Gmi Research

1637316377

Private Cloud Server Market Analysis and By Region – Global Opportunit

Global Private Cloud Server Market

The GMI Research report presents that the Private Cloud Server Market will encounter a robust growth over the forecast period. This is because of the ongoing technological modernisations and mounting energy consumption.

Request a FREE sample of Global Private Cloud Server Market

 

Private Cloud Server Market Dynamics

The rapid expansion in the IT sector and the sudden drift of business organisations towards cloud infrastructure as an economical solution to decrease IT and infrastructural cost for installation of physical server is a prime reason contributing to the growth of the global Private Cloud Server Market. It proffers remarkable advantages, such as robust safety level, real-time and faster data access, multiple interrelated networks, cost cutting, prompt resource allocation, and internationally linked servers. Further, as per the Global Private Cloud Server Market Outlook, the surging espousal of bring your own device,, rising usage of a mobile workforce, and technological innovations concerned with the firewalls, threat supervision, and space accessibility will proffer remarkable opportunities for the market growth. The market growth is also driven by their remarkable benefits to enterprises by operating their IT systems in a private cloud environment. However, the stationing, control, and support of private cloud is relatively costly and time demanding than the public cloud service. Also, the private clouds are more costly than public clouds, which will further restrain the global Private Cloud Server market size.

Regional Drivers

The North America region is anticipated to dominate the growth of the market over the forecast period. This is due to the fast economic enhancement and increasing espousal of cloud computing technologies for actual data availability among business organisations across several industry verticals which include banking, IT, defence, and retail. The Asia-Pacific region is contemplated to witness a faster rate over the forecast period. This is primarily because of the rapid industrialisation and accelerating number of SMEs. Moreover, the increasing espousal of cloud based services and Bring Your Own Device trend in the emerging economies which include, Japan, China, India, and South Korea will drive the global Private Cloud Server market growth.

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Media Contact
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Private Cloud Server Market Analysis and By Region – Global Opportunit
Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas

1594162500

Multi-cloud Spending: 8 Tips To Lower Cost

A multi-cloud approach is nothing but leveraging two or more cloud platforms for meeting the various business requirements of an enterprise. The multi-cloud IT environment incorporates different clouds from multiple vendors and negates the dependence on a single public cloud service provider. Thus enterprises can choose specific services from multiple public clouds and reap the benefits of each.

Given its affordability and agility, most enterprises opt for a multi-cloud approach in cloud computing now. A 2018 survey on the public cloud services market points out that 81% of the respondents use services from two or more providers. Subsequently, the cloud computing services market has reported incredible growth in recent times. The worldwide public cloud services market is all set to reach $500 billion in the next four years, according to IDC.

By choosing multi-cloud solutions strategically, enterprises can optimize the benefits of cloud computing and aim for some key competitive advantages. They can avoid the lengthy and cumbersome processes involved in buying, installing and testing high-priced systems. The IaaS and PaaS solutions have become a windfall for the enterprise’s budget as it does not incur huge up-front capital expenditure.

However, cost optimization is still a challenge while facilitating a multi-cloud environment and a large number of enterprises end up overpaying with or without realizing it. The below-mentioned tips would help you ensure the money is spent wisely on cloud computing services.

  • Deactivate underused or unattached resources

Most organizations tend to get wrong with simple things which turn out to be the root cause for needless spending and resource wastage. The first step to cost optimization in your cloud strategy is to identify underutilized resources that you have been paying for.

Enterprises often continue to pay for resources that have been purchased earlier but are no longer useful. Identifying such unused and unattached resources and deactivating it on a regular basis brings you one step closer to cost optimization. If needed, you can deploy automated cloud management tools that are largely helpful in providing the analytics needed to optimize the cloud spending and cut costs on an ongoing basis.

  • Figure out idle instances

Another key cost optimization strategy is to identify the idle computing instances and consolidate them into fewer instances. An idle computing instance may require a CPU utilization level of 1-5%, but you may be billed by the service provider for 100% for the same instance.

Every enterprise will have such non-production instances that constitute unnecessary storage space and lead to overpaying. Re-evaluating your resource allocations regularly and removing unnecessary storage may help you save money significantly. Resource allocation is not only a matter of CPU and memory but also it is linked to the storage, network, and various other factors.

