      Type: 'AWS::IAM::Role'

Customizing API Gateway parameters

The plugin allows one to specify which parameters the API Gateway method accepts.

A common use case is to pass custom data to the integration request:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /sqs
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SqsQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        cors: true
        acceptParameters:
          'method.request.header.Custom-Header': true
        requestParameters:
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Name': "'custom-Header'"
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Value.StringValue': 'method.request.header.Custom-Header'
          'integration.request.querystring.MessageAttribute.1.Value.DataType': "'String'"
resources:
  Resources:
    SqsQueue:
      Type: 'AWS::SQS::Queue'

Any published SQS message will have the Custom-Header value added as a message attribute.

Customizing request body mapping templates

Kinesis

If you'd like to add content types or customize the default templates, you can do so by including your custom API Gateway request mapping template in serverless.yml like so:

# Required for using Fn::Sub
plugins:
  - serverless-cloudformation-sub-variables

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'MyStream' }
        request:
          template:
            text/plain:
              Fn::Sub:
                - |
                  #set($msgBody = $util.parseJson($input.body))
                  #set($msgId = $msgBody.MessageId)
                  {
                      "Data": "$util.base64Encode($input.body)",
                      "PartitionKey": "$msgId",
                      "StreamName": "#{MyStreamArn}"
                  }
                - MyStreamArn:
                    Fn::GetAtt: [MyStream, Arn]

It is important that the mapping template will return a valid application/json string

Source: How to connect SNS to Kinesis for cross-account delivery via API Gateway

SQS

Customizing SQS request templates requires us to force all requests to use an application/x-www-form-urlencoded style body. The plugin sets the Content-Type header to application/x-www-form-urlencoded for you, but API Gateway will still look for the template under the application/json request template type, so that is where you need to configure you request body in serverless.yml:

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - sqs:
        path: /{version}/event/receiver
        method: post
        queueName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SqsQueue', 'QueueName'] }
        request:
          template:
            application/json: |-
              #set ($body = $util.parseJson($input.body))
              Action=SendMessage##
              &MessageGroupId=$util.urlEncode($body.event_type)##
              &MessageDeduplicationId=$util.urlEncode($body.event_id)##
              &MessageAttribute.1.Name=$util.urlEncode("X-Custom-Signature")##
              &MessageAttribute.1.Value.DataType=String##
              &MessageAttribute.1.Value.StringValue=$util.urlEncode($input.params("X-Custom-Signature"))##
              &MessageBody=$util.urlEncode($input.body)

Note that the ## at the end of each line is an empty comment. In VTL this has the effect of stripping the newline from the end of the line (as it is commented out), which makes API Gateway read all the lines in the template as one line.

Be careful when mixing additional requestParameters into your SQS endpoint as you may overwrite the integration.request.header.Content-Type and stop the request template from being parsed correctly. You may also unintentionally create conflicts between parameters passed using requestParameters and those in your request template. Typically you should only use the request template if you need to manipulate the incoming request body in some way.

Your custom template must also set the Action and MessageBody parameters, as these will not be added for you by the plugin.

When using a custom request body, headers sent by a client will no longer be passed through to the SQS queue (PassthroughBehavior is automatically set to NEVER). You will need to pass through headers sent by the client explicitly in the request body. Also, any custom querystring parameters in the requestParameters array will be ignored. These also need to be added via the custom request body.

SNS

Similar to the Kinesis support, you can customize the default request mapping templates in serverless.yml like so:

# Required for using Fn::Sub
plugins:
  - serverless-cloudformation-sub-variables

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /sns
        method: post
        topicName: { 'Fn::GetAtt': ['SNSTopic', 'TopicName'] }
        request:
          template:
            application/json:
              Fn::Sub:
                - "Action=Publish&Message=$util.urlEncode('This is a fixed message')&TopicArn=$util.urlEncode('#{MyTopicArn}')"
                - MyTopicArn: { Ref: MyTopic }

It is important that the mapping template will return a valid application/x-www-form-urlencoded string

Source: Connect AWS API Gateway directly to SNS using a service integration

Custom response body mapping templates

You can customize the response body by providing mapping templates for success, server errors (5xx) and client errors (4xx).

Templates must be in JSON format. If a template isn't provided, the integration response will be returned as-is to the client.

