Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2019

Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2019

The most in-demand and important coding languages of 2019 that will help you grow your career and enable you to become a better developer and software engineer

Deciding which programming languages to learn is one of the most enjoyable things we get to do as software engineers, but it is also incredibly impactful on our career and the types of jobs we will be able to find. The opportunity cost of learning a programming language means it takes time away from learning something else, so we must be efficient where we focus our efforts to ensure we are set up for success now and in the future.

This list ranks languages both on their current growth rate as well as the impact on the industry as a whole. It will introduce languages from different areas of the stack — you will find useful material whether you want to be a frontend engineer, backend engineer, or mobile developer. Let’s take a look at the top programming languages of 2019.

TLDR: TypeScript/JavaScript, Python, Kotlin, Swift, Go, Rust, Elixir, SQL, GraphQL, Solidity

NOTE: JavaScript is an essential language to understand. However, given that it is already heavily understood and taught to all experience levels, it is left off this list in favor of providing additional options for developers to expand their their knowledge and skill set.

TypeScript

The growth of TypeScript has taken over the JavaScript world with countless startups and tech giants adopting it as their primary language to use JS. There is no denying the impact of JavaScript on application development, and many see TypeScript as a necessary extension of the core ECMAScript language which provides compile-time static type checking as well as visibility into the code which is not available through standard JavaScript.

TypeScript has become the defacto type system for JS, beating out other competitors such as Flow and has far more adoption than ReasonML. According to Stackoverflow, TypeScript is the #3 most loved programming with a score of 73.1%. This ranks only behind Rust and Python and one spot above Kotlin — all of which are on this list.

The State of JavaScript survey shows TypeScript as the second most used flavor of JS just behind ES6 with 80.4% of developers using it or wanting to learn it.

While some try to argue that TypeScript could become the next CoffeeScript, there is no denying TS’s impact on the JS ecosystem and the uniqueness of the problem it solves. TypeScript has only been around for 6 years and has realized incredible support from the community. Without any indication of native type support in JavaScript, it appears TypeScript will be here for years to come.

TypeScript from Scratch: Go from zero to hero in TypeScript

Python

Developers love Python. Year after year, this fact holds true. Python has become the primary language for data scientists, with R as its only real competition. In addition, Python is used extensively for building web application APIs and general scripting.

Python has been around for over 30 years and has withstood the test of time. It ranks as the #2 most loved language and #1 as the most wanted language.

Python is also hitting 2 milestones. It recently eclipsed JavaScript for the total number of StackOverflow questions, and it is deprecating Python 2.x and moving fully towards the future with Python 3.

Python has proven that it will remain a force as a top language for software engineers. If you invest your time into learning it, there is no doubt that it will pay off.

Python for Beginners: Become a Certified Python Developer

Kotlin

When Kotlin was introduced, developers rapidly adopted it as a better alternative to writing Android applications compared to Java. Recently, Google has even named it as the preferred method for Android app development.

Kotlin is a cross-platform language that is meant to interoperate entirely with Java and run on the JVM. The language is statically typed but known to be much more concise than Java. In addition to providing better code readability and developer experience, other improvements of Kotlin are null-pointer safety, extension functions, and infix notation.

Kotlin ranks as the #4 most loved language according to StackOverflow and has solidified itself as the better alternative to Java. Whether you want to build apps for Android or just have a better language on the JVM, Kotlin is an excellent choice to ensure you are prepared for the future.

Kotlin for Beginners: Learn Programming With Kotlin

Swift

Swift was introduced by Apple as an alternative to Objective-C to write applications for iOS and Mac. Much like Kotlin has replaced Java for Android apps, Swift has rapidly become the preferred coding language for iPhone developers. Swift ranks as the #6 most loved programming language and has solidified itself as an essential tool for mobile developers.

Learn Swift 4 in 1 Hour

Go

Golang has rapidly taken the position as one of the top languages to build microservices. The language was created a decade ago by Google and offers many of the benefits of C/C++, but Go makes many changes to improve brevity, simplicity, and safety.

Simply stated, Go does practically everything well. The code is easy to understand but also incredibly efficient computationally. A new developer can pick it up rather quickly. It is a statically typed and compiled language that manages concurrency efficiently.

