Scottie  Mills

Scottie Mills


Top 10 Simple Ways to Secure Ubuntu from Hackers

Learn how to harden Ubuntu in this guide that will teach you best practices for securing your server from external threats by locking down the system.

Code snippets and the latest Ubuntu security tips 👉

#serverless #ubuntu

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Top 10 Simple Ways to Secure Ubuntu from Hackers
Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac


OWASP Top 10 API Security - DZone Security

I am sure that almost all of you would be aware about OWASP. But, just for the context let me just brief about the same.

OWASP is an international non-profit organization that is dedicated to web application security. It is a completely opensource and community driven effort to share articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies in the field of web application security.

When we talk about API, we are almost every time talking about REST and OWASP has a dedicated project to API security. As this series of articles are focused towards the API security, we shall not be going in details of web application security. You can use the provided links to find more about these. Let us spend some time on the background, before we dive deep in to API security project.


OWASP’s most widely acknowledged project is OWASP top 10. This is the list of security risks compiled by the security experts from across the world. This report is continuously updated, outlining the concerns of web application security, and specially focuses on the Top 10 of the most critical risks. According to OWASP, this report is an “The OWASP Top 10 is a standard awareness document for developers and web application security. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications.” They recommend that all companies incorporate the report into their processes in order to minimize and/or mitigate security risks. The latest version was published in 2017 and below is the list.

  1. Injection
  2. Broken Authentication
  3. Sensitive Data Exposure
  4. XML Eternal Entities (or XXE)
  5. Broken Access Control
  6. Security Misconfiguration
  7. Cross-Site Scripting (or XSS)
  8. Insecure Deserialization
  9. Using Components With known vulenerabilities
  10. Insufficient Logging And Monitoring

How API Security Is Different from Web Application Security

Although API’s have many similarities with web applications, but both are fundamentally different in nature.

In web applications, all the processing is done on the servers and the resulting web page is sent back to web-browser for rendering. Because of this nature, they have limited entry point and attack surface which are resulting web pages. This can easily be protected by putting up and web-application firewall (WAF) in front of the application server.WAF

In most of the modern application UI itself uses API’s to send and receive data from backend servers and provide the functionality of the application. It is the responsibility of the clients to do the rendering and convert the responses to a web page.

API GET and raw data

Also, with the rise of microservices architecture individual components become APIs, and it becomes a different world altogether, where UI clients could interact with hundreds of services via API calls. This significantly increases the attack surface. Now all those API’s become the entry point and attack surface.

These entry points can’t be guarded using the WAF solutions as they cannot differentiate between the legitimate and malicious API calls.

Why A Separate Project on API security?

Since its first release in 2003 OWASP top 10 projects has been the most useful resource in terms of web application security risks and to suggest the ways to mitigate these issues.

These days almost all the application development like banking, retail, transportation, smart devices, are done with the APIs.

APIs are critical to modern mobile and SaaS application. By nature, the API’s expose business logic and data, often these data are sensitive in nature, for example Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Because of this API’s are increasingly being targeted by attackers.

As API’s are changing how we design and develop our application, this is also changing the way we think about our security. A new approach in needed in terms of security risks. To cater to this need, OWASP decided to come up with another version of Top 10 dedicated to API security which is named “OWASP API Security Project”. The first report was released on 26 December 2019.

Below is the OWASP Top 10 API security risks and their brief description as provided by the official report.

API1:2019 Broken Object Level Authorization

APIs tend to expose endpoints that handle object identifiers, creating a wide attack surface Level Access Control issue. Object level authorization checks should be considered in every function that accesses a data source using an input from the user.

API2:2019 Broken User Authentication

Authentication mechanisms are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise authentication tokens or to exploit implementation flaws to assume other user’s identities temporarily or permanently. Compromising system’s ability to identify the client/user, compromises API security overall.

#security #api security #owasp top 10 #api penetration testing #api security risks #owasp top 10 web security risk

Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac


Best Custom Web & Mobile App Development Company

Everything around us has become smart, like smart infrastructures, smart cities, autonomous vehicles, to name a few. The innovation of smart devices makes it possible to achieve these heights in science and technology. But, data is vulnerable, there is a risk of attack by cybercriminals. To get started, let’s know about IoT devices.

What are IoT devices?

The Internet Of Things(IoT) is a system that interrelates computer devices like sensors, software, and actuators, digital machines, etc. They are linked together with particular objects that work through the internet and transfer data over devices without humans interference.

Famous examples are Amazon Alexa, Apple SIRI, Interconnected baby monitors, video doorbells, and smart thermostats.

How could your IoT devices be vulnerable?

When technologies grow and evolve, risks are also on the high stakes. Ransomware attacks are on the continuous increase; securing data has become the top priority.