Kinesis Example

custom:
  apiGatewayServiceProxies:
    - kinesis:
        path: /kinesis
        method: post
        streamName: { Ref: 'MyStream' }
        response:
          template:
            success: |
              {
                "success": true
              }
            serverError: |
              {
                "success": false,
                "errorMessage": "Server Error"
              }
            clientError: |
              {
                "success": false,
                "errorMessage": "Client Error"
              }

Author: Serverless-operations
Source Code: https://github.com/serverless-operations/serverless-apigateway-service-proxy 
License: 

#serverless #api #aws 

Lawson  Wehner

Lawson Wehner

1672833558

How to Use Bash Set Command

Bash has many environment variables for various purposes. The set command of Bash is used to modify or display the different attributes and parameters of the shell environment. This command has many options to perform the different types of tasks. The uses of set command for various purposes are described in this tutorial.

Syntax

set [options] [arguments]

This command can be used with different types of options and arguments for different purposes. If no option or argument is used with this command, the shell variables are printed. The minus sign (-) is used with the command’s option to enable that option and the plus sign (+) is used with the command’s option to disable that option.

Exit Values of Set Command

Three exit values can be returned by this command which are mentioned in the following:

  1. Zero (0) is returned to complete the task successfully.
  2. One (1) is returned if a failure occurs for any invalid argument.
  3. One (1) is returned if a failure occurs for a missing argument.

Different Options of Set Command

The purposes of the most commonly used options of the set command are described in this part of the tutorial.

OptionPurpose
-aIt defines those variables or functions which are created or modified or exported.
-bIt informs the job termination.
-BTo do the task of the brace expansion.
-CIt disables the overwriting feature of the existing file.
-eIt exits for non-zero exit status value.
-fIt disables the filename generation task.
-hIt saves the location of the command where it has been used.
-mIt enables job control.
-nIt reads the commands.
-tIt exits from the command after executing a single command.
-uIt traces the unset variables.
-vIt prints the shell input lines.
-xIt displays the commands and their attributes sequentially. It is mainly used to debug the script.

Different Examples of the Set Command

The uses of set command with different options are shown in this part of this tutorial.

Example 1: Using the Set Command with -a Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that enables the “set –a” command and initialize three variables named $v1, $v2, and $v3. These variables can be accessed after executing the script.

#!/bin/bash
#Enable -a option to read the values of the variables
set -a
#Initialize three variables
v1=78
v2=50
v3=35

Run the script using the following command:

$ bash set1.bash

Read the values of the variable using the “echo” command:

$ echo $v1 $v2 $v3

The following output appears after executing the previous commands:

Example 2: Using the Set Command with -C Option

Run the “cat” command to create a text file named testfile.txt. Next, run the “set –C” command to disable the overwriting feature. Next, run the “cat” command again to overwrite the file to check whether the overwriting feature is disabled or not.

$ cat > testfile.txt
$ set -C
$ cat > testfile.txt

The following output appears after executing the previous commands:

Example 3: Using the Set Command with -x Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that declares a numeric array of 6 elements. The values of the array are printed using for loop.

#!/bin/bash
#Declare an array
arr=(67 3 90 56 2 80)
#iterate the array values
for value in ${arr[@]}
do
   echo $value
done

Execute the previous script by the following command:

$ bash set3.bash

Enable the debugging option using the following command:

$ set -x

The following output appears after executing the provided commands:

Example 4: Using the Set Command with -e Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that reads a file using the “cat” command before and after using the “set –e” command.

#!/bin/bash
#Read a non-existing file without setting set -e
cat myfile.txt
echo "Reading a file..."
#Set the set command with -e option
set -e
#Read a non-existing file after setting set -e
cat myfile.txt
echo "Reading a file..."

The following output appears after executing the provided commands. The first error message is shown because the file does not exist in the current location. The next message is then printed. But after executing the “set –e” command, the execution stops after displaying the error message.

Example 5: Using the Set Command with -u Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that initializes a variable but prints the initialized and uninitialized variable before and after using the “set –u” command.

