Rupert  Beatty

Rupert Beatty

1668158040

Swift: Compile Your Swift Code to WebAssembly

SwiftWasm

Compile your Swift code to WebAssembly

This is the main repository for SwiftWasm toolchain and SDK. Please refer to the SwiftWasm book to get started, and to the awesome-swiftwasm list for more links in the SwiftWasm ecosystem.

If you'd like to participate in the growing SwiftWasm community, you're very welcome to join our Discord server, or the #webassembly channel in the SwiftPM Slack.

What follows below is README.md of the upstream Swift project included verbatim. If you'd like to track the status of our builds, please refer to our GitHub Actions page.

Swift Programming Language

 ArchitectureBuild
macOSx86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 18.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 20.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 20.04AArch64Build Status
Ubuntu 22.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 22.04AArch64Build Status
CentOS 7x86_64Build Status
Amazon Linux 2x86_64Build Status
Amazon Linux 2AArch64Build Status

Swift Community-Hosted CI Platforms

OSArchitectureBuild
Ubuntu 20.04wasm32Build Status
AndroidARMv7Build Status
AndroidAArch64Build Status
Windows 2019 (VS 2017)x86_64Build Status
Windows 2019 (VS 2019)x86_64Build Status

Welcome to Swift

Swift is a high-performance system programming language. It has a clean and modern syntax, offers seamless access to existing C and Objective-C code and frameworks, and is memory safe by default.

Although inspired by Objective-C and many other languages, Swift is not itself a C-derived language. As a complete and independent language, Swift packages core features like flow control, data structures, and functions, with high-level constructs like objects, protocols, closures, and generics. Swift embraces modules, eliminating the need for headers and the code duplication they entail.

To learn more about the programming language, visit swift.org.

Contributing to Swift

Contributions to Swift are welcomed and encouraged! Please see the Contributing to Swift guide.

To be a truly great community, Swift.org needs to welcome developers from all walks of life, with different backgrounds, and with a wide range of experience. A diverse and friendly community will have more great ideas, more unique perspectives, and produce more great code. We will work diligently to make the Swift community welcoming to everyone.

To give clarity of what is expected of our members, Swift has adopted the code of conduct defined by the Contributor Covenant. This document is used across many open source communities, and we think it articulates our values well. For more, see the Code of Conduct.

Getting Started

If you are interested in:

We also have an FAQ that answers common questions.

Swift Toolchains

Building

Swift toolchains are created using the script build-toolchain. This script is used by swift.org's CI to produce snapshots and can allow for one to locally reproduce such builds for development or distribution purposes. A typical invocation looks like the following:

  $ ./swift/utils/build-toolchain $BUNDLE_PREFIX

where $BUNDLE_PREFIX is a string that will be prepended to the build date to give the bundle identifier of the toolchain's Info.plist. For instance, if $BUNDLE_PREFIX was com.example, the toolchain produced will have the bundle identifier com.example.YYYYMMDD. It will be created in the directory you run the script with a filename of the form: swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz.

Beyond building the toolchain, build-toolchain also supports the following (non-exhaustive) set of useful options:

  • --dry-run: Perform a dry run build. This is off by default.
  • --test: Test the toolchain after it has been compiled. This is off by default.
  • --distcc: Use distcc to speed up the build by distributing the C++ part of the swift build. This is off by default.
  • --sccache: Use sccache to speed up subsequent builds of the compiler by caching more C++ build artifacts. This is off by default.

More options may be added over time. Please pass --help to build-toolchain to see the full set of options.

Installing into Xcode

On macOS if one wants to install such a toolchain into Xcode:

Untar and copy the toolchain to one of /Library/Developer/Toolchains/ or ~/Library/Developer/Toolchains/. E.x.:

  $ sudo tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz -C /
  $ tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz -C ~/

The script also generates an archive containing debug symbols which can be installed over the main archive allowing symbolication of any compiler crashes.

  $ sudo tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx-symbols.tar.gz -C /
  $ tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx-symbols.tar.gz -C ~/

Specify the local toolchain for Xcode's use via Xcode->Toolchains.

Build Failures

Try the suggestions in Troubleshooting build issues.

Make sure you are using the correct release of Xcode.

