Karim Aya

Karim Aya


Creating custom AngularJS directives for beginners

Directives are one of the most important concepts to understand Angular. This tutorial takes through the basics and beyond. We will cover how to build your own HTML extensions through directives.

Angular framework relies heavily on them to teach the browser new HTML tags. Directives are a powerful tool to create reusable web components. Directives not only could be defined as new HTML tags but also as attributes, CSS classes or even HTML comments. Angular comes with many built-in (core) directives that offer numerous functionalities to your web applications right away. Furthermore, it also allows us to define our own through custom directives. We are going to focus on the later.

Let’s say we want to create a new HTML component that the browsers doesn’t support yet, like a To-do list:

<my-todo list="todo" title="Angular Todo"></my-todo>

If you paste that code in any browser, it will not do much. We need to use Angular to teach the browser how to interpret this new HTML element called “my-todo”. We do this by defining a new directive with its attributes.

Let’s initialize our app and define our new directive:

Create a new file called “script.js”

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);

app.directive('myTodo', function(){
    return {
      restrict: 'EA',
      templateUrl: 'todo.tpl.html',
      scope: {
        list: '=',
        title: '@'

Don’t get scared if you don’t understand what’s going on right now. By the end of this tutorial, you will be able to know what each line is doing.

In the first line, we initialize an angular module called “myApp”. That will return an “app” instance where we can start defining our Angular app.

We start by adding a directive called “myTodo”, notice that is different from “my-todo” that we used in the HTML code above. That’s because, by convention in HTML, tags names words are separated by a hyphen like “my-todo”. On the other hand, in Angular they match the same element with words joint together and capitalizing the beginning of each word, except the first one “myTodo”. This style of joining words is known as “camelCase”.

You will notice that a directive, takes a name “myTodo” and function. The later returns an object with a number of attributes depending on what we would like to accomplish. In our case, we have three attributes: restrict, templateUrl, and scope. Let’s explain each one in that exact order.

1. Restrict

The “restrict” attribute tells Angular, with one letter, how are we going to create our new directive. It can take four different values ‘E’, ‘A’, ‘C’, ‘M’ or combination of them like ‘EA’. Each one has it’s own meaning:

Taking our To-do example, with the combined value ‘EA’, means that will match any element with our directive as an attribute, and also, it will match any element defined as “”

It is a good practice only to use restrict to either ‘E’ or ‘A’ or both. Classes ‘C’ and comments ‘M’ could be easily misinterpreted. That’s why we are using just EA.


Templates are just HTML code that could be reuse multiple times with different values or text. In order to be generic enough, they use placeholders tied to variables that could be easily replaced. Let’s create the “todo.tpl.html” with the following content:

<div ng-repeat="todo in list">
  <input type="checkbox" ng-model="todo.completed"> {{todo.name}}

Notice that our template contains placeholders with a variable such as Creating custom AngularJS directives for beginners, which is going, to be replaced by real title text. Similarly, is going to be replaced with a task name.

We just used our first built-in Angular directive, in this tutorial, “ng-repeat”. This directive is going to take an array of elements, like our list and repeat itself for each one of elements and refer to them as “todo”. In other words, if the list contains 4 tasks, we are going to see 4 checkboxes each one with the name of the individual tasks. We are going to explain where “title” and “list” comes in the next section.

Going back to our directive definition, we could have used “template” attribute instead of “templateUrl” and take inline html code directly, but often is hard to read and we would prefer to use “templateUrl” and defined as a separated file.

As you might figure it out, “templateUrl” takes the name of the file containing the template. If all templates and code are in the same directory just the name of the file will do. If they are in a different folder you will need to specify the full path to reach it. To keep it simple, we are going to have all files in a single directory.

3. Scope

Scopes are key concept to understand Angular. Scope is what glues JavaScript code with HTML and allow us to replace placeholders from templates with real values.

In our directive definition, we are creating a new “isolated scope” with two elements:

Isolated scope
scope: {
  list: '=',
  title: '@'

If you remember from our template, these are exactly the two placeholders that we had “title” and “list”. The symbols = and @ looks a little mysterious but they are not too cryptic once we know what they mean.