  • Deploy monitoring mechanisms

The key to efficient cost reduction in cloud computing technology lies in proactive monitoring. A comprehensive view of the cloud usage helps enterprises to monitor and minimize unnecessary spending. You can make use of various mechanisms for monitoring computing demand.

For instance, you can use a heatmap to understand the highs and lows in computing visually. This heat map indicates the start and stop times which in turn lead to reduced costs. You can also deploy automated tools that help organizations to schedule instances to start and stop. By following a heatmap, you can understand whether it is safe to shut down servers on holidays or weekends.

#cloud computing services #all #hybrid cloud #cloud #multi-cloud strategy #cloud spend #multi-cloud spending #multi cloud adoption #why multi cloud #multi cloud trends #multi cloud companies #multi cloud research #multi cloud market

藤本  結衣

藤本 結衣

1633367280

単純な挿入MYSQLデータベースを使用したASP.NETでの更新と削除の選択

この記事では、ASP.NET WebアプリケーションからMySQLデータベースにデータの選択、更新、および削除を挿入する方法について説明します。

それでは、次の手順に進みましょう。

  • ASP.NETWebページ
  • グリッドビューデータコントロールとMySQLデータベース

次に、MySQLAdminページを開き、[Create A New Table]-> [View]-> [Table Structure for Table`student`]を選択します。

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `student` (  
 `SID` int(100) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,  
 `Name` varchar(100) NOT NULL,  
 `Address` varchar(500) NOT NULL,  
 `Email` varchar(100) NOT NULL,  
 `Mobile` varchar(25) NOT NULL,  
 PRIMARY KEY (`SID`)  
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 AUTO_INCREMENT=31 ; 



Visual Studio 2012のインスタンスを開き、新しいASP.NETWebアプリケーションを作成します。次の図に示すように、プロジェクトに「MYSQLCRUDApplication」という名前を付け



ます。コードビハインドファイル(Student.aspx.cs)に、次のようにコードを記述します

Student.aspx 

<%@ Page Title="" Language="C#" MasterPageFile="~/Site.Master" AutoEventWireup="true"  
CodeBehind="Student.aspx.cs" Inherits="MYSQLCRUDApplication.Student" %>  
  
<asp:Content ID="Content1" ContentPlaceHolderID="titleContent" runat="server">  
    Simple Insert Select Update and Delete in ASP.NET using MySQL Database   
</asp:Content>  
<asp:Content ID="Content2" ContentPlaceHolderID="head" runat="server">  
</asp:Content>  
<asp:Content ID="Content3" ContentPlaceHolderID="MainContent" runat="server">  
    <table>  
        <tr>  
            <td class="td">Name:</td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:TextBox ID="txtName" runat="server"></asp:TextBox></td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:Label ID="lblSID" runat="server" Visible="false"></asp:Label> </td>  
        </tr>  
        <tr>  
            <td class="td">Address:</td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:TextBox ID="txtAddress" runat="server"></asp:TextBox></td>  
            <td> </td>  
        </tr>  
        <tr>  
            <td class="td">Mobile:</td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:TextBox ID="txtMobile" runat="server"></asp:TextBox></td>  
            <td> </td>  
        </tr>  
        <tr>  
            <td class="td">Email ID:</td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:TextBox ID="txtEmail" runat="server"></asp:TextBox></td>  
            <td> </td>  
        </tr>  
        <tr>  
            <td></td>  
            <td>  
                <asp:Button ID="btnSubmit" runat="server" Text="Submit" OnClick="btnSubmit_Click" />  
                <asp:Button ID="btnUpdate" runat="server" Text="Update" Visible="false"  
OnClick="btnUpdate_Click" />  
                <asp:Button ID="btnCancel" runat="server" Text="Cancel" OnClick="btnCancel_Click" /></td>  
            <td></td>  
        </tr>  
    </table>  
  
    <div style="padding: 10px; margin: 0px; width: 100%;">  
        <p>  
            Total Student:<asp:Label ID="lbltotalcount" runat="server" Font-Bold="true"></asp:Label>  
        </p>  
        <asp:GridView ID="GridViewStudent" runat="server" DataKeyNames="SID"   
            OnSelectedIndexChanged="GridViewStudent_SelectedIndexChanged"  
OnRowDeleting="GridViewStudent_RowDeleting">  
            <Columns>  
                <asp:CommandField HeaderText="Update" ShowSelectButton="True" />  
                <asp:CommandField HeaderText="Delete" ShowDeleteButton="True" />  
            </Columns>  
        </asp:GridView>  
    </div>  
</asp:Content>  