If you have changed Xcode versions but still encounter errors that appear to be related to the Xcode version, try passing --clean to build-script.

When a new version of Xcode is released, you can update your build without recompiling the entire project by passing --reconfigure to build-script.

Learning More

Be sure to look at the documentation index for a bird's eye view of the available documentation. In particular, the documents titled Debugging the Swift Compiler and Continuous Integration for Swift are very helpful to understand before submitting your first PR.

Download Details:

Author: Swiftwasm
Source Code: https://github.com/swiftwasm/swift 
License: Apache-2.0 license

#swift #webassembly #wasi 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Swift: Compile Your Swift Code to WebAssembly
Monty  Boehm

Monty Boehm

1675304280

How to Use Hotwire Rails

Introduction

We are back with another exciting and much-talked-about Rails tutorial on how to use Hotwire with the Rails application. This Hotwire Rails tutorial is an alternate method for building modern web applications that consume a pinch of JavaScript.

Rails 7 Hotwire is the default front-end framework shipped with Rails 7 after it was launched. It is used to represent HTML over the wire in the Rails application. Previously, we used to add a hotwire-rails gem in our gem file and then run rails hotwire: install. However, with the introduction of Rails 7, the gem got deprecated. Now, we use turbo-rails and stimulus rails directly, which work as Hotwire’s SPA-like page accelerator and Hotwire’s modest JavaScript framework.

What is Hotwire?

Hotwire is a package of different frameworks that help to build applications. It simplifies the developer’s work for writing web pages without the need to write JavaScript, and instead sending HTML code over the wire.

Introduction to The Hotwire Framework:

1. Turbo:

It uses simplified techniques to build web applications while decreasing the usage of JavaScript in the application. Turbo offers numerous handling methods for the HTML data sent over the wire and displaying the application’s data without actually loading the entire page. It helps to maintain the simplicity of web applications without destroying the single-page application experience by using the below techniques:

Turbo Frames: Turbo Frames help to load the different sections of our markup without any dependency as it divides the page into different contexts separately called frames and updates these frames individually.
Turbo Drive: Every link doesn’t have to make the entire page reload when clicked. Only the HTML contained within the tag will be displayed.
Turbo Streams: To add real-time features to the application, this technique is used. It helps to bring real-time data to the application using CRUD actions.

2. Stimulus

It represents the JavaScript framework, which is required when JS is a requirement in the application. The interaction with the HTML is possible with the help of a stimulus, as the controllers that help those interactions are written by a stimulus.

3. Strada

Not much information is available about Strada as it has not been officially released yet. However, it works with native applications, and by using HTML bridge attributes, interaction is made possible between web applications and native apps.

Simple diagrammatic representation of Hotwire Stack:

Hotwire Stack

Prerequisites For Hotwire Rails Tutorial

As we are implementing the Ruby on Rails Hotwire tutorial, make sure about the following installations before you can get started.

  • Ruby on Rails
  • Hotwire gem
  • PostgreSQL/SQLite (choose any one database)
  • Turbo Rails
  • Stimulus.js

Looking for an enthusiastic team of ROR developers to shape the vision of your web project?
Contact Bacancy today and hire Ruby developers to start building your dream project!

Create a new Rails Project

Find the following commands to create a rails application.

mkdir ~/projects/railshotwire
cd ~/projects/railshotwire
echo "source 'https://rubygems.org'" > Gemfile
echo "gem 'rails', '~> 7.0.0'" >> Gemfile
bundle install  
bundle exec rails new . --force -d=postgresql

Now create some files for the project, up till now no usage of Rails Hotwire can be seen.
Fire the following command in your terminal.

  • For creating a default controller for the application
echo "class HomeController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/home_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating another controller for the application
echo "class OtherController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/other_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating routes for the application
echo "Rails.application.routes.draw do" > config/routes.rb
echo '  get "home/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  get "other/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  root to: "home#index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo 'end' >> config/routes.rb
  • For creating a default view for the application
mkdir app/views/home
echo '<h1>This is Rails Hotwire homepage</h1>' > app/views/home/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>' >> app/views/home/index.html.erb
  • For creating another view for the application
mkdir app/views/other
echo '<h1>This is Another page</h1>' > app/views/other/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>' >> app/views/other/index.html.erb
  • For creating a database and schema.rb file for the application
bin/rails db:create
bin/rails db:migrate
  • For checking the application run bin/rails s and open your browser, your running application will have the below view.