#!/bin/bash
#Assign value to a variable
strvar="Bash Programming"
printf "$strvar $intvar\n"
#Set the set command with -u option
set -u
#Assign value to a variable
strvar="Bash Programming"
printf "\n$strvar $intvar\n"

The following output appears after executing the previous script. Here, the error is printed for the uninitialized variable:

Example 6: Using the Set Command with -f Option

Run the following command to print the list of all text files of the current location:

$ ls *.txt

Run the following command to disable the globbing:

$ set –f

Run the following command again to print the list of all text files of the current location:

$ ls *.txt

The following output appears after executing the previous script. Based on the output, the “ls *.txt” command did not work after setting “set –f” command:

Example 7: Split the String Using the Set Command with Variable

Create a Bash file with the following script that splits the string value based on the space using the “set – variable” command. The split values are printed later.

#!/bin/bash
#Define a string variable
myvar="Learn bash programming"
#Set the set command without option and with variable
set -- $myvar
#Print the split value
printf "$1\n$2\n$3\n"

The following output appears after executing the previous script. The string value is divided into three parts based on the space that is printed:

Conclusion

The uses of the different options of the “set” command are shown in this tutorial using multiple examples to know the basic uses of this command.

Original article source at: https://linuxhint.com/

#bash #set #command 

Jamel  O'Reilly

Jamel O'Reilly

1655994660

A Beautiful Set Of Predefined Colors and Methods for iOS/OSX

Installation

Drag the included Colours.h and Colours.m files into your project. They are located in the top-level directory. You can see a demo of how to use these with the included Xcode project as well.

#import "Colours.h" into the classes you want to use this category in and you're all set.

CocoaPods

pod 'Colours'

or, for Swift:

pod 'Colours/Swift'

NSColor

Colours supports NSColor out of the box! Just make sure you have the AppKit framework installed (it comes that way for a new application) and you will be set. This README uses UIColor for its examples, just substitute NSColor and the methods are all the same.

Swift

A Swift version of Colours now exists that contains everything in the Obj-C version except:

  • Color Components Dictionary (use the tuples instead)
  • Sorting/Comparing Colors
  • Distance between Colors

Also, instead of dictionaries and arrays of color components, tuples are used instead. So instead of [someRedColor rgbaArray], you would use someRedColor.rgba() which gives you a tuple of four CGFloats like (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0). To get just the red value, you would write someRedColor.rgba().r.

Color Palette

infoBlueColorinfoBlueColorsuccessColorsuccessColorwarningColorwarningColor
dangerColordangerColorantiqueWhiteColorantiqueWhiteColoroldLaceColoroldLaceColor
ivoryColorivoryColorseashellColorseashellColorghostWhiteColorghostWhiteColor
snowColorsnowColorlinenColorlinenColorblack25PercentColorblack25PercentColor
black50PercentColorblack50PercentColorblack75PercentColorblack75PercentColorwarmGrayColorwarmGrayColor
coolGrayColorcoolGrayColorcharcoalColorcharcoalColortealColortealColor
steelBlueColorsteelBlueColorrobinEggColorrobinEggColorpastelBlueColorpastelBlueColor
turquoiseColorturquoiseColorskyBlueColorskyBlueColorindigoColorindigoColor
denimColordenimColorblueberryColorblueberryColorcornflowerColorcornflowerColor
babyBlueColorbabyBlueColormidnightBlueColormidnightBlueColorfadedBlueColorfadedBlueColor
icebergColoricebergColorwaveColorwaveColoremeraldColoremeraldColor
grassColorgrassColorpastelGreenColorpastelGreenColorseafoamColorseafoamColor
paleGreenColorpaleGreenColorcactusGreenColorcactusGreenColorchartreuseColorchartreuseColor
hollyGreenColorhollyGreenColoroliveColoroliveColoroliveDrabColoroliveDrabColor
moneyGreenColormoneyGreenColorhoneydewColorhoneydewColorlimeColorlimeColor
cardTableColorcardTableColorsalmonColorsalmonColorbrickRedColorbrickRedColor
easterPinkColoreasterPinkColorgrapefruitColorgrapefruitColorpinkColorpinkColor
indianRedColorindianRedColorstrawberryColorstrawberryColorcoralColorcoralColor
maroonColormaroonColorwatermelonColorwatermelonColortomatoColortomatoColor
pinkLipstickColorpinkLipstickColorpaleRoseColorpaleRoseColorcrimsonColorcrimsonColor
eggplantColoreggplantColorpastelPurpleColorpastelPurpleColorpalePurpleColorpalePurpleColor
coolPurpleColorcoolPurpleColorvioletColorvioletColorplumColorplumColor
lavenderColorlavenderColorraspberryColorraspberryColorfuschiaColorfuschiaColor
grapeColorgrapeColorperiwinkleColorperiwinkleColororchidColororchidColor
goldenrodColorgoldenrodColoryellowGreenColoryellowGreenColorbananaColorbananaColor
mustardColormustardColorbuttermilkColorbuttermilkColorgoldColorgoldColor
creamColorcreamColorlightCreamColorlightCreamColorwheatColorwheatColor
beigeColorbeigeColorpeachColorpeachColorburntOrangeColorburntOrangeColor
pastelOrangeColorpastelOrangeColorcantaloupeColorcantaloupeColorcarrotColorcarrotColor
mandarinColormandarinColorchiliPowderColorchiliPowderColorburntSiennaColorburntSiennaColor
chocolateColorchocolateColorcoffeeColorcoffeeColorcinnamonColorcinnamonColor
almondColoralmondColoreggshellColoreggshellColorsandColorsandColor
mudColormudColorsiennaColorsiennaColordustColordustColor