When you think your smart home won’t fudge a thing against cybercriminals, you should also know that they are vulnerable. When cybercriminals access our smart voice speakers like Amazon Alexa or Apple Siri, it becomes easy for them to steal your data.

Cybersecurity report 2020 says popular hacking forums expose 770 million email addresses and 21 million unique passwords, 620 million accounts have been compromised from 16 hacked websites.

The attacks are likely to increase every year. To help you secure your data of IoT devices, here are some best tips you can implement.

Tips to secure your IoT devices

1. Change Default Router Name

Your router has the default name of make and model. When we stick with the manufacturer name, attackers can quickly identify our make and model. So give the router name different from your addresses, without giving away personal information.

2. Know your connected network and connected devices

If your devices are connected to the internet, these connections are vulnerable to cyber attacks when your devices don’t have the proper security. Almost every web interface is equipped with multiple devices, so it’s hard to track the device. But, it’s crucial to stay aware of them.

3. Change default usernames and passwords

When we use the default usernames and passwords, it is attackable. Because the cybercriminals possibly know the default passwords come with IoT devices. So use strong passwords to access our IoT devices.

4. Manage strong, Unique passwords for your IoT devices and accounts

Use strong or unique passwords that are easily assumed, such as ‘123456’ or ‘password1234’ to protect your accounts. Give strong and complex passwords formed by combinations of alphabets, numeric, and not easily bypassed symbols.

Also, change passwords for multiple accounts and change them regularly to avoid attacks. We can also set several attempts to wrong passwords to set locking the account to safeguard from the hackers.

5. Do not use Public WI-FI Networks

Are you try to keep an eye on your IoT devices through your mobile devices in different locations. I recommend you not to use the public WI-FI network to access them. Because they are easily accessible through for everyone, you are still in a hurry to access, use VPN that gives them protection against cyber-attacks, giving them privacy and security features, for example, using Express VPN.

6. Establish firewalls to discover the vulnerabilities

There are software and firewalls like intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system in the market. This will be useful to screen and analyze the wire traffic of a network. You can identify the security weakness by the firewall scanners within the network structure. Use these firewalls to get rid of unwanted security issues and vulnerabilities.

7. Reconfigure your device settings

Every smart device comes with the insecure default settings, and sometimes we are not able to change these default settings configurations. These conditions need to be assessed and need to reconfigure the default settings.

8. Authenticate the IoT applications

Nowadays, every smart app offers authentication to secure the accounts. There are many types of authentication methods like single-factor authentication, two-step authentication, and multi-factor authentication. Use any one of these to send a one time password (OTP) to verify the user who logs in the smart device to keep our accounts from falling into the wrong hands.

9. Update the device software up to date

Every smart device manufacturer releases updates to fix bugs in their software. These security patches help us to improve our protection of the device. Also, update the software on the smartphone, which we are used to monitoring the IoT devices to avoid vulnerabilities.

10. Track the smartphones and keep them safe

When we connect the smart home to the smartphone and control them via smartphone, you need to keep them safe. If you miss the phone almost, every personal information is at risk to the cybercriminals. But sometimes it happens by accident, makes sure that you can clear all the data remotely.

However, securing smart devices is essential in the world of data. There are still cybercriminals bypassing the securities. So make sure to do the safety measures to avoid our accounts falling out into the wrong hands. I hope these steps will help you all to secure your IoT devices.

If you have any, feel free to share them in the comments! I’d love to know them.

Are you looking for more? Subscribe to weekly newsletters that can help your stay updated IoT application developments.

#iot #enterprise iot security #how iot can be used to enhance security #how to improve iot security #how to protect iot devices from hackers #how to secure iot devices #iot security #iot security devices #iot security offerings #iot security technologies iot security plus #iot vulnerable devices #risk based iot security program

Lokesh Kumar


Top 10 Trending Technologies Must Learn in 2021 | igmGuru

Technology has taken a place of more productiveness and give the best to the world. In the current situation, everything is done through the technical process, you don’t have to bother about doing task, everything will be done automatically.This is an article which has some important technologies which are new in the market are explained according to the career preferences. So let’s have a look into the top trending technologies followed in 2021 and its impression in the coming future in the world.

  1. Data Science
    First in the list of newest technologies is surprisingly Data Science. Data Science is the automation that helps to be reasonable for complicated data. The data is produces in a very large amount every day by several companies which comprise sales data, customer profile information, server data, business data, and financial structures. Almost all of the data which is in the form of big data is very indeterminate. The character of a data scientist is to convert the indeterminate datasets into determinate datasets. Then these structured data will examine to recognize trends and patterns. These trends and patterns are beneficial to understand the company’s business performance, customer retention, and how they can be enhanced.