Web.configファイルで、次のように接続文字列を作成します。

Web.config 

<connectionStrings>  
    <add name="ConnectionString"  
connectionString="Server=localhost;userid=root;password=;Database=Testdb"  
providerName="MySql.Data.MySqlClient"/>  
 </connectionStrings>  

ここで、コードビハインドファイル「Student.aspx.cs」で次のコードを使用します。

Student.aspx.cs 

using System;  
using System.Collections.Generic;  
using System.Configuration;  
using System.Data;  
using System.Linq;  
using System.Web;  
using System.Web.UI;  
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;  
using MySql.Data.MySqlClient;  
  
  
namespace MYSQLCRUDApplication  
{  
    public partial class Student : System.Web.UI.Page  
    {  
        #region MySqlConnection Connection and Page Lode  
        MySqlConnection conn = new  
MySqlConnection(ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["ConnectionString"].ConnectionString);          
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)  
        {  
            Try  
            {  
                if (!Page.IsPostBack)  
                {  
                    BindGridView();  
                      
                }  
            }  
            catch (Exception ex)  
            {  
                ShowMessage(ex.Message);  
            }  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region show message  
        /// <summary>  
        /// This function is used for show message.  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="msg"></param>  
        void ShowMessage(string msg)  
        {  
            ClientScript.RegisterStartupScript(Page.GetType(), "validation", "<script  
language='javascript'>alert('" + msg + "');</script>");  
        }  
        /// <summary>  
        /// This Function is used TextBox Empty.  
        /// </summary>  
        void clear()  
        {  
            txtName.Text = string.Empty; txtAddress.Text = string.Empty; txtMobile.Text = string.Empty;  
txtEmail.Text = string.Empty;  
            txtName.Focus();  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region bind data to GridViewStudent  
        private void BindGridView()  
        {   
            Try  
            {  
                if (conn.State == ConnectionState.Closed)  
                {  
                    conn.Open();  
                }  
                MySqlCommand cmd = new MySqlCommand("Select * from Student ORDER BY SID DESC;",  
conn);  
                MySqlDataAdapter adp = new MySqlDataAdapter(cmd);  
                DataSet ds = new DataSet();  
                adp.Fill(ds);  
                GridViewStudent.DataSource = ds;  
                GridViewStudent.DataBind();  
                lbltotalcount.Text = GridViewStudent.Rows.Count.ToString();  
            }  
            catch (MySqlException ex)  
            {  
                ShowMessage(ex.Message);  
            }  
            Finally  
            {  
                if (conn.State == ConnectionState.Open)  
                {  
                   conn.Close();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region Insert Data  
        /// <summary>  
        /// this code used to Student Data insert in MYSQL Database  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="sender"></param>  
        /// <param name="e"></param>  
        protected void btnSubmit_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)  
        {  
            Try  
            {  
                conn.Open();  
                MySqlCommand cmd = new MySqlCommand("Insert into student (Name,Address,Mobile,Email )  
values (@Name,@Address,@Mobile,@Email)", conn);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Name",txtName.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Address", txtAddress.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Mobile",txtMobile.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Email",txtEmail.Text);  
                cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();                 
                cmd.Dispose();   
                ShowMessage("Registered successfully......!");               
                clear();  
                BindGridView();  
            }  
            catch (MySqlException ex)  
            {  
                ShowMessage(ex.Message);  
            }  
            Finally  
            {  
                conn.Close();  
            }  
        }  
          