Using Predefined Colors

Colours was set up to be exactly like using an Apple predefined system color. For instance, to get a stark red, you type [UIColor redColor]. You don't get a lot of variation on this though without diving into the colorWithRed:green:blue:alpha: method and customizing the heck out of it. Well, I took the liberty of creating 100 colors to use in the same system color way that Apple uses with iOS. So instead of the redColor example earlier, just substitute one of the colors from the giant palette above, like so: [UIColor indigoColor].

Color Helper Methods

Beyond giving you a list of a ton of colors with no effort, this category also gives you some methods that allow different color manipulations and translations. Here's how you use these:

Hex String

You can convert the commonly seen hexadecimal color string (ahh, thank you CSS) to a UIColor, and vice versa, very easily using the following methods:

UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromHexString:@"#f587e4"];
NSString *hexString = [newColor hexString];

RGBA

RGBA Array to and from a UIColor

The color -> array method creates an array of 4 NSNumbers representing the RGBA values of the color. These are not in the 0-255 range, but rather normalized in the 0-1 range. So if your R is 230, then it will be represented in the array as 0.902.

NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] rgbaArray];
UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromRGBAArray:colorArray];

RGBA Dictionary to and from a UIColor

Similar to the array method above, this returns an NSDictionary that contains NSNumbers. Static keys are used to access the different color components of the dictionary. This allows you to use autocorrect to use the returned dictionary faster.

  • kColoursRGBA_R
  • kColoursRGBA_G
  • kColoursRGBA_B
  • kColoursRGBA_A
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] rgbaDictionary];
UIColor *newColor = [UIColor colorFromRGBADictionary:colorDict];

// You can also get a single component like so:
NSNumber *r = colorDict[kColoursRGBA_R];

HSBA

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the Hue, Saturation and Brightness values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursHSBA_H
  • kColoursHSBA_S
  • kColoursHSBA_B
  • kColoursHSBA_A
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] hsbaArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] hsbaDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromHSBAArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromHSBADictionary:colorDictionary];

CIELAB

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the CIE_Lightness, CIE_a and CIE_b values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursCIE_L
  • kColoursCIE_A
  • kColoursCIE_B
  • kColoursCIE_alpha
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] CIE_LabArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] CIE_LabDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromCIE_LabArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromCIE_LabDictionary:colorDictionary];

CMYK

Like both of the RGBA methods above, you can also get the CMYKY values from a UIColor and create an array or dictionary out of them, or vice versa. The colorDictionary returned also uses static keys like the RGBA version of this method. Here are the ones to use:

  • kColoursCMYK_C
  • kColoursCMYK_M
  • kColoursCMYK_Y
  • kColoursCMYK_K
NSArray *colorArray = [[UIColor seafoamColor] cmykArray];
NSDictionary *colorDict = [[UIColor seafoamColor] cmykDictionary];

UIColor *newColor1 = [UIColor colorFromCMYKArray:colorArray];
UIColor *newColor2 = [UIColor colorFromCMYKDictionary:colorDictionary];

Color Components

This method returns a dictionary containing values for each of the keys (RGBA, HSBA, CIE_LAB, CMYK) from above. This means you can get a hue value and a Lightness value from the same source. Here's how you use this:

NSDictionary *components = [someColor colorComponents];
CGFloat H = components[kColoursHSBA_H];
CGFloat L = components[kColoursCIE_L];

You can also retrieve singular values instead of the entire dictionary by calling any of these methods below on a UIColor. This will be significantly slower at getting all of the values for one color, versus just retrieving one. If you need more than one, call the specific array or dictionary method from above.