  • @ Implies that the value of the attribute with the same name in the HTML element will be passed as a string. For instance, , will replace Creating custom AngularJS directives for beginners in our template for “The Directive”.
  • = Binds to the value of the expression and to the literal value. This means that if we have an attribute list=“todo” and “todo” is equal to 5, then it will be replaced to 5 and not to the literal text “todo”. In our case, “todo” is going to be an array of tasks.

Bear in mind, that in Angular we can have multiple scopes. So, our directives could be influenced by outer scopes. For instance, another scope could define “todo” as an array of elements. Here is where we introduce another important concept: controllers.

4. Controllers

The main purpose of controllers is to set initial values the scope and also add behavior through functions. We are going to use a controller to define the “todo” list that we want to render with our newly created directive.

The way we create controllers is by attaching the controller to our Angular app instance. Let’s go back to script.js and append the following:

app.controller('main', function($scope){
  $scope.todo = [
    {name: 'Create a custom directive', completed: true},
    {name: 'Learn about restrict', completed: true},
    {name: 'Master scopes', completed: false}

Noticed that we defined our controller with the name “main” and pass along a function with the “$scope” parameter. This is important since, whatever we attach to the “$scope” variable it will become available in templates and other directives. We just defined our todo list as an array of objects with two properties name and completed.

5.To-do directive

So far, we have been preparing the grounds for our directive. We have created:

  • “myApp” module
  • “myTodo” directive
  • “todo.tpl.html” template
  • “main” controller

Now, is the time to put everything together and make it work!

Let’s create an index.html page with the following:

<!DOCTYPE html>

    <script data-require="angular.js@1.5.0" data-semver="1.5.0" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.5.0/angular.js"></script>
   <script src="script.js"></script>

  <body ng-app="myApp">

    <div ng-controller="main">
  <my-todo list="todo" title="Angular To-do"></my-todo>


We add the AngularJS library first and then initialize the app using the built-in directive “ng-app”. Notice that this must match to module that we created “myApp” or it won’t work.

Later, we reference our controller using another core directive called “ng-controller”. Similarly to ng-app, it also takes a value that should match the one we defined, in this case “main” controller. This main controller defines our “todo” as an array of tasks with names and whether they have been completed or not.

Finally, we start using our new directive! It takes two attributes the title and a list. If you remember, we defined a template inside the directive definition, so it knows how to render the content.

That’s all you need to make it work. Now try it!

6.Next steps

By now you should be looking at our new To-do list. We can reuse this new directive with new to-do lists as many times as we want. Just passing different values to “list” in our “my-todo” the browser will be able to render it for us. We can also define another controller with a different $scope.todo and our directive will respond accordantly.

We just walked through the main attributes to create directives and discuss how to use them. We learnt how to isolate the scope of our directive and just allow certain parameters into our templates such as “list” and “title”. Also, used the “restrict” attribute to allow our directive be created either as a new HTML element or as an attribute. Finally, we explore how to use templates and bind it with our scope variables.


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Creating custom AngularJS directives for beginners
Easter  Deckow

Easter Deckow


PyTumblr: A Python Tumblr API v2 Client



Install via pip:

$ pip install pytumblr

Install from source:

$ git clone https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr.git
$ cd pytumblr
$ python setup.py install


Create a client

A pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:

client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient(

client.info() # Grabs the current user information

Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:

  1. The built-in interactive_console.py tool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
  2. The Tumblr API console at https://api.tumblr.com/console
  3. Get sample login code at https://api.tumblr.com/console/calls/user/info

Supported Methods

User Methods

client.info() # get information about the authenticating user
client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user
client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user
client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user

client.follow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # follow a blog
client.unfollow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # unfollow a blog

client.like(id, reblogkey) # like a post
client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post

Blog Methods

client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog
client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog
client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog
client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog
client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog
client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows
client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog
client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog

Post Methods

Creating posts

PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.

The default supported types are described below.

  • state - a string, the state of the post. Supported types are published, draft, queue, private
  • tags - a list, a list of strings that you want tagged on the post. eg: ["testing", "magic", "1"]
  • tweet - a string, the string of the customized tweet you want. eg: "Man I love my mega awesome post!"
  • date - a string, the customized GMT that you want
  • format - a string, the format that your post is in. Support types are html or markdown
  • slug - a string, the slug for the url of the post you want

We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.