Go is mostly noted for its unique location on the continuum of developer experience while also being incredibly fast. The code writes almost like a scripting language, allowing developers to rapidly build services. However, its type inference also provides visibility into the code that we would expect from more verbose languages, as well as the same safety. Go has been optimized by Google to be incredibly efficient with memory and blazing fast.

Given the many benefits of Go, it is not surprising it has been rapidly adopted. Its speed makes it a great choice for web servers, and it is simple enough to quickly spin up micro-services. It handles networking very well, and Go also does a good job as a language for systems. Some practical implementations of Go are:

  1. Kubernetes is built with Go
  2. The primary language for the Ethereum source code and Hyperledger blockchain
  3. Countless web servers and tools for top tier tech companies (Google, Uber, Twitch, Medium, Postmates, and many more)

Go may be the perfect language to add to your developer toolbox. Its ability to do so many things well means that it will always be in the conversation as a tool to use for any job.

The Complete Google Go Programming Course For Beginners

Rust

This list would not be complete without including Rust. For the fourth straight year, it was ranked as the #1 most loved programming language in 2019 according to StackOverflow.

Rust is primarily used as a systems programming language but has recognized growth beyond this area. There are more tutorials popping up to use Rust as a web server, and it is one of the languages that can compile into WebAssembly.

Share the love and check out why so many people are turning to Rust.

Learn Rust - Best Rust Tutorials (2019) | gitconnected
_The top 14 Rust tutorials - learn Rust for free. Courses are submitted and voted on by developers, enabling you to find…_gitconnected.com

Elixir (or Scala or Clojure)

With the rise of popularity and adoption for functional programming, a list of the top languages would not be complete without including at least one. You would not go wrong with Elixir, Scala, or Clojure — all three languages have a high average salary, similar usage, and developer adoption.

Since I need to pick one, my personal experience and anecdotal evidence lead me to recommend Elixir. It is a newer language and appears to be growing rapidly. One story to depict the capabilities of Elixir is the article from the popular chat app Discord where they explain how they scaled to 5M concurrent users by utilizing Elixir.

Ultimately, if you want to learn functional programming, pick one of Elixir, Scala, or Clojure, and you can’t go wrong.

Learn Elixir - Best Elixir Tutorials (2019) | gitconnected
_The top 15 Elixir tutorials - learn Elixir for free. Courses are submitted and voted on by developers, enabling you to…_gitconnected.com

SQL

While it is not quite the same as the other languages on our list (and some may argue that it does not belong here), understanding SQL is very important. Almost every single tech company will have some data storage, and by far the most popular method still is a SQL implementation. Understanding data storage and retrieval can only serve to make you a better software developer. If you are a front end engineer that has never looked into where your data comes from, do yourself a favor and gain an understanding of SQL.

Learn SQL - Best SQL Tutorials (2019) | gitconnected
_The top 27 SQL tutorials - learn SQL for free. Courses are submitted and voted on by developers, enabling you to find…_gitconnected.com

GraphQL

GraphQL is a query language that totally changes the way we think about we build APIs. Representational State Transfer(REST) has been the dominant methodology for API architecture where the URL structure dictates the data which it contains. This requires that the client understand all the available endpoints and shape of the data returned.

GraphQL upends this thought process by using a single endpoint to request data. The data itself must be defined in a schema which is statically typed. By providing a well-defined schema through a single URL, the API is entirely self-documenting. The client can view exactly what data is contained on the server.

In addition, the application becomes entirely data-driven — the client sends a (possibly nested) object of keys for the data that they want. The GraphQL server responds with a JSON object containing the matching key/value pairs from the request. This allows the client to request exactly the data that they need for a given page.

While GraphQL is still in its infancy, it is quickly being adopted by startups and tech giants. Facebook created the language and actively uses it in their apps. In addition, companies such as GitHub, Pinterest, PayPal, and many more use the technology. According to the State of JavaScript survey, an astounding 83% of developers have used or want to use GraphQL.

GraphQL is on pace to revolutionize API development, and learning the technology will provide you opportunities for years to come.