CGFloat R = [[UIColor tomatoColor] red];
CGFloat G = [[UIColor tomatoColor] green];
CGFloat B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] blue];
CGFloat H = [[UIColor tomatoColor] hue];
CGFloat S = [[UIColor tomatoColor] saturation];
CGFloat B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] brightness];
CGFloat CIE_L = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_Lightness];
CGFloat CIE_A = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_a];
CGFloat CIE_B = [[UIColor tomatoColor] CIE_b];
CGFloat alpha = [[UIColor tomatoColor] alpha];

Darken/Lighten Colors

You can darken or lighten a color by using these methods. The only parameter is a percentage float from 0 -> 1, so a 25% lighter color would use the parameter 0.25.

UIColor *lighterColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] lighten:0.25f];
UIColor *darkerColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] darken:0.25f];

Black or White Contrasting Color

A lot of times you may want to put text on top of a view that is a certain color, and you want to be sure that it will look good on top of it. With this method you will return either white or black, depending on the how well each of them contrast on top of it. Here's how you use this:

UIColor *contrastingColor = [[UIColor seafoamColor] blackOrWhiteContrastingColor];

Complementary Color

This method will create a UIColor instance that is the exact opposite color from another UIColor on the color wheel. The same saturation and brightness are preserved, just the hue is changed.

UIColor *complementary = [[UIColor seafoamColor] complementaryColor];

Distance between 2 Colors

5.1.0 +

Detecting a difference in two colors is not as trivial as it sounds. One's first instinct is to go for a difference in RGB values, leaving you with a sum of the differences of each point. It looks great! Until you actually start comparing colors. Why do these two reds have a different distance than these two blues in real life vs computationally? Human visual perception is next in the line of things between a color and your brain. Some colors are just perceived to have larger variants inside of their respective areas than others, so we need a way to model this human variable to colors. Enter CIELAB. This color formulation is supposed to be this model. So now we need to standardize a unit of distance between any two colors that works independent of how humans visually perceive that distance. Enter CIE76,94,2000. These are methods that use user-tested data and other mathematically and statistically significant correlations to output this info. You can read the wiki articles below to get a better understanding historically of how we moved to newer and better color distance formulas, and what their respective pros/cons are.

Finding Distance

CGFloat distance = [someColor distanceFromColor:someOtherColor type:ColorDistanceCIE94];
BOOL isNoticablySimilar = distance < threshold;

References

Generating Color Schemes

You can create a 5-color scheme based off of a UIColor using the following method. It takes in a UIColor and one of the ColorSchemeTypes defined in Colours. It returns an NSArray of 4 new UIColor objects to create a pretty nice color scheme that complements the root color you passed in.

NSArray *colorScheme = [color colorSchemeOfType:ColorSchemeType];

ColorSchemeTypes

  • ColorSchemeAnalagous
  • ColorSchemeMonochromatic
  • ColorSchemeTriad
  • ColorSchemeComplementary

Here are the different examples starting with a color scheme based off of [UIColor seafoamColor].

ColorSchemeAnalagous

Analagous

ColorSchemeMonochromatic

Monochromatic

ColorSchemeTriad

Triad

ColorSchemeComplementary

Complementary

Android

My friend, Matt York ported a version of this repository over to Android, so you can use these exact same colors and color methods in your Android apps as well. You can find it here: Colours for Android.

Xamarin

akamud has graciously ported this library as a Xamarin Android component, which can be found at https://github.com/akamud/Colours. An iOS Xamarin component is in the works as well.

Reap What I Sow!

This project is distributed under the standard MIT License. Please use this and twist it in whatever fashion you wish - and recommend any cool changes to help the code.

Author: bennyguitar
Source Code: https://github.com/bennyguitar/Colours
License: MIT license

#ios #swift 

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