Rails Hotwire Home Page

Additionally, you can clone the code and browse through the project. Here’s the source code of the repository: Rails 7 Hotwire application

Now, let’s see how Hotwire Rails can work its magic with various Turbo techniques.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Drive

Go to your localhost:3000 on your web browser and right-click on the Inspect and open a Network tab of the DevTools of the browser.

Now click on go to another page link that appears on the home page to redirect from the home page to another page. In our Network tab, we can see that this action of navigation is achieved via XHR. It appears only the part inside HTML is reloaded, here neither the CSS is reloaded nor the JS is reloaded when the navigation action is performed.

Hotwire Rails Turbo Drive

By performing this action we can see that Turbo Drive helps to represent the HTML response without loading the full page and only follows redirect and reindeer HTML responses which helps to make the application faster to access.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Frame

This technique helps to divide the current page into different sections called frames that can be updated separately independently when new data is added from the server.
Below we discuss the different use cases of Turbo frame like inline edition, sorting, searching, and filtering of data.

Let’s perform some practical actions to see the example of these use cases.

Make changes in the app/controllers/home_controller.rb file

#CODE

class HomeController < ApplicationController
   def turbo_frame_form
   end
   
   def turbo_frame submit
      extracted_anynumber = params[:any][:anynumber]
      render :turbo_frame_form, status: :ok, locals: {anynumber: extracted_anynumber,      comment: 'turbo_frame_submit ok' }
   end
end

Turbo Frame

Add app/views/home/turbo_frame_form.html.erb file to the application and add this content inside the file.

#CODE

<section>

    <%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>
            
      <div>
          <h2>Frame view</h2>
          <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
              <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
              <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
              <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
          <% end %>
      </div>
      <div>
        <h2>Data of the view</h2>
        <pre style="font-size: .7rem;"><%= JSON.pretty_generate(local_assigns) %></pre> 
      </div>
      
    <% end %>

</section>

Add the content inside file

Make some adjustments in routes.rb

#CODE

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  get 'home/index'
  get 'other/index'

  get '/home/turbo_frame_form' => 'home#turbo_frame_form', as: 'turbo_frame_form'
  post '/home/turbo_frame_submit' => 'home#turbo_frame_submit', as: 'turbo_frame_submit'


  root to: "home#index"
end
  • Next step is to change homepage view in app/views/home/index.html.erb

#CODE

<h1>This is Rails Hotwire home page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>

<%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>        
  <div>
      <h2>Home view</h2>
      <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
          <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
          <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
          <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
      <% end %>
  <div>
<% end %>

Change HomePage

After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, the default view will appear on the browser.

restart the rails serverNow in the field enter any digit, after entering the digit click on submit button, and as the submit button is clicked we can see the Turbo Frame in action in the below screen, we can observe that the frame part changed, the first title and first link didn’t move.

submit button is clicked

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Streams

Turbo Streams deliver page updates over WebSocket, SSE or in response to form submissions by only using HTML and a series of CRUD-like operations, you are free to say that either

  • Update the piece of HTML while responding to all the other actions like the post, put, patch, and delete except the GET action.
  • Transmit a change to all users, without reloading the browser page.

This transmit can be represented by a simple example.

  • Make changes in app/controllers/other_controller.rb file of rails application

#CODE

class OtherController < ApplicationController

  def post_something
    respond_to do |format|
      format.turbo_stream {  }
    end
  end

   end

file of rails application

Add the below line in routes.rb file of the application

#CODE

post '/other/post_something' => 'other#post_something', as: 'post_something'
Add the below line

Superb! Rails will now attempt to locate the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template at any moment the ‘/other/post_something’ endpoint is reached.

For this, we need to add app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template in the rails application.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="append" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>
Add template in the rails application

This states that the response will try to append the template of the turbo frame with ID “messages”.

Now change the index.html.erb file in app/views/other paths with the below content.