        #endregion   
        #region SelectedIndexChanged  
        /// <summary>  
        /// this code used to GridViewRow SelectedIndexChanged value show textbox  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="sender"></param>  
        /// <param name="e"></param>  
        protected void GridViewStudent_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)  
        {  
            GridViewRow row = GridViewStudent.SelectedRow;  
            lblSID.Text = row.Cells[2].Text;  
            txtName.Text = row.Cells[3].Text;  
            txtAddress.Text = row.Cells[4].Text;  
            txtEmail.Text = row.Cells[5].Text;  
            txtMobile.Text = row.Cells[6].Text;  
            btnSubmit.Visible = false;  
            btnUpdate.Visible = true;  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region Delete Student Data  
        /// <summary>  
        /// This code used to GridViewStudent_RowDeleting Student Data Delete  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="sender"></param>  
        /// <param name="e"></param>  
        protected void GridViewStudent_RowDeleting(object sender, GridViewDeleteEventArgs e)  
        {  
            Try  
            {  
                conn.Open();  
                int SID = Convert.ToInt32(GridViewStudent.DataKeys[e.RowIndex].Value);  
                MySqlCommand cmd = new MySqlCommand("Delete From student where SID='" + SID + "'",  
conn);  
                cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();  
                cmd.Dispose();  
                ShowMessage("Student Data Delete Successfully......!");  
                GridViewStudent.EditIndex = -1;  
                BindGridView();  
            }  
            catch (MySqlException ex)  
            {  
                ShowMessage(ex.Message);  
            }  
            Finally  
            {  
                conn.Close();  
            }  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region student data update  
        /// <summary>  
        /// This code used to student data update  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="sender"></param>  
       /// <param name="e"></param>  
        protected void btnUpdate_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)  
        {  
            Try  
            {  
                conn.Open();  
                string SID = lblSID.Text;                
                MySqlCommand cmd = new MySqlCommand("update student Set  
Name=@Name,Address=@Address,Mobile=@Mobile,Email=@Email where SID=@SID", conn);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Name", txtName.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Address", txtAddress.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Mobile", txtMobile.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Email", txtEmail.Text);  
                cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("SID",SID);  
                cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();  
                cmd.Dispose();  
                ShowMessage("Student Data update Successfully......!");  
                GridViewStudent.EditIndex = -1;  
                BindGridView(); btnUpdate.Visible = false;  
            }  
            catch (MySqlException ex)  
            {  
                ShowMessage(ex.Message);  
            }  
            Finally  
            {  
                conn.Close();  
            }  
        }  
        #endregion  
        #region textbox clear  
        protected void btnCancel_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)  
        {  
            clear();  
        }  
        #endregion  
    }  
}   

ページを実行すると、次のようになります。



次に、学生データの挿入とグリッドビューのデータの表示を入力します。メッセージボックス「正常に登録されました」。



次に、Studentを選択し、データTextBoxを表示して、メッセージボックス「StudentDataupdatesuccessfully」に表示されているデータを更新します。



ここで、メッセージボックス「StudentDataDeleteSuccessfully」に表示されているStudentデータを削除します。



この記事がお役に立てば幸いです。他にご不明な点がございましたら、以下にコメントをお寄せください。

リンク: https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/

#aspdotnet #sql 

Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas

1594166040

What are the benefits of cloud migration? Reasons you should migrate

The moving of applications, databases and other business elements from the local server to the cloud server called cloud migration. This article will deal with migration techniques, requirement and the benefits of cloud migration.

In simple terms, moving from local to the public cloud server is called cloud migration. Gartner says 17.5% revenue growth as promised in cloud migration and also has a forecast for 2022 as shown in the following image.

#cloud computing services #cloud migration #all #cloud #cloud migration strategy #enterprise cloud migration strategy #business benefits of cloud migration #key benefits of cloud migration #benefits of cloud migration #types of cloud migration

Daniel  Hughes

Daniel Hughes

1649214000

LaravelS: Glue for using Swoole in Laravel Or Lumen.

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

中文文档

Table of Contents

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5292,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestUdpSocket::class,
    ],
],
  • Http
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5293,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestHttp::class,
    ],
],
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5294,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol'      => true,
            'open_websocket_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestWebSocket::class,
    ],
],

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

  1. Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.
// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],
  1. Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.
// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Route::get('/debug-memory-leak', function () {
    global $previous;
    $current = memory_get_usage();
    $stats = [
        'prev_mem' => $previous,
        'curr_mem' => $current,
        'diff_mem' => $current - $previous,
    ];
    $previous = $current;
    return $stats;
});

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test


Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s
License: MIT License

#laravel #php 

藤本  結衣

藤本 結衣

1633175520

C#のTreeViewコントロール

TreeViewの紹介

これは、TreeViewコントロールの操作の基本のいくつかを取り上げた短い記事です。この記事では、TreeNodeをTreeViewコントロールに動的に追加し、ノードを検索して、TreeNodeのタグ、テキスト、または名前のプロパティに対して検索語に一致する単一のノードまたはノードのコレクションを見つけて強調表示し、手動またはプログラムでノードを選択する方法について説明します。