Learn GraphQL - Best GraphQL Tutorials (2019) | gitconnected
_The top 11 GraphQL tutorials - learn GraphQL for free. Courses are submitted and voted on by developers, enabling you…_gitconnected.com

Solidity

Is blockchain hype or a real force to revolutionize technology? While the debate echos with every swing of coin prices, the test of time and adoption by large tech companies indicate it will likely be around for years.

One of the promises of blockchain is that it can usher in the Web 3.0 — an entirely decentralized internet where code is executed by individuals instead of being housed in servers and controlled by corporations. The vision is idealistic, but it is one that truly gives the people the power.

Ethereum has emerged as the leader for building decentralized applications (DApps), where the data is stored on the blockchain and code is executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) on nodes running from individuals in the network. Solidity has become the most popular language for Ethereum development, and it compiles to byte code that executes on the EVM. Solidity has been compared to JavaScript, but there are also versions of other popular languages that compile to the same byte code such as Vyper which is similar to Python.

While Solidity has a much higher risk than the other languages on this list, it can also set you up to be on the cutting edge of technology.

Learn Solidity - Best Solidity Tutorials (2019) | gitconnected
_The top 14 Solidity tutorials - learn Solidity for free. Courses are submitted and voted on by developers, enabling you…_gitconnected.com

Honorable Mention

  • Dart/Flutter: Many claim this is the future of app development. If you’re looking to get in early on a trend, this could be your path. With Dart/Flutter, you can build mobile and desktop applications using a single code base.
  • PHP: A large amount of the web is built on PHP, and it’s fair to say this won’t change any time soon. New projects may not spinning up as frequently, but the sheer number of sites still using PHP is large.
  • C#: This a popular language that has widespread usage. It was created in 2000 by Microsoft as part of the .NET initiative.

Conclusion

Learning anything takes time, and we always want to ensure we use our time effectively. As software engineers, we learn new languages because we love it, but we are also aware that what we learn impacts our future and careers. We would all love to learn everything, but if you focus on the languages on this list, it will ensure you are adding tools to your skill set that will benefit you for years to come.

Further reading:

5 common mistakes made by beginner Python programmers

Python Certification Training for Data Science

How much does it cost to hire a python developer from India?

Deploying Models to Flask

10 Reasons To Use Python

Java vs JavaScript: Difference between Java and JavaScript

Java vs JavaScript: Difference between Java and JavaScript

The video on Java vs JavaScript provides you with a short and crisp description of the two programming languages. You will also see the head to head comparison between the two on various aspects and learn the similarities and differences between them.

Java vs JavaScript: Difference between Java and JavaScript 

The video on Java vs JavaScript provides you with a short and crisp description of the two programming languages. You will also see the head to head comparison between the two on various aspects and learn the similarities and differences between them.

Thanks for reading

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Further reading

The Complete JavaScript Course 2019: Build Real Projects!

Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

JavaScript Bootcamp - Build Real World Applications

The Web Developer Bootcamp

JavaScript Programming Tutorial - Full JavaScript Course for Beginners

New ES2019 Features Every JavaScript Developer Should Know

Best JavaScript Frameworks, Libraries and Tools to Use in 2019

Java Programming Masterclass for Software Developers

Selenium WebDriver with Java -Basics to Advanced+Frameworks

Java In-Depth: Become a Complete Java Engineer!

Top 4 Spring Annotations for Java Developer in 2019

Java Tutorial for Absolute Beginners

100+ Java Interview Questions and Answers In 2019

JavaScript vs Python: Will Python Replace JavaScript popularity by 2020?

JavaScript vs Python: Will Python Replace JavaScript popularity by 2020?

JavaScript is currently the most commonly used programming language but now Python is dishing out some stiff competition. Python has been steadily increasing in popularity so much so that it is now the fastest-growing programming language. So will Python Replace JavaScript popularity by 2020?

This is the Clash of the Titans!!

And no…I am not talking about the Hollywood movie (don’t bother watching it…it’s horrible!). I am talking about JavaScript and Python, two of the most popular programming languages in existence today.