Creating a photo post

Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload

#Creates a photo post using a source URL
client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"],

#Creates a photo post using a local filepath
client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]",

#Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths
client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown",
                    data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"],
                    caption="## Mega sweet kittens")

Creating a text post

Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html

#Creating a text post
client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")

Creating a quote post

Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported

#Creating a quote post
client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")

Creating a link post

  • title - a string, the title of post that you want. Supports HTML entities.
  • url - a string, the url that you want to create a link post for.
  • description - a string, the desciption of the link that you have
#Create a link post
client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="https://duckduckgo.com",
                   description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")

Creating a chat post

Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)

#Create a chat post
chat = """John: Testing can be fun!
Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you.
John: Aw.
client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])

Creating an audio post

Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr

#Creating an audio file
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3")

#lets use soundcloud!
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="https://soundcloud.com/skrillex/sets/recess")

Creating a video post

Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload

#Creating an upload from YouTube
client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.",

#Creating a video post from local file
client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/blah.mov")

Editing a post

Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.

client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated")
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")

Reblogging a Post

Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.

client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")

Deleting a post

Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id

client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(

A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):

client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)

Getting notes for a post

In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')

The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])

Tagged Methods

# get posts with a given tag
client.tagged(tag, **params)

Using the interactive console

This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).

You'll need pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:

$ python interactive-console.py

and away you go! Tokens are stored in ~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.

Running tests

The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:

python setup.py test

Author: tumblr
Source Code: https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr
License: Apache-2.0 license

#python #api 

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Shubham Ankit

Shubham Ankit


How to Automate Excel with Python | Python Excel Tutorial (OpenPyXL)

How to Automate Excel with Python

In this article, We will show how we can use python to automate Excel . A useful Python library is Openpyxl which we will learn to do Excel Automation


Openpyxl is a Python library that is used to read from an Excel file or write to an Excel file. Data scientists use Openpyxl for data analysis, data copying, data mining, drawing charts, styling sheets, adding formulas, and more.

Workbook: A spreadsheet is represented as a workbook in openpyxl. A workbook consists of one or more sheets.

Sheet: A sheet is a single page composed of cells for organizing data.

Cell: The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. Usually represented by A1, B5, etc.

Row: A row is a horizontal line represented by a number (1,2, etc.).

Column: A column is a vertical line represented by a capital letter (A, B, etc.).

Openpyxl can be installed using the pip command and it is recommended to install it in a virtual environment.

pip install openpyxl


We start by creating a new spreadsheet, which is called a workbook in Openpyxl. We import the workbook module from Openpyxl and use the function Workbook() which creates a new workbook.

from openpyxl
import Workbook
#creates a new workbook
wb = Workbook()
#Gets the first active worksheet
ws = wb.active
#creating new worksheets by using the create_sheet method

ws1 = wb.create_sheet("sheet1", 0) #inserts at first position
ws2 = wb.create_sheet("sheet2") #inserts at last position
ws3 = wb.create_sheet("sheet3", -1) #inserts at penultimate position

#Renaming the sheet
ws.title = "Example"

#save the workbook
wb.save(filename = "example.xlsx")


We load the file using the function load_Workbook() which takes the filename as an argument. The file must be saved in the same working directory.

#loading a workbook
wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")




#getting sheet names
result = ['sheet1', 'Sheet', 'sheet3', 'sheet2']

#getting a particular sheet
sheet1 = wb["sheet2"]

#getting sheet title
result = 'sheet2'

#Getting the active sheet
sheetactive = wb.active
result = 'sheet1'




#get a cell from the sheet
sheet1["A1"] <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A1 >

  #get the cell value
ws["A1"].value 'Segment'

#accessing cell using row and column and assigning a value
d = ws.cell(row = 4, column = 2, value = 10)




#looping through each row and column
for x in range(1, 5):
  for y in range(1, 5):
  print(x, y, ws.cell(row = x, column = y)

#getting the highest row number

#getting the highest column number

There are two functions for iterating through rows and columns.

Iter_rows() => returns the rows
Iter_cols() => returns the columns {
  min_row = 4, max_row = 5, min_col = 2, max_col = 5
} => This can be used to set the boundaries
for any iteration.


#iterating rows
for row in ws.iter_rows(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in row:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

  #iterating columns
for col in ws.iter_cols(min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 3):
  for cell in col:
  print(cell) <
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.A3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.B3 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C2 >
  Cell 'Sheet1'.C3 >

To get all the rows of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.rows and to get all the columns of the worksheet we use the method worksheet.columns. Similarly, to iterate only through the values we use the method worksheet.values.


for row in ws.values:
  for value in row:



Writing to a workbook can be done in many ways such as adding a formula, adding charts, images, updating cell values, inserting rows and columns, etc… We will discuss each of these with an example.