Image1.jpg

図1:TextプロパティによるTreeViewコントロールの検索。

Image2.jpg

図2:NameプロパティによるTreeViewコントロールの検索。

Image3.jpg

図3:NameプロパティによるTreeViewコントロールの検索。

Image4.jpg

図4:特定のプロパティを持つノードの作成。

TreeViewアプリケーション

アプリケーションソリューションには、単一のWindowsアプリケーションプロジェクトが含まれています。このプロジェクトをサポートするために提供されるすべてのコードは、2つのフォームクラスに含まれています。1つは、TreeViewと、ノード情報を表示し(図1、2、および3)、ユーザー指定の検索用語に基づいて特定のノードまたはノードのグループの検索を実行するために使用されるいくつかのコントロールを含むメインフォームです。もう1つのフォームクラス(図4)は、新しいノードを作成するために使用されます。アプリケーション内では、TreeViewからノードを選択し、コンテキストメニューから[ノードの追加]オプションを選択すると、このフォームが表示されます。

このアプリケーションのTreeView関連コンポーネントのいずれかで行われるカスタムまたは派手なことは何もありません。これは、Windowsフォームアプリケーションのコンテキスト内でTreeViewを操作する方法のデモンストレーションにすぎません。

コード:フォーム1-メインフォーム

メインフォームクラスは、いくつかのコントロールが追加された標準のウィンドウフォームです。フォームには分割コンテナコントロールが含まれています。コントロールの左側にはTreeViewコントロールがあり、スプリッターの右側には4つのグループボックスがあります。最初のグループボックスには、選択したノードに関する情報を表示するために使用されるラベルとテキストボックスのセットが含まれ、残りのグループボックスには、ノードのテキスト、名前に基づいてTreeViewのノードコレクションのさまざまな検索を実行するために使用されるラベル、テキストボックス、およびボタンが含まれます。 、またはタグ値。

クラスに含まれる機能は、いくつかの領域に分割されています。クラスは、デフォルトのインポート、名前空間宣言、およびクラス宣言で始まります。

 システムを使用する;  
 System.Collections.Genericを使用する;  
 System.ComponentModelを使用します。  
 System.Dataを使用します。  
 System.Drawingを使用する;  
 System.Textを使用します。  
 System.Windows.Formsを使用する;  
名前空間 EasyTreeView {  
    パブリック 部分 クラス Form1:フォーム{  
        public  Form1(){  
            InitializeComponent();  
            //ベースツリービューノードを追加することから始めます  
            TreeNode mainNode =  new  TreeNode();  
            mainNode.Name =  "mainNode" ;  
            mainNode.Text =  "Main" ;  
            this .treeView1.Nodes.Add(mainNode);  
        }  
    }  
}   

フォームクラスコンストラクターは、TreeViewコントロールにメインノードを作成します。実行時に、ユーザーはこのノード(またはこのノードから発生する任意の子ノード)を選択して、TreeViewにノードを追加できます。フォームクラスにはコンテキストメニューも含まれています。このコンテキストメニューには2つのオプションがあります。1つは新しいノードを追加するためのもので、もう1つは既存のノードを削除するためのものです。新しいノードが要求されると、アプリケーションは[新しいノード]ダイアログのインスタンスを開きます。このダイアログでは、ユーザーに新しいノードの名前、テキスト、およびタグの値を設定するように強制します。タグ値は任意のオブジェクトにすることができますが、この例では、タグは追加の文字列値を保持するように制限されています。ダイアログから値が収集されると、新しいノードに情報が入力され、TreeViewの選択されたノードに追加されます。

ノードが削除されると、選択されたノードとそのすべての子がTreeViewから削除されます。ここで注意すべきことの1つは、タグを介してオブジェクトをノードに関連付ける場合です。選択したノードを削除する前に、そのオブジェクトを破棄するハンドラーを作成する必要があります。

#regionノードの追加と削除  
/// <概要>  
    ///ダイアログボックスを使用してTreeviewノードを追加します  
    ///ユーザーに名前とテキストのプロパティを設定するように強制する  
    ///ノードの  
    /// </ summary>  
///  
<param name = "送信者" >  
</ param>  
///  
<param name = "e" >  
</ param>  
private void  cmnuAddNode_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    NewNode n =  new  NewNode();  
    n.ShowDialog();  
    TreeNode nod =  new  TreeNode();  
    nod.Name = n.NewNodeName.ToString();  
    nod.Text = n.NewNodeText.ToString();  
    nod.Tag = n.NewNodeTag.ToString();  
    n.Close();  
    treeView1.SelectedNode.Nodes.Add(nod);  
    treeView1.SelectedNode.ExpandAll();  
}  
/// <概要>  
    ///選択したノードとその子を削除します  
    /// </ summary>  
///  
<param name = "送信者" >  
</ param>  
///  
<param name = "e" >  
</ param>  
private void  cmnuRemoveNode_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    treeView1.SelectedNode.Remove();  
}  
#endregion  

