Queenie  Davis

Queenie Davis


MetalTranslate: Customizable Machine Translation in C++


Customizable machine translation in C++

MetalTranslate downloads and runs a pretrained CTranslate2 model to translate locally with C++.


Tested on Ubuntu 22.04

git clone --recursive https://github.com/argosopentech/MetalTranslate.git
cd MetalTranslate
./build/metaltranslate "Hello world" en es

Author: argosopentech
Source code: https://github.com/argosopentech/MetalTranslate
License: MIT license


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MetalTranslate: Customizable Machine Translation in C++
Tamale  Moses

Tamale Moses


How to Run C/C++ in Sublime Text?

C and C++ are the most powerful programming language in the world. Most of the super fast and complex libraries and algorithms are written in C or C++. Most powerful Kernel programs are also written in C. So, there is no way to skip it.

In programming competitions, most programmers prefer to write code in C or C++. Tourist is considered the worlds top programming contestant of all ages who write code in C++.

During programming competitions, programmers prefer to use a lightweight editor to focus on coding and algorithm designing. VimSublime Text, and Notepad++ are the most common editors for us. Apart from the competition, many software developers and professionals love to use Sublime Text just because of its flexibility.

I have discussed the steps we need to complete in this blog post before running a C/C++ code in Sublime Text. We will take the inputs from an input file and print outputs to an output file without using freopen file related functions in C/C++.

#cpp #c #c-programming #sublimetext #c++ #c/c++

Dicey Issues in C/C++

If you are familiar with C/C++then you must have come across some unusual things and if you haven’t, then you are about to. The below codes are checked twice before adding, so feel free to share this article with your friends. The following displays some of the issues:

  1. Using multiple variables in the print function
  2. Comparing Signed integer with unsigned integer
  3. Putting a semicolon at the end of the loop statement
  4. C preprocessor doesn’t need a semicolon
  5. Size of the string matters
  6. Macros and equations aren’t good friends
  7. Never compare Floating data type with double data type
  8. Arrays have a boundary
  9. Character constants are different from string literals
  10. Difference between single(=) and double(==) equal signs.

The below code generates no error since a print function can take any number of inputs but creates a mismatch with the variables. The print function is used to display characters, strings, integers, float, octal, and hexadecimal values onto the output screen. The format specifier is used to display the value of a variable.

  1. %d indicates Integer Format Specifier
  2. %f indicates Float Format Specifier
  3. %c indicates Character Format Specifier
  4. %s indicates String Format Specifier
  5. %u indicates Unsigned Integer Format Specifier
  6. %ld indicates Long Int Format Specifier

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A signed integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes an integer in the range [-2147483648 to 2147483647]. An unsigned integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes a non-negative integer in the range [0 to 4294967295]. The signed integer is represented in twos-complement notation. In the below code the signed integer will be converted to the maximum unsigned integer then compared with the unsigned integer.

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#problems-with-c #dicey-issues-in-c #c-programming #c++ #c #cplusplus

Kennith  Kuhic

Kennith Kuhic


Machine Translation

Machine Translation plays a vital role in today’s digitized and globalized world. It benefits society by processing and translating one natural language into some other natural language. With advances in technology, there is an enormous amount of information being exchanged between different regions with different languages. This boosts the demand for Machine Translation to grow exponentially over the last few decades. Owing to that, Machine Translation has become an active research area over the past couple of years. It can be divided into three distinct approaches: rule-based approaches, statistical approaches, and neural approaches. In this article, I will mainly focus on the statistical and neural approaches.


Machine Translation is the task of translating a sentence from one language (the source language) to a sentence in another language (the target language). It is the sub-field of computational linguistics that aims to utilize computing devices to automatically translate text from one language to another. Machine Translation research began in the early 1950s (Cold War period). During that time, there is a need to translate Russian documents into English. Since there are not many Russian language experts and it is very time consuming to translate, therefore Machine Translation is targeted to be applied. The systems developed at that time were mostly rule-based, using a bilingual dictionary to map Russian words to their English corresponding words. Even though it did not work very well, it gave way to statistical-based systems in the late 1980s. In the 1990s, the statistical word-based and phrase-based approaches that required little to no linguistic information became popular. The core idea of Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) is to learn a probabilistic model from data. In the 2010s, with the advent of deep neural networks, Neural Machine Translation became a major area of research. NMT is a way to do Machine Translation using deep neural networks. The neural architecture is called sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq). The vanilla seq2seq NMT involves two Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) [1]. NMT research has pioneered many of the recent innovations of natural language processing (NLP) and researchers have found many improvements to the vanilla seq2seq and one major improvement is the use of attention mechanism [2]. Motivated by the attention mechanism, the paper “Attention Is All You Need” introduces a novel architecture called Transformer which is now the state-of-the-art language model [3]. This architecture relies entirely on attention-mechanism without any RNN and its variants such as BERT has been applied to many NLP tasks and are able to achieve state-of-the-art performance.