  2. DevOps
    Next one is DevOps, This technology is a mixture of two different things and they are development (Dev) and operations (Ops). This process and technology provide value to their customers in a continuous manner. This technology plays an important role in different aspects and they can be- IT operations, development, security, quality, and engineering to synchronize and cooperate to develop the best and more definitive products. By embracing a culture of DevOps with creative tools and techniques, because through that company will gain the capacity to preferable comeback to consumer requirement, expand the confidence in the request they construct, and accomplish business goals faster. This makes DevOps come into the top 10 trending technologies.

  3. Machine learning
    Next one is Machine learning which is constantly established in all the categories of companies or industries, generating a high command for skilled professionals. The machine learning retailing business is looking forward to enlarging to $8.81 billion by 2022. Machine learning practices is basically use for data mining, data analytics, and pattern recognition. In today’s scenario, Machine learning has its own reputed place in the industry. This makes machine learning come into the top 10 trending technologies. Get the best machine learning course and make yourself future-ready.

To want to know more click on Top 10 Trending Technologies in 2021

You may also read more blogs mentioned below

How to Become a Salesforce Developer

Python VS R Programming

The Scope of Hadoop and Big Data in 2021

#top trending technologies #top 10 trending technologies #top 10 trending technologies in 2021 #top trending technologies in 2021 #top 5 trending technologies in 2021 #top 5 trending technologies

Myriam  Rogahn

Myriam Rogahn


How to Secure phpMyAdmin Access with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04

How to secure PHPMyAdmin login access in ubuntu apache on aws. Here, we will show you a simple 2 solution to secure PHPMyAdmin login in ubuntu apache on aws web server.

The first solution is to change the PHPMyAdmin login URL. And the second solution is add an extra security layer for access PHPMyAdmin login url in ubuntu 18.04 apache 2 on aws. And prevent the attacks.

Because by default, phpmyadmin login url is located on http:///phpmyadmin. So, The main reason of change phpmyadmin login url in ubuntu apache aws server to prevent attackers attack.

How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Apache 2 on Ubuntu 18.04

Now, you can see the following two solutions to secure PHPMyAdmin login access in ubuntu apache 2 on aws server.

Solution 1 – Change PhpMyAdmin Login Page URL in Apache 2 Ubuntu

In ubuntu, default phpmyadmin login url can be located at apache configuration that name apache.conf.

So, you can use sudo nano /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf command to open apache.conf file:

sudo nano /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf

Then, you can add the following line with your phpmyadmin url:

Alias /my-phpmyadmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin

Note that, you can replace my-phpmyadmin to your own word.

Now you need to restart apache 2 web server. So type the following command on your ssh terminal to restart apache service:

sudo service apache2 restart

Solution 2 – Secure PHPMyAdmin Access in ubuntu aws

Now, you can add extra security layer for access phpmyadmin login in ubuntu apache 2 on aws web server.

So, first of all, you need to create a password file with users using the htpasswd tool that comes with the Apache package. So open your ssh terminal and type the following command:

sudo htpasswd -c /etc/phpmyadmin/.htpasswd

Note that, You can choose any username instance of myAdmin with above command.

After that, one prompt box appear with password and confirm password. So, you can add password and confirm password here.

New password:
Re-type new password:
Adding password for user myAdmin

Now, you need to configure Apache 2 to password protect the phpMyAdmin directory and use the .htpasswd file.

So, open your ssh terminal and type the below command to open the phpmyadmin.conf file.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/conf-available/phpmyadmin.conf

Then add the following lines in phpmyadmin.conf file and save it:

Options  +FollowSymLinks +Multiviews +Indexes  ## edit this line
DirectoryIndex index.php

AllowOverride None
AuthType basic
AuthName "Authentication Required"
AuthUserFile /etc/phpmyadmin/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

Finally, restart apache web server by using the following command:

sudo service apache2 restart

#aws #mysql #ubuntu #how to change and secure default phpmyadmin login url ubuntu #how to change phpmyadmin login url ubuntu 18.04 #how to secure phpmyadmin access #how to secure phpmyadmin access with apache on ubuntu 18.04

Brain  Crist

Brain Crist


OWASP TOP 10 API Security Part 2 (Broken Object Level Authorization)

In the previous article, we had them build our ground around OWASP’s top ten projects and covered the brief official definition of OWASP Top 10 for API security.

In this article, we will explore the first of the OWASP Top 10 API security risks for the year 2019. (API1:2019 - Broken object-level authorization).


In most of the API implementations, where we have to get some data which is specific to some object, Reference of the internal object implementation is exposed, for example: “id”, “pid”, “uid” and so on. Although in most cases this reference is visible as part of the HTTP parameter itself, but these could also be part of headers and cookies.

The problem here is that it reveals the real identifier and format/pattern used of the element in the storage backend side. The most common example of it (although is not limited to this one) is a record identifier in a storage system (database or filesystem).