コードの次の領域は、TreeViewイベントを処理するために使用されます。このセクションで処理されるイベントは2つだけです。TreeViewのAfterSelectイベントとTreeViewのclickイベント。After Selectイベントハンドラーは、選択したノードからの情報(名前、テキスト、タグ、および親テキストのプロパティ)を表示するために使用されるテキストボックスにデータを入力するために使用されます。後で説明する検索機能は、一致する各ノードの背景色を黄色に設定することにより、検索に応答して見つかったすべてのノードを強調表示します。TreeViewのクリックイベントハンドラーは、そのような強調表示をすべて削除するために使用されます。

#regionTreeviewイベントハンドラー  
/// <概要>  
///選択したノードに関する情報を表示します  
/// </ summary>  
/// <param name = "sender"> </ param>  
/// <param name = "e"> </ param>  
private void  treeView1_AfterSelect(object  sender、TreeViewEventArgs e)   
{{  
    試す  
    {{  
        txtName.Text =  "" ;  
        txtParentName.Text =  "" ;  
        txtText.Text =  "" ;  
        txtTag.Text =  "" ;  
        txtName.Text = treeView1.SelectedNode.Name.ToString();  
        txtText.Text = treeView1.SelectedNode.Text.ToString();  
        txtTag.Text = treeView1.SelectedNode.Tag.ToString();  
        txtParentName.Text = treeView1.SelectedNode.Parent.Text.ToString();  
    }  
    キャッチ {}  
}  
/// <概要>  
///検索関数でマークされたノードをクリアします  
/// </ summary>  
/// <param name = "sender"> </ param>  
/// <param name = "e"> </ param>  
private void  treeView1_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    ClearBackColor();  
}  
#endregion   

クラス内の次の領域は、nameプロパティでノードを検索するために使用されます。名前でノードを検索する方法は、TreeViewで直接サポートされている唯一の検索機能です。名前以外の名前でノードを検索する場合は、独自のメソッドを作成する必要があります。このクリックイベントハンドラーは、一致する名前でノードの配列にデータを入力します。findメソッドは2つの引数を受け入れます。最初の引数は検索語で、2番目の引数は子ノードも検索に含めるかどうかを決定するために使用されるブール値です。この場合、検索語はフォームのテキストボックスから収集され、子ノードを検索するオプションは、2番目の引数をtrueに設定することで有効になります。

ノードのコレクションが作成されると、一致する各ノードの背景色が黄色に設定され、TreeViewでノードが強調表示されます。一致するノードの背景色を設定する前に、Clear Back Colorメソッドを呼び出すことにより、TreeView内の他のすべてのノードが白い背景に戻されます。

#region名前で検索  
/// <概要>  
///ツリービューの組み込みの検索関数を使用します  
///ノードを検索する  
/// </ summary>  
/// <param name = "sender"> </ param>  
/// <param name = "e"> </ param>  
private void  btnFindNode_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    ClearBackColor();  
    試す  
    {{  
        TreeNode [] tn = treeView1.Nodes [0] .Nodes.Find(txtNodeSearch.Text、  true );  
        for  (int  i = 0; i <tn.Length; i ++)  
        {{  
            treeView1.SelectedNode = tn [i];  
            treeView1.SelectedNode.BackColor = Color.Yellow;  
        }  
    }  
    キャッチ {}  
}  
#endregion  

コードの次の領域は、以前の検索で強調表示されたノードから背景色を削除するために使用されます。このプロセスは、2つの別々の方法に依存しています。最初のメソッドは、フォームのTreeViewコントロール内のすべてのノードを含むツリーノードコレクションのインスタンスを作成します。コレクション内の各ノードは、2番目のメソッド(Clear Recursive)に渡されます。この2番目のメソッドには、現在のノードが渡されます。Clear Recursiveメソッドは、渡されたノードノードコレクション内に含まれるすべてのノードをループし、それらの各ノードの背景色を白に設定します。次に、各ノードは同じClear Recursiveメソッドに再帰的に戻され、処理するノードがなくなるまで、各ノードのノードコレクションが処理されます。このようにして、ツリー全体の各ノードと子ノードが処理されます。