#creates a new workbook
wb = openpyxl.Workbook()

#saving the workbook




#creating a new sheet
ws1 = wb.create_sheet(title = "sheet 2")

#creating a new sheet at index 0
ws2 = wb.create_sheet(index = 0, title = "sheet 0")

#checking the sheet names
wb.sheetnames['sheet 0', 'Sheet', 'sheet 2']

#deleting a sheet
del wb['sheet 0']

#checking sheetnames
wb.sheetnames['Sheet', 'sheet 2']




#checking the sheet value

#adding value to cell
ws['B2'] = 367

#checking value




We often require formulas to be included in our Excel datasheet. We can easily add formulas using the Openpyxl module just like you add values to a cell.

For example:

import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']

ws['A9'] = '=SUM(A2:A8)'


The above program will add the formula (=SUM(A2:A8)) in cell A9. The result will be as below.




Two or more cells can be merged to a rectangular area using the method merge_cells(), and similarly, they can be unmerged using the method unmerge_cells().

For example:
Merge cells

#merge cells B2 to C9
ws['B2'] = "Merged cells"

Adding the above code to the previous example will merge cells as below.




#unmerge cells B2 to C9

The above code will unmerge cells from B2 to C9.


To insert an image we import the image function from the module openpyxl.drawing.image. We then load our image and add it to the cell as shown in the below example.


import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.drawing.image
import Image

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("new1.xlsx")
ws = wb['Sheet']
#loading the image(should be in same folder)
img = Image('logo.png')
ws['A1'] = "Adding image"
#adjusting size
img.height = 130
img.width = 200
#adding img to cell A3

ws.add_image(img, 'A3')





Charts are essential to show a visualization of data. We can create charts from Excel data using the Openpyxl module chart. Different forms of charts such as line charts, bar charts, 3D line charts, etc., can be created. We need to create a reference that contains the data to be used for the chart, which is nothing but a selection of cells (rows and columns). I am using sample data to create a 3D bar chart in the below example:


import openpyxl
from openpyxl
import Workbook
from openpyxl.chart
import BarChart3D, Reference, series

wb = openpyxl.load_workbook("example.xlsx")
ws = wb.active

values = Reference(ws, min_col = 3, min_row = 2, max_col = 3, max_row = 40)
chart = BarChart3D()
ws.add_chart(chart, "E3")


How to Automate Excel with Python with Video Tutorial

Welcome to another video! In this video, We will cover how we can use python to automate Excel. I'll be going over everything from creating workbooks to accessing individual cells and stylizing cells. There is a ton of things that you can do with Excel but I'll just be covering the core/base things in OpenPyXl.

⭐️ Timestamps ⭐️
00:00 | Introduction
02:14 | Installing openpyxl
03:19 | Testing Installation
04:25 | Loading an Existing Workbook
06:46 | Accessing Worksheets
07:37 | Accessing Cell Values
08:58 | Saving Workbooks
09:52 | Creating, Listing and Changing Sheets
11:50 | Creating a New Workbook
12:39 | Adding/Appending Rows
14:26 | Accessing Multiple Cells
20:46 | Merging Cells
22:27 | Inserting and Deleting Rows
23:35 | Inserting and Deleting Columns
24:48 | Copying and Moving Cells
26:06 | Practical Example, Formulas & Cell Styling

📄 Resources 📄
OpenPyXL Docs: https://openpyxl.readthedocs.io/en/stable/ 
Code Written in This Tutorial: https://github.com/techwithtim/ExcelPythonTutorial 
Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/TechWithTim/featured 


Laravel 8 Create Custom Helper Function Example

Today, We will see laravel 8 create custom helper function example, as we all know laravel provides many ready mate function in their framework, but many times we need to require our own customized function to use in our project that time we need to create custom helper function, So, here i am show you custom helper function example in laravel 8.

Laravel 8 Create Custom Helper Function Example


Read Also : Cron Job Scheduling In Laravel


#laravel 8 create custom helper function example #laravel #custom helper function #how to create custom helper in laravel 8 #laravel helper functions #custom helper functions in laravel

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