Once the pattern is identified, the malicious user can easily guess/autogenerate the reference ID’s and modify the requests to supply the reference ID’s that do not belong to them.

If the API implementation does not have proper measures in place, then these malicious requests can cause revelations, modifications, or even deletion of records in the backend.

Just because the direct object reference checks were not in place or misconfigured. That is the reason this attack is also known as Insecure Direct Object Reference or IDOR in short.

Use Case

Let us assume that we have an API implementation that gets the financial information of a user. And to get the details the API expects the user id as parameter.

  1. API call parameters use the ID of the resource accessed through the API /API/user1/financial_info.
  2. By proxying and intercepting the URL’s attacker can guess the format of the parameter (user1).
  3. Attackers replace the IDs of their resources with a different one which they guessed through /API/user2/financial_info.
  4. As there is no measure to check the check permissions, the API returns data for user2. Which, it should not have.
  5. This could cause further issues if IDs can be enumerated and calls are automated to scrape though the data available with the UI /api/{AUTOMATED_USER_ID_HERE}/financial_info.

api users

How to Prevent it

If we have to summarize then we can say, IDOR is a combination of two issues

  1. Enumerable identifiers, which could easily be guessed.
  2. Insufficient checking of access rights on the requests.

So, the solution to prevent IDOR completely has to address both the issues, Below are some of the recommendations.

  • API should verify that the current user has permission to access the object, every time access is attempted. For example, if a user has access to record 3 and no others, any attempt to access record 4 should be rejected.
  • The API should validate both read and write requests, it should not be the case that a user can write to a record, even without having the read permission to it, such scenarios may allow the further compromise of the system. For example, if a PUT request made to /data/1 contains a sensitive value, it is important to check that the same PUT request cannot be made to /data/2, even if it is known that GET /data/2 is rejected.
  • Implement authorization checks with user policies and hierarchy.
  • Do not rely on IDs that the client sends. Use IDs stored in the session object instead.
  • Check authorization for each client request to access the database.
  • Use random IDs that cannot be guessed (UUIDs).
  • idor preventionIDOR Prevention

Sample Application

As we saw earlier that our solution has to address both the Access and predictable ID issue. Let us try to build an application to demonstrates the same. Please be advised that this application is meant for demonstration purposes only.

So, our hypothetical application has a requirement that the users shall be able to get his data (e.g. financial details). Now, the API design could take user-id as input and serve returns the financial details belonging to the user. The common implementation approach for the API will be to have the user id as path parameters or as part of headers. Let’s say we choose the path parameter. Then our API will look something like this. And it works as expected.




But by analyzing the request we can see that the input is user_1, what if we supply **user_2? **




Voila! it works again. Thus, it is clear that **user_x ** is a reference to internal ID. Now, what if we somehow automate this parameter using some tool, or even simple programming? We can get the data of all the users available in the system.
















We leaked all the data just because someone was able to guess the reference ID.

So, what if we use something difficult or random to guess? We solve one part of our problem.

One of the possible ways could be that we use these complex ID’s (something like UUID) in our backend system, or we can wrap our data fetch logic around some utility class or filter which does this job for each request. In a very basic example, we could write something like below.






import java.util.Base64;


import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;






 * As this code is for demonstration purpose only. {@link Base64} is used to encypt-decrypt the ID's. This algorithm is not considered safe and can be


 * decoded easily. 


 * In real world scenario you shall be using more sophisticated algorithms or something like UUID


 *  Access check in intentionaly left from the code.


 * @author Satish Sharma








public class IdorUtility {



    // this could be externalized to configuration.


    private String saltString="S3cUr#d1Ds1L$";



    public String computeObfuscatedId(String actualIdentifier) {


        String saltedString = actualIdentifier + saltString;


        return new String(Base64.getEncoder().encode(saltedString.getBytes()));





    public String resolveObfuscatedId(String obfuscatedIdentifier) {


        var decodedBit = Base64.getDecoder().decode(obfuscatedIdentifier);


        String decodedSaltedString = new String(decodedBit);


        return decodedSaltedString.replace(saltString, "");





Once we wrap our service call around the encode-decode utility class. As we have encoded all the identifiers with Base64, The API request will change something like below. Notice the change in the path parameter in the URL.




As we can see now the IDs cannot be guessed easily. Combined the above code with authorization mechanism (left intentionally from this code). We address both the issues, and hence prevent the IDOR.

You can find the sample spring-boot application at this GitHub location. In the next article, we shall be addressing **API2:2019 Broken User Authentication. **

Thank you for reading. If any questions or comments please share them, I would be happy to hear.

#security #spring boot 2 #owasp top 10 #api penetration testing #owasp top 10 web security risk #broken api