このプロセスは、各ノードの背景色を白に設定するためだけに使用されますが、ツリー全体を処理する必要がある場合は常に同じアプローチを使用できます。実際、残りの検索方法はまさにそれを行います。

#regionBackColorを削除します  
//ツリービューノードを再帰的に移動します  
//そして背景色を白にリセットします  
private void  ClearBackColor()   
{{  
    TreeNodeCollectionノード= treeView1.Nodes;  
    foreachの (ツリーノードN における ノード)  
    {{  
        ClearRecursive(n);  
    }  
}  
// ClearBackColor関数によって呼び出されます  
private void  ClearRecursive(TreeNode treeNode)   
{{  
    foreachの (ツリーノードTN で treeNode.Nodes)  
    {{  
        tn.BackColor = Color.White;  
        ClearRecursive(tn);  
    }  
}  
#endregion   

コードの次の領域は、検索式に一致するテキストプロパティを持つ1つまたは複数のノードを見つけるために使用されます。フォームには、テキスト検索用語を設定し、ボタンクリックイベントハンドラーからメソッドを呼び出すために使用されるグループボックスが含まれています。ボタンをクリックすると、最初にClear Back Colorメソッドを呼び出して、強調表示されているすべてのノードがクリアされます。ノードがすべて白い背景に復元された後、ハンドラーはFind ByTextメソッドを呼び出します。この方法は、背景色をクリアするために説明した方法とほとんど同じように機能します。このメソッドは、ツリービューノードのコレクションをアセンブルしてから、各ノードを再帰メソッドに渡します。find recursiveメソッドは、検索式に一致するテキストプロパティを持つノードを検索し、一致するものが見つかると、背景色を黄色に設定します。

#regionテキストで検索  
/// <概要>  
///テキストによるノードの検索には特別な機能が必要です  
///この関数はツリービューを再帰的にスキャンし、  
///一致するアイテムをマークします。  
/// </ summary>  
/// <param name = "sender"> </ param>  
/// <param name = "e"> </ param>  
private void  btnNodeTextSearch_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    ClearBackColor();  
    FindByText();  
}  
private void  FindByText()   
{{  
    TreeNodeCollectionノード= treeView1.Nodes;  
    foreachの (ツリーノードN における ノード)  
    {{  
        FindRecursive(n);  
    }  
}  
private void  FindRecursive(TreeNode treeNode)   
{{  
    foreachの (ツリーノードTN で treeNode.Nodes)  
    {{  
        //テキストのプロパティが一致する場合は、アイテムに色を付けます  
        if  (tn.Text ==  this .txtNodeTextSearch.Text)  
            tn.BackColor = Color.Yellow;  
        FindRecursive(tn);  
    }  
}  
#endregion  

次の領域は、タグ値(この場合は文字列)によってノードを検索するために使用されるメソッドを含むために使用されます。一致するノードを黄色で強調表示します。これらのメソッドは、一致がテキスト値ではなくタグ値によって決定されることを除いて、最後のメソッドとほとんど同じように機能します。

#regionタグで検索  
/// <概要>  
///タグでノードを検索するには特別な機能が必要です  
///この関数はツリービューを再帰的にスキャンし、  
///一致するアイテムをマークします。タグはオブジェクトにすることができます。これで  
///文字列を含めるためだけに使用される場合  
/// </ summary>  
/// <param name = "sender"> </ param>  
/// <param name = "e"> </ param>  
private void  btnNodeTagSearch_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e)   
{{  
    ClearBackColor();  
    FindByTag();  
}  
private void  FindByTag()   
{{  
    TreeNodeCollectionノード= treeView1.Nodes;  
    foreachの (ツリーノードN における ノード)  
    {{  
        FindRecursiveTag(n);  
    }  
}  
private void  FindRecursiveTag(TreeNode treeNode)   
{{  
    foreachの (ツリーノードTN で treeNode.Nodes)  
    {{  
    //テキストのプロパティが一致する場合は、アイテムに色を付けます  
        if  (tn.Tag.ToString()==  this .txtTagSearch.Text)  
            tn.BackColor = Color.Yellow;  
        FindRecursiveTag(tn);  
    }  
}  
#endregion  