Statistical Machine Translation

Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) learns a probabilistic model from data. Suppose if we are translating from German to English, we want to find the best English sentence y, given German sentence x. SMT will formulate the task as follow:

It means that among all possible y, we want to find the best one. By using Bayes Rule, we can convert the above formula into below:

P(x|y) is called the translation model which is to model how words and phrases should be translated using parallel data. An example of parallel data is pairs of human translated German-English sentences. P(x|y) is further broken down into P(x, a|y) where a is the word alignment i.e., word-level and phrase-level correspondence between source sentence x and target sentence y.

P(y) is called the language model which is to model the probability of generating strings in a language using monolingual data. A language model is a function that puts a probability measure over strings drawn from a sequence of vocabulary. Given a string y of length n, we can derive the language model probability P(y) as:

However, it is inefficient to calculate the probability of a word given its entire history, we can approximate it by using the n-gram model. In the n-gram model, it makes a Markov assumption that yᵢ will only depend on the preceding n-1 words.

Bigram model example

To compute the argmax, we could enumerate every possible translation y and calculate the probability, however, it is computationally expensive. So, it uses decoding, a heuristic search algorithm, to search for the best translation by removing hypotheses with low probability. This is a brief overview of how SMT works. The best SMT systems were extremely complex, and many important details were not covered here. SMT is expensive and time-consuming to develop because it needs lots of feature engineering and human effort to maintain. [4]

Neural Machine Translation

Deep neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various applications. Along the line of research on using neural networks for SMT, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) became the major area of research. It uses a single end to end neural network architecture called sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) which involves two RNNs: an encoder RNN and a decoder RNN. Encoder RNN will summarize the source sequence with an encoding vector, and decoder RNN will generate the target sentence which is conditioned on the previous encoding vector. The seq2seq model is a conditional language model which directly calculates P(y|x) because decoder RNN is predicting the next word of the target sentence y by conditioning on the source sentence x. The seq2seq model can also be used for many other natural language processing tasks such as summarization, dialogue chatbot and so on.

Sequence-to-Sequence (Seq2Seq)

In vanilla seq2seq as illustrated in Figure 2, encoder RNN (blue blocks) analyzes the input sentence in the source language, and it encodes the input sequence with a history vector called hidden state vector. The last hidden state or encoding vector is passed to decoder RNN (red blocks) as the initial hidden state. The decoder initial hidden state together with of the source sentence will generate a hidden state which will then pass to the linear layer.

The linear layer followed by Softmax will output the probabilistic probability distribution for the whole vocabulary of the target language. From that probability distribution, it will choose the token with the highest probability as the first word i.e., X and it will be used as the second input of the decoding. The second hidden state from the previous step and the first generated word X will be input to the second step of decoder RNN. And the same process will be repeated until it produces a token. The sequence of tokens generated from decoder RNN will be the result of the seq2seq model. [1]

The advantages of NMT compared to SMT is that it has better performance and requires much less human effort. However, it is less interpretable, hard to debug and difficult to control.

#machine-learning #transformers #deep-learning #machine-translation #machine translation

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich


Some basic models of Machine Learning using C#

The Basics of Machine Learning Modeling

It can be difficult to see how machine learning (ML) affects the daily lives of ordinary people. In fact, ML is everywhere! In the process of searching for a restaurant for dinner, you almost certainly used ML. In the search for a dress to wear for a dinner party, you would have used ML. On your way to your dinner appointment, you probably used ML as well if you used one of the ride-sharing apps. ML has become so widely used that it has become an essential part of our lives, although it is usually unnoticeable. With ever-growing data and its accessibility, the applications and needs for ML are rapidly rising across various industries. However, the pace of the growth in trained data scientists has yet to meet the pace of growth ML needs in businesses, despite abundant resources and software libraries that make building ML models easier, due to the fact that it takes time and experience for a data scientist and ML engineer to master such skill sets.

In this article, we will cover the following topics:

  • Key ML tasks and applications
  • Steps in building ML models

#c #c# #c++ #programming-c

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich


Loops in C++ | For, While, and Do While Loops in C++

In this Video We are going to see how to use Loops in C++. We will see How to use For, While, and Do While Loops in C++.
C++ is general purpose, compiled, object-oriented programming language and its concepts served as the basis for several other languages such as Java, Python, Ruby, Perl etc.

#c #c# #c++ #programming-c