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 3rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post any message %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>
change the index.html.erb file
  • After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, and go to the other page.

go to the other page

  • Once the above screen appears, click on the Post any message button

Post any message button

This action shows that after submitting the response, the Turbo Streams help the developer to append the message, without reloading the page.

Another use case we can test is that rather than appending the message, the developer replaces the message. For that, we need to change the content of app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template file and change the value of the action attribute from append to replace and check the changes in the browser.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="replace" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>

change the value of the action attributeWhen we click on Post any message button, the message that appear below that button will get replaced with the message that is mentioned in the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template

click on Post any message button

Stimulus

There are some cases in an application where JS is needed, therefore to cover those scenarios we require Hotwire JS tool. Hotwire has a JS tool because in some scenarios Turbo-* tools are not sufficient. But as we know that Hotwire is used to reduce the usage of JS in an application, Stimulus considers HTML as the single source of truth. Consider the case where we have to give elements on a page some JavaScript attributes, such as data controller, data-action, and data target. For that, a stimulus controller that can access elements and receive events based on those characteristics will be created.

Make a change in app/views/other/index.html.erb template file in rails application

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post something' %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <h2>Stimulus</h2>  
  <div data-controller="hello">
    <input data-hello-target="name" type="text">
    <button data-action="click->hello#greet">
      Greet
    </button>
    <span data-hello-target="output">
    </span>
  </div>
</div>

Make A changeMake changes in the hello_controller.js in path app/JavaScript/controllers and add a stimulus controller in the file, which helps to bring the HTML into life.

#CODE

import { Controller } from "@hotwired/stimulus"

export default class extends Controller {
  static targets = [ "name", "output" ]

  greet() {
    this.outputTarget.textContent =
      `Hello, ${this.nameTarget.value}!`
  }
}

add a stimulus controller in the fileGo to your browser after making the changes in the code and click on Enter to other page link which will navigate to the localhost:3000/other/index page there you can see the changes implemented by the stimulus controller that is designed to augment your HTML with just enough behavior to make it more responsive.

With just a little bit of work, Turbo and Stimulus together offer a complete answer for applications that are quick and compelling.

Using Rails 7 Hotwire helps to load the pages at a faster speed and allows you to render templates on the server, where you have access to your whole domain model. It is a productive development experience in ROR, without compromising any of the speed or responsiveness associated with SPA.

Conclusion

We hope you were satisfied with our Rails Hotwire tutorial. Write to us at service@bacancy.com for any query that you want to resolve, or if you want us to share a tutorial on your query.

For more such solutions on RoR, check out our Ruby on Rails Tutorials. We will always strive to amaze you and cater to your needs.

Original article source at: https://www.bacancytechnology.com/

#rails #ruby 

Rupert  Beatty

Rupert Beatty

1668158040

Swift: Compile Your Swift Code to WebAssembly

SwiftWasm

Compile your Swift code to WebAssembly

This is the main repository for SwiftWasm toolchain and SDK. Please refer to the SwiftWasm book to get started, and to the awesome-swiftwasm list for more links in the SwiftWasm ecosystem.

If you'd like to participate in the growing SwiftWasm community, you're very welcome to join our Discord server, or the #webassembly channel in the SwiftPM Slack.

What follows below is README.md of the upstream Swift project included verbatim. If you'd like to track the status of our builds, please refer to our GitHub Actions page.

Swift Programming Language

 ArchitectureBuild
macOSx86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 18.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 20.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 20.04AArch64Build Status
Ubuntu 22.04x86_64Build Status
Ubuntu 22.04AArch64Build Status
CentOS 7x86_64Build Status
Amazon Linux 2x86_64Build Status
Amazon Linux 2AArch64Build Status

Swift Community-Hosted CI Platforms

OSArchitectureBuild
Ubuntu 20.04wasm32Build Status
AndroidARMv7Build Status
AndroidAArch64Build Status
Windows 2019 (VS 2017)x86_64Build Status
Windows 2019 (VS 2019)x86_64Build Status

Welcome to Swift

Swift is a high-performance system programming language. It has a clean and modern syntax, offers seamless access to existing C and Objective-C code and frameworks, and is memory safe by default.