これで、ノードを追加および削除したり、名前、テキスト、またはタグの値に基づいて特定のノードを検索したりするために必要なすべてのコードがまとめられます。

コード:フォーム2-新しいノードフォーム

New Nodeフォームで提供されるコードは、新しく作成されたノードの名前、テキスト、およびタグのプロパティを設定するために使用されるユーザー指定の値をキャプチャするためにのみ使用されます。フォームはダイアログとして表示され、ユーザーがアプリケーションのメインフォームから新しいノードの追加を要求したことに応答して表示されます。インポート、名前空間宣言、およびクラス宣言はすべて、フォームクラスのデフォルト構成にあります。

 システムを使用する;  
 System.Collections.Genericを使用する;  
 System.ComponentModelを使用します。  
 System.Dataを使用します。  
 System.Drawingを使用する;  
 System.Textを使用します。  
 System.Windows.Formsを使用する;  
名前空間 EasyTreeView  
{{  
    パブリック 部分 クラス NewNode:フォーム  
    {{  

クラス宣言に続いて、3つのローカルメンバー変数が定義されます。それぞれが、ユーザー指定の名前、テキスト、およびタグのプロパティを格納するために使用されます。

#regionローカル変数  
プライベート文字列 mNewNodeName;   
プライベート文字列 mNewNodeText;   
プライベート文字列 mNewNodeTag;   
#endregion  

フォームコンストラクターはデフォルト構成です。

/// <概要>  
///デフォルトのコンストラクタ  
/// </ summary>  
public  NewNode()  
{{  
     InitializeComponent();  
}  

コードの次の領域は、新しいノード名、テキスト、およびタグ値を保持するために使用される3つのパブリックプロパティを定義するために使用されます。ユーザーがこのフォームにこれらの値を設定すると、メインフォームはこれらのプロパティを収集し、新しいノードの名前、テキスト、およびタグのプロパティに割り当てます。

#regionクラスのプロパティ  
パブリック文字列 NewNodeName {   
    取得 {  
         mNewNodeNameを返します。  
    }  
    セット {  
        mNewNodeName =値;  
    }  
}  
パブリック文字列 NewNodeText {   
    取得 {  
         mNewNodeTextを返します。  
    }  
    セット {  
        mNewNodeText =値;  
    }  
}  
パブリック文字列 NewNodeTag {   
    取得 {  
         mNewNodeTagを返します。  
    }  
    セット {  
        mNewNodeTag =値;  
    }  
}  
#endregion  

このボタンクリックイベントハンドラーは、ユーザーに3つの値すべてを設定するように強制することを目的としています。それぞれが設定されると、関連するプロパティに正しい値が渡され、フォームが閉じられます。

private void  btnSubmit_Click(object  sender、EventArgs e){   
    if  (txtNewNodeName.Text!=  string .Empty){  
        NewNodeName = txtNewNodeName.Text;  
    }   
    else  {  
        MessageBox.Show("ノードに名前を付けます。" );  
        戻る;  
    }  
    if  (txtNewNodeText.Text!=  string .Empty){  
        NewNodeText = txtNewNodeText.Text;  
    }   
    else  {  
        MessageBox.Show("新しいノードのテキストを提供する" );  
        戻る;  
    }  
    if  (txtTag.Text!=  string .Empty){  
        NewNodeTag = txtTag.Text;  
    }   
    else  {  
        MessageBox.Show("新しいノードのテキストを提供する" );  
        戻る;  
    }  
    this .Close();  
}  

これですべてです。このコードが実行されると、ユーザーはメインノードを右クリックして、適切と思われる数のノードと子ノードを追加できます。ユーザーは、有効な検索式を任意の検索オプションに入力して、一致するノードを強調表示するか、ツリーからノードを選択して、選択したノードから関連する名前、テキスト、タグ、および親の値を読み取ることができます。

  

概要

当然、TreeViewコントロールを使用する方法は無数にあり、この簡単なデモンストレーションでは、利用可能なさまざまなオプションの調査を開始していません。デモンストレーションの唯一の目的は、ノードを追加および削除する方法、選択したノードから情報を取得する方法、およびノー​​ドの名前、テキスト、およびタグ値に基づいて特定のノードを検索する方法の説明を提供することでした。

リンク:https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/

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