JavaScript is currently the most commonly used programming language (and has been for quite some time!) but now Python is dishing out some stiff competition. Python has been steadily increasing in popularity so much so that it is now the fastest-growing programming language. So now the question is…Will Python Replace JavaScript popularity by 2020?

To understand the above question correctly, it is important to know more about JavaScript and Python as well as the reasons for their popularity. So let’s start with JavaScript first!

Why is JavaScript so popular?

JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that is most popular as a scripting language for Web pages. This means that if a web page is not just sitting there and displaying static information, then JavaScript is probably behind that. And that’s not all, there are even advanced versions of the language such as Node.js which is used for server-side scripting.

JavaScript is an extremely popular language. And if my word doesn’t convince you, here are the facts!!!

According to StackOverflow Developer Survey Results 2019, JavaScript is the most commonly used programming language, used by 69.7 % of professional developers. And this is a title it has claimed the past seven years in a row.

In addition to that, the most commonly used Web Frameworks are jQuery, Angular.js and React.js (All of which incidentally use JavaScript). Now if that doesn’t demonstrate JavaScript’s popularity, what does?!

Image Source: Stackoverflow

So now the question arises…Why is JavaScript so popular?

Well, some of the reasons for that are:

  • JavaScript is used both on the client-side and the server-side. This means that it runs practically everywhere from browsers to powerful servers. This gives it an edge over other languages that are not so versatile.
  • JavaScript implements multiple paradigms ranging from OOP to procedural. This allows developers the freedom to experiment as they want.
  • JavaScript has a large community of enthusiasts that actively back the language. Without this, it would have been tough for JavaScript to establish the number one position it has.
Can Python Replace JavaScript in Popularity?

Python is an interpreted, general-purpose programming language that has multiple uses ranging from web applications to data analysis. This means that Python can be seen in complex websites such as YouTube or Instagram, in cloud computing projects such as OpenStack, in Machine Learning, etc. (basically everywhere!)

Python has been steadily increasing in popularity so much so that it is the fastest-growing major programming language today according to StackOverflow Developer Survey Results 2019.

This is further demonstrated by this Google Trends chart showing the growth of Python as compared to JavaScript over the last 5 years:

As shown in the above data, Python recorded increased search interest as compared to JavaScript for the first time around November 2017 and it has maintained its lead ever since. This shows remarkable growth in Python as compared to 5 years ago.

In fact, Stack Overflow created a model to forecast its future traffic based on a model called STL and guess what…the prediction is that Python could potentially stay in the lead against JavaScript till 2020 at the least.

Image Source : Stackoverflow

All these trends indicate that Python is extremely popular and getting even more popular with time. Some of the reasons for this incredible performance of Python are given as follows:

  • Python is Easy To Use
    No one likes excessively complicated things and that’s one of the reasons for the growing popularity of Python. It is simple with an easily readable syntax and that makes it well loved by both seasoned developers and experimental students. In addition to this, Python is also supremely efficient. It allows developers to complete more work using fewer lines of code. With all these advantages, what’s not to love?!!
  • Python has a Supportive Community
    Python has been around since 1990 and that is ample time to create a supportive community. Because of this support, Python learners can easily improve their knowledge, which only leads to increasing popularity. And that’s not all! There are many resources available online to promote Python, ranging from official documentation to YouTube tutorials that are a big help for learners.
  • Python has multiple Libraries and Frameworks
    Python is already quite popular and consequently, it has hundreds of different libraries and frameworks that can be used by developers. These libraries and frameworks are really useful in saving time which in turn makes Python even more popular. Some of the popular libraries of Python are NumPy and SciPy for scientific computing, Django for web development, BeautifulSoup for XML and HTML parsing, scikit-learn for machine learning applications, nltk for natural language processing, etc.
So What’s the Conclusion?

While JavaScript is currently the most popular programming language, Python could soon outstrip it of this title based on its incredible growth rate. So it is entirely possible that Python could be the most popular programming language by 2020.

However, this will merely impact the relative popularity of these two languages and not specify which among them is the better language. That choice is entirely subjective and may depend on multiple factors such as project requirements, scalability, ease of learning as well as the future growth prospects.