Although inspired by Objective-C and many other languages, Swift is not itself a C-derived language. As a complete and independent language, Swift packages core features like flow control, data structures, and functions, with high-level constructs like objects, protocols, closures, and generics. Swift embraces modules, eliminating the need for headers and the code duplication they entail.

To learn more about the programming language, visit swift.org.

Contributing to Swift

Contributions to Swift are welcomed and encouraged! Please see the Contributing to Swift guide.

To be a truly great community, Swift.org needs to welcome developers from all walks of life, with different backgrounds, and with a wide range of experience. A diverse and friendly community will have more great ideas, more unique perspectives, and produce more great code. We will work diligently to make the Swift community welcoming to everyone.

To give clarity of what is expected of our members, Swift has adopted the code of conduct defined by the Contributor Covenant. This document is used across many open source communities, and we think it articulates our values well. For more, see the Code of Conduct.

Getting Started

If you are interested in:

We also have an FAQ that answers common questions.

Swift Toolchains

Building

Swift toolchains are created using the script build-toolchain. This script is used by swift.org's CI to produce snapshots and can allow for one to locally reproduce such builds for development or distribution purposes. A typical invocation looks like the following:

  $ ./swift/utils/build-toolchain $BUNDLE_PREFIX

where $BUNDLE_PREFIX is a string that will be prepended to the build date to give the bundle identifier of the toolchain's Info.plist. For instance, if $BUNDLE_PREFIX was com.example, the toolchain produced will have the bundle identifier com.example.YYYYMMDD. It will be created in the directory you run the script with a filename of the form: swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz.

Beyond building the toolchain, build-toolchain also supports the following (non-exhaustive) set of useful options:

  • --dry-run: Perform a dry run build. This is off by default.
  • --test: Test the toolchain after it has been compiled. This is off by default.
  • --distcc: Use distcc to speed up the build by distributing the C++ part of the swift build. This is off by default.
  • --sccache: Use sccache to speed up subsequent builds of the compiler by caching more C++ build artifacts. This is off by default.

More options may be added over time. Please pass --help to build-toolchain to see the full set of options.

Installing into Xcode

On macOS if one wants to install such a toolchain into Xcode:

Untar and copy the toolchain to one of /Library/Developer/Toolchains/ or ~/Library/Developer/Toolchains/. E.x.:

  $ sudo tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz -C /
  $ tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx.tar.gz -C ~/

The script also generates an archive containing debug symbols which can be installed over the main archive allowing symbolication of any compiler crashes.

  $ sudo tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx-symbols.tar.gz -C /
  $ tar -xzf swift-LOCAL-YYYY-MM-DD-a-osx-symbols.tar.gz -C ~/

Specify the local toolchain for Xcode's use via Xcode->Toolchains.

Build Failures

Try the suggestions in Troubleshooting build issues.

Make sure you are using the correct release of Xcode.

If you have changed Xcode versions but still encounter errors that appear to be related to the Xcode version, try passing --clean to build-script.

When a new version of Xcode is released, you can update your build without recompiling the entire project by passing --reconfigure to build-script.

Learning More

Be sure to look at the documentation index for a bird's eye view of the available documentation. In particular, the documents titled Debugging the Swift Compiler and Continuous Integration for Swift are very helpful to understand before submitting your first PR.

Download Details:

Author: Swiftwasm
Source Code: https://github.com/swiftwasm/swift 
License: Apache-2.0 license

#swift #webassembly #wasi 

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Houston  Sipes

Houston Sipes

1600430400

10 Free Online Resources To Learn Swift Language

Swift is a fast and efficient general-purpose programming language that provides real-time feedback and can be seamlessly incorporated into existing Objective-C code. This is why developers are able to write safer, more reliable code while saving time. It aims to be the best language that can be used for various purposes ranging from systems programming to mobile as well as desktop apps and scaling up to cloud services.

Below here, we list down the 10 best online resources to learn Swift language.

(The list is in no particular order)

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Top Swift Development Companies | Top Swift Developers - TopDevelopers.co

A thoroughly researched list of top Swift developers with ratings & reviews to help find the best Swift development companies around the world.

#swift development service providers #best swift development companies #top swift development companies #swift development solutions #top swift developers #swift